Página 1 dos resultados de 164 itens digitais encontrados em 0.044 segundos

‣ Cell-cell signal-dependent dynamic interactions between HD-GYP and GGDEF domain proteins mediate virulence in Xanthomonas campestris

RYAN, Robert P.; MCCARTHY, Yvonne; ANDRADE, Maxuel; FARAH, Chuck S.; ARMITAGE, Judith P.; DOW, J. Maxwell
Fonte: NATL ACAD SCIENCES Publicador: NATL ACAD SCIENCES
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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RpfG is a paradigm for a class of widespread bacterial two-component regulators with a CheY-like receiver domain attached to a histidine-aspartic acid-glycine-tyrosine-proline (HD-GYP) cyclic di-GMP phosphodiesterase domain. In the plant pathogen Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc), a two-component system comprising RpfG and the complex sensor kinase RpfC is implicated in sensing and responding to the diffusible signaling factor (DSF), which is essential for cell-cell signaling. RpfF is involved in synthesizing DSF, and mutations of rpfF, rpfG, or rpfC lead to a coordinate reduction in the synthesis of virulence factors such as extracellular enzymes, biofilm structure, and motility. Using yeast two-hybrid analysis and fluorescence resonance energy transfer experiments in Xcc, we show that the physical interaction of RpfG with two proteins with diguanylate cyclase (GGDEF) domains controls a subset of RpfG-regulated virulence functions. RpfG interactions were abolished by alanine substitutions of the three residues of the conserved GYP motif in the HD-GYP domain. Changing the GYP motif or deletion of the two GGDEF-domain proteins reduced Xcc motility but not the synthesis of extracellular enzymes or biofilm formation. RpfG-GGDEF interactions are dynamic and depend on DSF signaling...

‣ Three cdg Operons Control Cellular Turnover of Cyclic Di-GMP in Acetobacter xylinum: Genetic Organization and Occurrence of Conserved Domains in Isoenzymes

Tal, Rony; Wong, Hing C.; Calhoon, Roger; Gelfand, David; Fear, Anna Lisa; Volman, Gail; Mayer, Raphael; Ross, Peter; Amikam, Dorit; Weinhouse, Haim; Cohen, Avital; Sapir, Shai; Ohana, Patricia; Benziman, Moshe
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /09/1998 Português
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Cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) is the specific nucleotide regulator of β-1,4-glucan (cellulose) synthase in Acetobacter xylinum. The enzymes controlling turnover of c-di-GMP are diguanylate cyclase (DGC), which catalyzes its formation, and phosphodiesterase A (PDEA), which catalyzes its degradation. Following biochemical purification of DGC and PDEA, genes encoding isoforms of these enzymes have been isolated and found to be located on three distinct yet highly homologous operons for cyclic diguanylate, cdg1, cdg2, and cdg3. Within each cdg operon, a pdeA gene lies upstream of a dgc gene. cdg1 contains two additional flanking genes, cdg1a and cdg1d. cdg1a encodes a putative transcriptional activator, similar to AadR of Rhodopseudomonas palustris and FixK proteins of rhizobia. The deduced DGC and PDEA proteins have an identical motif structure of two lengthy domains in their C-terminal regions. These domains are also present in numerous bacterial proteins of undefined function. The N termini of the DGC and PDEA deduced proteins contain putative oxygen-sensing domains, based on similarity to domains on bacterial NifL and FixL proteins, respectively. Genetic disruption analyses demonstrated a physiological hierarchy among the cdg operons, such that cdg1 contributes 80% of cellular DGC and PDEA activities and cdg2 and cdg3 contribute 15 and 5%...

