Últimos itens adicionados do Acervo: Universidade Tecnológica Federal do Paraná

A Universidade Tecnológica Federal do Paraná (UTFPR) é uma universidade pública mantida pelo governo federal e sua sede esta localizada na cidade de Curitiba, capital do estado brasileiro do Paraná.

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‣ A ciência e a tecnologia entre projetos de sociedade em disputa: o caso do IFSC

Schwede, Marcos Aurelio
Fonte: Curitiba Publicador: Curitiba
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Português
The objective of this research is to understand the influence of competing society projects on science and technology productions, and the (im)possibility for the workers to have access to science and technology knowledge. To achieve this goal the country policies and the production of science and technology were analyzed; we have also analyzed how close or how far workers education is to the scientific and technological knowledge, its resolution and constraints to Brazilian professional and technological education policies and the influence of these questions in the Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology of Santa Catarina - FIESTSC. The historical and dialectical materialism was elected as the theoretical and methodological framework to drive this research, working with literature review, document analysis, direct observation and interviews with professors and managers from FIESTSC. Thus, the research started with material reality, taking its history as analytical assumption: in the movement of this reality (under a dialectical process), it seeks to apprehend its intrinsic aspects. As a main result, it was identified, in the country, a broad process to shape consensus related to science and technology production with the innovation term and concept. Competitive edge and economic growth are attributed to the innovation capability. Innovation is then treated as a condition to achieve social transformation and to build a new society project. However...

‣ Contributions to the study of the protein folding problem using bioinspired computation and molecular dynamics

Benítez, César Manuel Vargas
Fonte: Curitiba Publicador: Curitiba
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Português
The Protein Folding Problem (PFP) is considered one of the most important open cha- llenges in Biology and Bioinformatics. In this thesis, a novel approach for simulating the protein folding pathways is proposed where, instead using the three-dimensional structure of the protein, the folding states are represented by Contact Maps (CM). A two-dimensional Cellular Automata (2D-CA) evolver is used to simulate the fol- ding process, where each configuration represents a folding state and it is obtained according to its predecessor and a transition rule. Since finding transition rules for simulating a dynamic behavior is a very difficult task, it is proposed a distributed Gene-Expression Programming (GEP)-based approach, called pGEP-CA. Specific fit- ness functions, based on similarity and symmetry measures, are proposed. Futhermore, a heterogeneous parallel Ecology-inspired algorithm is proposed. This algorithm, called pECO, is used for reconstructing the structures from the CMs, using the 3D-AB off-lattice model. Moreover, to the best of our knowledge, it is presented the first application of Molecular Dynamics (MD) to the PFP, using the same model of proteins. Experiments were done to evaluate the adequacy of the proposed approaches. Also...

‣ Desenvolvimento de nanocompósitos formados por polianilina, nanotubos de carbono e dióxido de titânio visando a fotodegradação de fármaco

Vargas, Vanessa Mendonça Mendes
Fonte: Curitiba Publicador: Curitiba
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Português
Among the technologies for wastewater treatment, this work addressed advanced oxidation processes based on the use of heterogeneous catalysts, this process is also known as heterogeneous photocatalysis. The efficiency of this type of process is already well known and reported in the literature, however, its application has artificial energy costs for activation of the catalyst responsible for the degradation of contaminants. In this sense, new materials have been developed to promote the photosensitizing catalysts such as TiO2, which enables activation by visible light and solar renewable energy applications. In the development of new catalysts the nanostructured composite materials formed of two or more substances in close contact, stand out due to synergism which confers unique properties to the material. This study aimed to the synthesis, characterization and application of nanocomposites formed by polyaniline (PANI), TiO2-P25 and CNTs as catalysts in the degradation of the drug sulfamethoxazole under simulated sunlight. The catalyst synthesis was the interfacial polymerization (water / toluene) of aniline, containing organic phase with CNTs and aniline, and titanium dioxide in the aqueous phase. Different associations of materials and TiO2 concentrations were tested and resulted in the following catalysts PANI:TiO2...

‣ Equipamento de biofeedback para tratamento fisioterápico em pacientes portadores de pé equino

Resende, Guilherme Pereira de
Fonte: Curitiba Publicador: Curitiba
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Português
This work describes the development of a biofeedback device to be used by physiotherapists during treatment of patients with equinus foot. Normally the equinus foot is related to one of the sequelae of a stroke and is characterized by difficulty in motor control of the affected limb, often resulting in limitations on sensitivity. The equipment was built on the concept of biofeedback, presenting to the patient, in real time, information related to the intensity of the forces applied to the lower limbs. The equipment consists of flexible force sensors accommodated in a pair of sandals, connected to a microcontrolled electronic circuit. The whole processing is performed by an MSP430, and the communication is done by radio signals through a CC1101 module. The data is presented in a software interface on a laptop computer at a refresh rate of 20 Hz. The software has many features to meet both the needs of physiotherapists as patients. From the point of view of patients, the interface was designed to be simple and objective, facilitating the understanding of force variations that change dynamically at the exact moment when the sensors are pressed. Visual signs and sound were also used to emphasize to patients when the goals established for their treatment has been reached. Other features were developed specifically for physicaltherapists...

