Tobacco use negatively affects health and is a major risk factor for non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Today, tobacco use ranks third among risk factors in North Africa and the Middle East in terms of disease burden. Despite the established need for these services, tobacco dependence treatment (TDT) services are still inadequate in the Eastern Mediterranean region (EMR). Among the main challenges hindering their expansion is the current lack of training opportunities. The provision of training and capacity-building—a key enabler of TDT—offers an excellent catalyst to launch TDT services in the region. This review discusses the need for TDT training in the EMR and describes a model for providing regional evidence-based training in line with international standards. The King Hussein Cancer Center in Amman, Jordan, is the regional host for Global Bridges, a worldwide TDT initiative. Using this model, they have trained 1,500 professionals and advocates from the EMR over the past three years.
IMPORTANCE: Cancer is among the leading causes of death worldwide. Current estimates of cancer burden in individual countries and regions are necessary to inform local cancer control strategies. OBJECTIVE: To estimate mortality, incidence, years lived with disability (YLDs), years of life lost (YLLs), and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) for 28 cancers in 188 countries by sex from 1990 to 2013. EVIDENCE REVIEW: The general methodology of the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2013 study was used. Cancer registries were the source for cancer incidence data as well as mortality incidence (MI) ratios. Sources for cause of death data include vital registration system data, verbal autopsy studies, and other sources. The MI ratios were used to transform incidence data to mortality estimates and cause of death estimates to incidence estimates. Cancer prevalence was estimated using MI ratios as surrogates for survival data; YLDs were calculated by multiplying prevalence estimates with disability weights, which were derived from population-based surveys; YLLs were computed by multiplying the number of estimated cancer deaths at each age with a reference life expectancy; and DALYs were calculated as the sum of YLDs and YLLs. FINDINGS: In 2013 there were 14.9 million incident cancer cases...
Resumo: A insuficiência cardíaca, já denominada de epidemia do século XXI é, de entre as doenças cardiovasculares, a única cuja incidência e prevalência continuam a crescer, apesar dos imensos progressos feitos na área da terapêutica nas últimas duas décadas. Caracteriza-se por elevada mortalidade – superior à do conjunto das neoplasias malignas -, grande morbilidade, consumo de recursos e custos exuberantes. É um dos problemas mais graves de Saúde Pública dos Países industrializados, cujo manejo deverá constituir uma prioridade para os Serviços Nacionais de Saúde. Todavia, o reconhecimento universal da gravidade desta situação tem originado poucas soluções concretas para conter a epidemia, cujo protagonismo não cessa de aumentar. É possível hoje prevenir, tratar de forma a retardar a evolução da doença ou até revertê-la, desde que diagnosticada atempadamente. Qualquer atitude nestas áreas pressupõe um diagnóstico correcto, precoce e completo da situação, sem o qual não haverá um tratamento adequado. O diagnóstico tem preocupado bem menos os investigadores e os clínicos que a terapêutica. É, contudo, comprovadamente difícil a todos os níveis dos Cuidados de Saúde e constitui certamente a primeira barreira ao controlo da situação. OBJECTIVOS: À luz do conhecimento actual e da nossa própria experiência...
Worldwide, deaths from cancer exceed
those caused by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and
acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), tuberculosis, and
malaria combined. Seventy percent of deaths due to cancer
occur in low-and middle-income countries, which are often
poorly prepared to deal with the growing burden of chronic
disease. Over a period of 18 months, the cancer care and
control South-South knowledge exchange brought together a
group of stakeholders from five countries in Africa -
Botswana, Kenya, Rwanda, Uganda, and Zambia to share
experiences, lessons, and good practices through a set of
video conferences and a site visit to Zambia. All five
countries have demonstrated commitment, initiated various
cancer control and cancer screening programs, and expressed
interest in sharing their experiences. The knowledge
exchange on cancer care and control aimed to raise
awareness, increase knowledge of effective strategies, and
strengthen regional collaboration in cancer control planning
and expanding equitable access to cancer treatment. This
paper presents highlights of the country experiences shared...