‣ Cyclic Diguanylate Is a Ubiquitous Signaling Molecule in Bacteria: Insights into Biochemistry of the GGDEF Protein Domain†

Ryjenkov, Dmitri A.; Tarutina, Marina; Moskvin, Oleg V.; Gomelsky, Mark
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /03/2005 Português
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Proteins containing GGDEF domains are encoded in the majority of sequenced bacterial genomes. In several species, these proteins have been implicated in biosynthesis of exopolysaccharides, formation of biofilms, establishment of a sessile lifestyle, surface motility, and regulation of gene expression. However, biochemical activities of only a few GGDEF domain proteins have been tested. These proteins were shown to be involved in either synthesis or hydrolysis of cyclic-bis(3′→5′) dimeric GMP (c-di-GMP) or in hydrolysis of cyclic AMP. To investigate specificity of the GGDEF domains in Bacteria, six GGDEF domain-encoding genes from randomly chosen representatives of diverse branches of the bacterial phylogenetic tree, i.e., Thermotoga, Deinococcus-Thermus, Cyanobacteria, spirochetes, and α and γ divisions of the Proteobacteria, were cloned and overexpressed. All recombinant proteins were purified and found to possess diguanylate cyclase (DGC) activity involved in c-di-GMP synthesis. The individual GGDEF domains from two proteins were overexpressed, purified, and shown to possess a low level of DGC activity. The oligomeric states of full-length proteins and individual GGDEF domains were similar. This suggests that GGDEF domains are sufficient to encode DGC activity; however...

‣ Cyclic Diguanylate Regulates Vibrio cholerae Virulence Gene Expression

Tischler, Anna D.; Camilli, Andrew
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /09/2005 Português
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The cyclic dinucleotide second messenger cyclic diguanylate (c-diGMP) has been implicated in regulation of cell surface properties in several bacterial species, including Vibrio cholerae. Expression of genes required for V. cholerae biofilm formation is activated by an increased intracellular c-diGMP concentration. The response regulator VieA, which contains a domain responsible for degradation of c-diGMP, is required to maintain a low concentration of c-diGMP and repress biofilm formation. The VieSAB three-component signal transduction system was, however, originally identified as a regulator of ctxAB, the genes encoding cholera toxin (CT). Here we show that the c-diGMP phosphodiesterase activity of VieA is required to enhance CT production. This regulation occurred at the transcriptional level, and ectopically altering the c-diGMP concentration by expression of diguanylate cyclase or phosphodiesterase enzymes also affected ctxAB transcription. The c-diGMP phosphodiesterase activity of VieA was also required for maximal transcription toxT but did not influence the activity of ToxR or expression of TcpP. Finally, a single amino acid substitution in VieA that increases the intracellular c-diGMP concentration led to attenuation in the infant mouse model of cholera. Since virulence genes including toxT and ctxA are repressed by a high concentration of c-diGMP...

‣ A chemosensory system that regulates biofilm formation through modulation of cyclic diguanylate levels

Hickman, Jason W.; Tifrea, Delia F.; Harwood, Caroline S.
Fonte: National Academy of Sciences Publicador: National Academy of Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Pseudomonas aeruginosa causes chronic biofilm infections, and its ability to attach to surfaces and other cells is important for biofilm formation and maintenance. Mutations in a gene called wspF, part of a putative chemosensory signal-transduction operon, have been shown to result in cell aggregation and altered colony morphology. The WspF phenotypes depend on the presence of WspR, which is a member of a family of signal transduction proteins known as response regulators. It is likely that the effect of the wspF mutation is to cause constitutive activation of WspR by phosphorylation. WspR contains a GGDEF domain known to catalyze formation of a cytoplasmic signaling molecule cyclic diguanylate (c-diGMP). We determined that purified WspR catalyzed the formation of c-diGMP in vitro and phosphorylation stimulated this activity. We observed increased cellular levels of c-diGMP and increased biofilm formation in a wspF mutant. Expression of a protein predicted to catalyze degradation of c-diGMP reversed the phenotypes of a wspF mutant and inhibited biofilm initiation by wild-type cells, indicating that the presence of c-diGMP is necessary for biofilm formation. A transcriptome analysis showed that expression levels of at least 560 genes were affected by a wspF deletion. The psl and pel operons...