‣ Compostos bioativos de chás: comparação das infusões a quente e a frio

Rodrigues, Vanessa de Carvalho
Fonte: Campo Mourao; Medianeira Publicador: Campo Mourao; Medianeira
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Português
Tea is one of the most consumed beverages in the world. Some biological functions of tea have been reported, such as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-allergic, and anti-obesity. These biological activities are associated, in part, to the antioxidant activity of chemical compounds present in tea, especially flavonoids and phenolic acids, however, the phenolic compounds are primarily responsible for the beneficial properties of tea. Thus, the total evaluation and quantification of individual phenolic compounds is essential to correlate its biological activity. The samples were evaluated green tea, chamomile, broom, Boldo, white, lemon, black and matte. In this study, flavonoids and phenolic compounds were quantified by spectrophotometry. The antioxidant capacity of phenolic extracts was evaluated by DPPH and ABTS•+ methods. Phenolic compounds were identified by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Antimicrobial activity was determined by assessing the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC). The principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) showed that it was not observed a clear distinction between the extraction methods. In this study, the cold extraction was more efficient in the extraction of bioactive compounds.; O chá é uma das bebidas mais consumidas em todo o mundo. Algumas funções biológicas dos chás têm sido relatadas...

‣ Análise da influência da temperatura sobre propriedades físico-químicas de amostras de diesel, biodiesel e suas misturas

Dapieve, Darlan Roque
Fonte: Medianeira Publicador: Medianeira
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Português
Fuel quality is a major factor affecting the performance of internal combustion engines and it is characterized by a combination of physical and chemical properties. In this study, the influence of temperature on some properties such as density, dynamic viscosity, cloud point and pour point were investigated in different samples of fuels. In addition, measurements involving thermogravimetry and infrared spectroscopy were also performed. Density measurements as a function of temperature or concentration of biodiesel in the sample revealed a linear dependence, indicating that the temperature reduction or increase of the concentration of biodiesel results in a density increase. The rheological study from dynamic viscosity measurements identified the Newtonian fluid behavior for all samples. It was also observed an increase in the dynamic viscosity caused by the increase of the concentration of biodiesel in the sample and also the reducing the temperature. An exponential fit of the Arrhenius type equation was used to analyze the correlation between dynamic viscosity and temperature, allowing to identify a temperature limit, T*, below which this adjustment is lost and the sample solidification process is triggered. A phase diagram as a function of the biodiesel concentration and the temperature T*...

‣ Um estudo sobre o uso da lousa digital interativa como ferramenta didática no ensino e aprendizagem de física

Almeida, Dilza da Silva
Fonte: Londrina Publicador: Londrina
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Português
This dissertation studies the use of the interactive whiteboard in the teaching of Physics in Secondary Education, especially through a Physics teacher-training course on the State schooling network of northern Paraná. In the beginning of this research, thirty-six active teachers of Physics in Basic Education answered an initial survey that consisted of ten questions. Most of the teachers surveyed expressed interest in being part of a continuing education course – that aimed to promote the use of the interactive whiteboard in Physics classes –, due to their lack of confidence to work with such didactic tool. After an examination of the initial survey, a group of twenty-eight Physics teachers attended a continuing education course about the use of the interactive whiteboard concerning the implementation of an educational product, which consisted of two Didactic Units of Physics designed for teachers who work with students on the first year of Secondary School. After the training course, the teachers answered a final survey that resulted in three categories after analysis, resembling the scrutiny from a study conducted by Glover and Miller (2002) in schools from the United Kingdom. Three teacher profiles were unveiled about the use of the interactive whiteboard: the interested ones...

‣ Tratamento eletroquímico e físico-químico para efluente de lavanderia industrial têxtil

Gonçalves, Leandro Vicente
Fonte: Londrina Publicador: Londrina
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Português
The textile industrial laundry is characterized by the variety of existing processes, the large volume of wastewater and high polluting load. Physical and chemical characterization of these effluents is important to determine the appropriate treatment and to assess pollutants and their potential impacts. Thus, the development of this study allows contribute to the knowledge of the electrochemical processes and physical chemistry in order to remove the color and organic load in textile industrial laundry wastewater. The experiments were performed in four processes: - 1: electrocoagulation / electroflocculation / electrocoagulation tests using reactor at laboratory scale stirred tank with the use of aluminum and carbon electrodes. - 2: physico-chemical tests using process by dissolved air flotation (DAF) with a bench scale unit (flotatest) using tannin "Tanfloc SG". - 3: tests DAF using polyaluminum chloride (PAC) and anionic polymer. - 4: tests DAF using seeds of Moringa oleífera. The methodology used for the testing of all processes was the experimental design central composite rotational design (RCCD) with two parameters assessed for each process: - 1: electric current and electrocoagulation time; - 2: tannin dosage as coagulant and pH solution; - 3: PAC dosage as coagulant and anionic polymer; - 4: moringa dosage as coagulant and pH solution. At the end of the tests...