‣ The structural basis of cyclic diguanylate signal transduction by PilZ domains

Benach, Jordi; Swaminathan, Swarup S; Tamayo, Rita; Handelman, Samuel K; Folta-Stogniew, Ewa; Ramos, John E; Forouhar, Farhad; Neely, Helen; Seetharaman, Jayaraman; Camilli, Andrew; Hunt, John F
Fonte: Nature Publishing Group Publicador: Nature Publishing Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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The second messenger cyclic diguanylate (c-di-GMP) controls the transition between motile and sessile growth in eubacteria, but little is known about the proteins that sense its concentration. Bioinformatics analyses suggested that PilZ domains bind c-di-GMP and allosterically modulate effector pathways. We have determined a 1.9 Å crystal structure of c-di-GMP bound to VCA0042/PlzD, a PilZ domain-containing protein from Vibrio cholerae. Either this protein or another specific PilZ domain-containing protein is required for V. cholerae to efficiently infect mice. VCA0042/PlzD comprises a C-terminal PilZ domain plus an N-terminal domain with a similar β-barrel fold. C-di-GMP contacts seven of the nine strongly conserved residues in the PilZ domain, including three in a seven-residue long N-terminal loop that undergoes a conformational switch as it wraps around c-di-GMP. This switch brings the PilZ domain into close apposition with the N-terminal domain, forming a new allosteric interaction surface that spans these domains and the c-di-GMP at their interface. The very small size of the N-terminal conformational switch is likely to explain the facile evolutionary diversification of the PilZ domain.

‣ The Vibrio cholerae Hybrid Sensor Kinase VieS Contributes to Motility and Biofilm Regulation by Altering the Cyclic Diguanylate Level ▿

Martinez-Wilson, Hector F.; Tamayo, Rita; Tischler, Anna D.; Lazinski, David W.; Camilli, Andrew
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology (ASM) Publicador: American Society for Microbiology (ASM)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Phosphorelay systems are important mediators of signal transduction during bacterial adaptation to new environments. Previously we described the vieSAB operon, encoding a putative three-protein component phosphorelay involved in regulating Vibrio cholerae virulence gene expression. At least part of the regulatory activity of VieSAB is exerted through the cyclic diguanylate (c-di-GMP)-degrading activity of the putative response regulator VieA. So far no direct evidence that VieSAB encodes a phosphorelay system exists. In addition, the role VieS plays in modulating VieA activity remains unclear. To address these questions, we expressed and purified VieA and a soluble cytoplasmic portion of VieS and used them in autophosphorylation and phosphotransfer assays. These assays showed that VieS has kinase activity in vitro and is able to selectively phosphorylate VieA. A phenotypic comparison revealed that deletion of vieS results in increased biofilm production comparable to that seen for deletion of vieA, whereas motility was decreased only slightly in the ΔvieS mutant compared to the profound defect observed in a ΔvieA mutant. We also found that the ΔvieS strain has a lower level of vieA transcript and, similar to a ΔvieA mutant, an increased intracellular level of c-di-GMP. Further analysis using site-directed vieA mutants showed that some of the phenotypes observed were due to the phosphorylation status of VieA. The evidence presented in this report is the first to link VieS and VieA biochemically and genetically...

‣ Identification and Characterization of Cyclic Diguanylate Signaling Systems Controlling Rugosity in Vibrio cholerae▿ †

Beyhan, Sinem; Odell, Lindsay S.; Yildiz, Fitnat H.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology (ASM) Publicador: American Society for Microbiology (ASM)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of the disease cholera, can generate rugose variants that have an increased capacity to form biofilms. Rugosity and biofilm formation are critical for the environmental survival and transmission of the pathogen, and these processes are controlled by cyclic diguanylate (c-di-GMP) signaling systems. c-di-GMP is produced by diguanylate cyclases (DGCs) and degraded by phosphodiesterases (PDEs). Proteins that contain GGDEF domains act as DGCs, whereas proteins that contain EAL or HD-GYP domains act as PDEs. In the V. cholerae genome there are 62 genes that are predicted to encode proteins capable of modulating the cellular c-di-GMP concentration. We previously identified two DGCs, VpvC and CdgA, that can control the switch between smooth and rugose. To identify other c-di-GMP signaling proteins involved in rugosity, we generated in-frame deletion mutants of all genes predicted to encode proteins with GGDEF and EAL domains and then searched for mutants with altered rugosity. In this study, we identified two new genes, cdgG and cdgH, involved in rugosity control. We determined that CdgH acts as a DGC and positively regulates rugosity, whereas CdgG does not have DGC activity and negatively regulates rugosity. In addition...

‣ Roles of Cyclic Diguanylate in the Regulation of Bacterial Pathogenesis

Tamayo, Rita; Pratt, Jason T.; Camilli, Andrew
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2007 Português
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Cyclic diguanylate (c-di-GMP) is a bacterial second messenger of growing recognition involved in the regulation of a number of complex physiological processes. This review describes the biosynthesis and hydrolysis of c-di-GMP and several mechanisms of regulation of c-di-GMP metabolism. The contribution of c-di-GMP to regulating biofilm formation and motility, processes that affect pathogenesis of many bacteria, is described, as is c-di-GMP regulation of virulence gene expression. Finally, ways in which c-di-GMP may mediate these regulatory effects are proposed.

‣ The EAL Domain Protein VieA Is a Cyclic Diguanylate Phosphodiesterase*

Tamayo, Rita; Tischler, Anna D.; Camilli, Andrew
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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The newly recognized bacterial second messenger 3′,5′-cyclic diguanylic acid (cyclic diguanylate (c-di-GMP)) has been shown to regulate a wide variety of bacterial behaviors and traits. Biosynthesis and degradation of c-di-GMP have been attributed to the GGDEF and EAL protein domains, respectively, based primarily on genetic evidence. Whereas the GGDEF domain was demonstrated to possess diguanylate cyclase activity in vitro, the EAL domain has not been tested directly for c-di-GMP phosphodiesterase activity. This study describes the analysis of c-di-GMP hydrolysis by an EAL domain protein in a purified system. The Vibrio cholerae EAL domain protein VieA has been shown to inversely regulate biofilm-specific genes (vps) and virulence genes (ctxA), presumably by decreasing the cellular pool of c-di-GMP. VieA was maximally active at neutral pH, physiological ionic strength, and ambient temperatures and demonstrated c-di-GMP hydrolytic activity with a Km of 0.06 μm. VieA was unable to hydrolyze cGMP. The putative metal coordination site of the EAL domain, Glu170, was demonstrated to be necessary for VieA activity. Furthermore, the divalent cations Mg2+ and Mn2+ were necessary for VieA activity; conversely, Ca2+ and Zn2+ were potent inhibitors of the VieA phosphodiesterase. Calcium inhibition of the VieA EAL domain provides a potential mechanism for regulation of c-di-GMP degradation.

‣ Cyclic diguanylate (c-di-GMP) regulates Vibrio cholerae biofilm formation

Tischler, Anna D.; Camilli, Andrew
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /08/2004 Português
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While studying virulence gene regulation in Vibrio cholerae during infection of the host small intestine, we identified VieA as a two-component response regulator that contributes to activating expression of cholera toxin. Here we report that VieA represses transcription of Vibrio exopolysaccharide synthesis (vps) genes involved in biofilm formation by a mechanism independent of its phosphorelay and DNA-binding activities. VieA controls the intracellular concentration of the cyclic nucleotide second messenger cyclic diguanylate (c-di-GMP) using an EAL domain that functions as a c-di-GMP phosphodiesterase. Two-dimensional thin layer chromatography of nucleotide extracts confirmed that VieA reduces the concentration of c-di-GMP, opposing the action of c-di-GMP synthetase proteins. Expression of unrelated V. cholerae c-di-GMP synthetase or phosphodiesterae proteins also modulated c-di-GMP concentration and vps gene expression. We propose that c-di-GMP synthetase and phosphodiesterase domain-containing proteins contribute to regulating biofilm formation by controlling c-di-GMP concentration.

‣ PilZ Domain Proteins Bind Cyclic Diguanylate and Regulate Diverse Processes in Vibrio cholerae*

Pratt, Jason T.; Tamayo, Rita; Tischler, Anna D.; Camilli, Andrew
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Cyclic diguanylate (c-di-GMP) is an allosteric activator and second messenger implicated in the regulation of a variety of biological processes in diverse bacteria. In Vibrio cholerae, c-di-GMP has been shown to inversely regulate biofilm-specific and virulence gene expression, suggesting that c-di-GMP signaling is important for the transition of V. cholerae from the environment to the host. However, the mechanism behind this regulation remains unknown. Recently, it was proposed that the PilZ protein domain represents a c-di-GMP-binding domain. Here we show that V. cholerae PilZ proteins bind c-di-GMP specifically and are involved in the regulation of biofilm formation, motility, and virulence. These findings confirm a role for PilZ proteins as c-di-GMP-sensing proteins within the c-di-GMP signaling network.

‣ Cyclic Diguanylate Signaling Proteins Control Intracellular Growth of Legionella pneumophila

Levi, Assaf; Folcher, Marc; Jenal, Urs; Shuman, Howard A.
Fonte: American Society of Microbiology Publicador: American Society of Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 11/01/2011 Português
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Proteins that metabolize or bind the nucleotide second messenger cyclic diguanylate regulate a wide variety of important processes in bacteria. These processes include motility, biofilm formation, cell division, differentiation, and virulence. The role of cyclic diguanylate signaling in the lifestyle of Legionella pneumophila, the causative agent of Legionnaires’ disease, has not previously been examined. The L. pneumophila genome encodes 22 predicted proteins containing domains related to cyclic diguanylate synthesis, hydrolysis, and recognition. We refer to these genes as cdgS (cyclic diguanylate signaling) genes. Strains of L. pneumophila containing deletions of all individual cdgS genes were created and did not exhibit any observable growth defect in growth medium or inside host cells. However, when overexpressed, several cdgS genes strongly decreased the ability of L. pneumophila to grow inside host cells. Expression of these cdgS genes did not affect the Dot/Icm type IVB secretion system, the major determinant of intracellular growth in L. pneumophila. L. pneumophila strains overexpressing these cdgS genes were less cytotoxic to THP-1 macrophages than wild-type L. pneumophila but retained the ability to resist grazing by amoebae. In many cases...

‣ Binding of Cyclic Diguanylate in the Non-catalytic EAL Domain of FimX Induces a Long-range Conformational Change*

Qi, Yaning; Chuah, Mary Lay Cheng; Dong, Xueming; Xie, Kailing; Luo, Zhen; Tang, Kai; Liang, Zhao-Xun
Fonte: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Publicador: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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FimX is a multidomain signaling protein required for type IV pilus biogenesis and twitching motility in the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. FimX is localized to the single pole of the bacterial cell, and the unipolar localization is crucial for the correct assembly of type IV pili. FimX contains a non-catalytic EAL domain that lacks cyclic diguanylate (c-di-GMP) phosphodiesterase activity. It was shown that deletion of the EAL domain or mutation of the signature EVL motif affects the unipolar localization of FimX. However, it was not understood how the C-terminal EAL domain could influence protein localization considering that the localization sequence resides in the remote N-terminal region of the protein. Using hydrogen/deuterium exchange-coupled mass spectrometry, we found that the binding of c-di-GMP to the EAL domain triggers a long-range (∼ca. 70 Å) conformational change in the N-terminal REC domain and the adjacent linker. In conjunction with the observation that mutation of the EVL motif of the EAL domain abolishes the binding of c-di-GMP, the hydrogen/deuterium exchange results provide a molecular explanation for the mediation of protein localization and type IV pilus biogenesis by c-di-GMP through a remarkable allosteric regulation mechanism.

‣ Cyclic Diguanylate Inversely Regulates Motility and Aggregation in Clostridium difficile

Purcell, Erin B.; McKee, Robert W.; McBride, Shonna M.; Waters, Christopher M.; Tamayo, Rita
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /07/2012 Português
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Clostridium difficile-associated disease is increasing in incidence and is costly to treat. Our understanding of how this organism senses its entry into the host and adapts for growth in the large bowel is limited. The small-molecule second messenger cyclic diguanylate (c-di-GMP) has been extensively studied in Gram-negative bacteria and has been shown to modulate motility, biofilm formation, and other processes in response to environmental signals, yet little is known about the functions of this signaling molecule in Gram-positive bacteria or in C. difficile specifically. In the current study, we investigated the function of the second messenger c-di-GMP in C. difficile. To determine the role of c-di-GMP in C. difficile, we ectopically expressed genes encoding a diguanylate cyclase enzyme, which synthesizes c-di-GMP, or a phosphodiesterase enzyme, which degrades c-di-GMP. This strategy allowed us to artificially elevate or deplete intracellular c-di-GMP, respectively, and determine that c-di-GMP represses motility in C. difficile, consistent with previous studies in Gram-negative bacteria, in which c-di-GMP has a negative effect on myriad modes of bacterial motility. Elevated c-di-GMP levels also induced clumping of C. difficile cells...

‣ Functional Characterization of Core Components of the Bacillus subtilis Cyclic-Di-GMP Signaling Pathway

Gao, Xiaohui; Mukherjee, Sampriti; Matthews, Paige M.; Hammad, Loubna A.; Kearns, Daniel B.; Dann, Charles E.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /11/2013 Português
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Bis-(3′-5′)-cyclic dimeric GMP (c-di-GMP) is an intracellular second messenger that regulates adaptation processes, including biofilm formation, motility, and virulence in Gram-negative bacteria. In this study, we have characterized the core components of a c-di-GMP signaling pathway in the model Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis. Specifically, we have directly identified and characterized three active diguanylate cyclases, DgcP, DgcK, and DgcW (formerly YtrP, YhcK, and YkoW, respectively), one active c-di-GMP phosphodiesterase, PdeH (formerly YuxH), and a cyclic-diguanylate (c-di-GMP) receptor, DgrA (formerly YpfA). Furthermore, elevation of c-di-GMP levels in B. subtilis led to inhibition of swarming motility, whereas biofilm formation was unaffected. Our work establishes paradigms for Gram-positive c-di-GMP signaling, and we have shown that the concise signaling system identified in B. subtilis serves as a powerful heterologous host for the study of c-di-GMP enzymes from bacteria predicted to possess larger, more-complex signaling systems.

‣ Oligoribonuclease is a central feature of cyclic diguanylate signaling in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

Cohen, Dorit; Mechold, Undine; Nevenzal, Hadas; Yarmiyhu, Yafit; Randall, Trevor E.; Bay, Denice C.; Rich, Jacquelyn D.; Parsek, Matthew R.; Kaever, Volkhard; Harrison, Joe J.; Banin, Ehud
Fonte: National Academy of Sciences Publicador: National Academy of Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Many bacteria possess enzymes that synthesize and degrade the intracellular second messenger cyclic diguanylate (c-di-GMP). Bacteria use this molecule to relay environmental signals into physiological responses that control motility, virulence, and biofilm formation. There are two pathways for enzymatic c-di-GMP degradation. One of these pathways involves the production of an intermediate molecule called 5ʹ-phosphoguanylyl-(3ʹ,5ʹ)-guanosine (pGpG). Although many enzymes responsible for c-di-GMP degradation have been characterized, microbiologists have long sought those responsible for pGpG degradation. Here we identify that oligoribonuclease (Orn) mediates pGpG degradation and show that Orn is important for c-di-GMP signaling in the human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This discovery reveals that nanoribonucleases, which have been considered housekeeping proteins crucial for mRNA turnover, also have a key role in c-di-GMP signaling.

‣ Cyclic diguanylate monophosphate directly binds to human siderocalin and inhibits its antibacterial activity

Li, Weihui; Cui, Tao; Hu, Lihua; Wang, Ziqing; Li, Zongqiang; He, Zheng-Guo
Fonte: Nature Pub. Group Publicador: Nature Pub. Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 22/09/2015 Português
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Cyclic diguanylate monophosphate (c-di-GMP) is a well-conserved second messenger in bacteria. During infection, the innate immune system can also sense c-di-GMP; however, whether bacterial pathogens utilize c-di-GMP as a weapon to fight against host defense for survival and possible mechanisms underlying this process remain poorly understood. Siderocalin (LCN2) is a key antibacterial component of the innate immune system and sequesters bacterial siderophores to prevent acquisition of iron. Here we show that c-di-GMP can directly target the human LCN2 protein to inhibit its antibacterial activity. We demonstrate that c-di-GMP specifically binds to LCN2. In addition, c-di-GMP can compete with bacterial ferric siderophores to bind LCN2. Furthermore, c-di-GMP can significantly reduce LCN2-mediated inhibition on the in vitro growth of Escherichia coli. Thus, LCN2 acts as a c-di-GMP receptor. Our findings provide insight into the mechanism by which bacteria utilize c-di-GMP to interfere with the innate immune system for survival.

‣ Recognition of the bacterial second messenger cyclic diguanylate by its cognate riboswitch

Kulshina, Nadia; Baird, Nathan J.; Ferré-D'Amaré, Adrian R.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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The cyclic diguanylate [bis-(3'–5')-cyclic dimeric guanosine monophosphate, c-di-GMP] riboswitch is the first known example of a gene-regulatory RNA that binds to a second messenger. C-di-GMP is widely employed by bacteria to regulate processes ranging from biofilm formation to the expression of virulence genes. The cocrystal structure of the c-di-GMP responsive GEMM riboswitch upstream of the tfoX gene of Vibrio cholerae reveals the second messenger binding the RNA at a three-helix junction. The 2-fold symmetric second messenger is recognized asymmetrically by the monomeric riboswitch employing canonical and non-canonical base pairing as well as intercalation. These interactions explain how the RNA discriminates against cyclic diadenylate (c-di-AMP), a putative bacterial second messenger. Small-angle X-ray scattering and biochemical analyses indicate that the RNA undergoes compaction and large-scale structural rearrangement in response to ligand binding, consistent with organization of the core three-helix junction of the riboswitch concomitant with binding of c-di-GMP.

‣ Hfq-dependent, coordinate control of cyclic diguanylate synthesis and catabolism in the plague pathogen Yersinia pestis

Bellows, Lauren E.; Koestler, Benjamin J.; Karaba, Sara M.; Waters, Christopher M.; Lathem, Wyndham W.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Yersinia pestis, the cause of the disease plague, forms biofilms to enhance flea-to-mammal transmission. Biofilm formation is dependent on exopolysaccharide synthesis and is controlled by the intracellular levels of the second messenger molecule cyclic diguanylate (c-di-GMP), but the mechanisms by which Y. pestis regulates c-di-GMP synthesis and turnover are not fully understood. Here we show that the small RNA chaperone Hfq contributes to the regulation of c-di-GMP levels and biofilm formation by modulating the abundance of both the c-di-GMP phosphodiesterase HmsP and the diguanylate cyclase HmsT. To do so, Hfq coordinately promotes hmsP mRNA accumulation while simultaneously decreasing the stability of the hmsT transcript. Hfq-dependent regulation of HmsP occurs at the transcriptional level while the regulation of HmsT is post-transcriptional and is localized to the 5' untranslated region/proximal coding sequence of the hmsT transcript. Decoupling HmsP from Hfq-based regulation is sufficient to overcome the effects of Δhfq on c-di-GMP and biofilm formation. We propose that Y. pestis utilizes Hfq to link c-di-GMP levels to environmental conditions and that the disregulation of c-di-GMP turnover in the absence of Hfq may contribute to the severe attenuation of Y. pestis lacking this RNA chaperone in animal models of plague.