‣ Crescimento radicular da soja sob níveis de compactação do solo e mecanismos sulcadores

Dedordi, Gabrielli Fiorentin
Fonte: Pato Branco Publicador: Pato Branco
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Português
No-tillage system has intensified land use and machine traffic come causing problems related to soil compaction which can be a limiting factor for root system development and therefore in yield. In this context, this study aimed to evaluate the effects of furrowers mechanisms in soil compaction levels on soybean root development. The experiment was carried out in the experimental area at UTFPR campus Pato Branco in a split-plot arranged in a randomized complete block design, where the whole plots were arranged the compaction levels (Level 0 - No-till without additional compaction; Level 2 - No-till submitted to further compaction through two tractor passes; Level 4 - No-till submitted to further compaction through four tractor passes and Level 6 - No-till submitted to further compaction through six tractor passes) and the split-plots the two mechanisms furrowers (double disk and driller shank). Before seeding evaluations on soil physical characterization were carried out through bulk density and penetration resistance. Afterwards seeding depth, soil area mobilized and root development were evaluated. Evaluations regarding root development were given through the collection of root samples at three depths (0.00- 0.10; 0.10-0.20 and 0.20-0.30 m) on the crops row and between rows. These samples were washed...

‣ Impacto da qualidade da informação no trabalho individual: análise do uso de um sistema de informação na administração pública

Zanuz, Francieli Madureira Brisol
Fonte: Pato Branco Publicador: Pato Branco
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Português
The information provided by information systems are key resources for an organization and are used by users who have individual characteristics, they present particular needs and behaviors and interact with the information system expect different results. Thus, evaluating the impact of information quality in the organization, according to the individual characteristics of users, we obtain the result of the impact work. The performance of information systems at the organizational context is influenced by the impact at work on an individual basis. In this context, research related to information technology adoption seek to understand the acceptance of information technology by individuals. One of the most referenced in the literature to verify the acceptance of the technology and the use of information technology in the context of organizations is the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) which provides human behavior models in the use of technology, through the use of analysis and ease of use of information perceived by individuals systems. The purpose of an information system is to provide information. The successful use of information systems is related to aspects such as the quality of information, characteristics of individuals and Individual Impact. In this study...

‣ Contribuição ao estudo de cimentos supersulfatados: formulação e mecanismos de hidratação

Rubert, Sílvia
Fonte: Pato Branco Publicador: Pato Branco
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Português
In recent years, considerable attention has been given to the development of special cements that can reduce CO2 emissions and energy and the consumption of limestone. Supersulfated cement are mainly composed of blast furnace slag (80- 90%), calcium sulfate (10-20%) and an alkaline activator such as Portland cement (around 5%) or alkali metal hydroxides. The supersulfated cements (SSC) were used in the years between 1950 to 1960 in Europe, especially for applications in concrete, but its lower gain strength at initial age limited their commercial application. Later changes in iron manufacturing processes generated slag which Al2O3 no longer met the requirement of minimum content required for SSC, leading to its alternative use mixtures of Portland cement (blast furnace cement). Recently, the standard for Europe supersulfated cement was replaced by EN 15743 (2010), however, the hydration mechanism and its optimum proportion are not well understood. In this study, the effects of the type and content of the alkali activator (hydroxides) and the content of slag and anhydrite were studied. The calcium and potassium hydroxide were studied in 0.2, 0.5 and 0.8% with SSC formulations containing 80 - 90% blast furnace slag and 10-20% sulfate calcium (anhydrite). Compressive strength tests showed that the content of alkaline activators influenced more than slag/anhydrite content. Mortars made with KOH with of 0.2 and 0.5% presented the highest compressive strength values; however...

‣ Caracterização do esgoto sanitário e lodo proveniente de reator anaeróbio e de lagoas de estabilização para avaliação da eficiência na remoção de contaminantes

Lopes, Thiara Reis
Fonte: Medianeira Publicador: Medianeira
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Português
The Wastewater Treatment Plants (WWTPs) are used in order to simulate the natural degradation phenomena using controlled conditions to promote sewage treatment, a byproduct called sewage sludge is produced during this process, this is one blend of organic and inorganic material, it was accumulated in the system during the sewage treatment process. The sewage and sludge characteristics are related to human activities, weather conditions. Technological advances can contribute to the insertion of some compounds that are difficult to degrade, rarely treated and removed by conventional methods. This research aims to evaluate the sewage and sludge characteristics, estimating the efficiency of two conventional treatment systems and verify the agricultural potential use of sludge produced. For this, were determined in the influent and effluent of the biological systems of wastewater treatment some physico-chemical parameters (pH, temperature, Dissolved Oxygen (DO), total solids, total fixed solids, total volatile solids, settleable solids, chemistry oxygen demand (COD), ammonia nitrogen). In the sludge were determined physico-chemical parameters (pH, total solids, total fixed solids, total volatile solids, total phosphorus, total K, metals...

‣ Micro e ultrafiltração como pós-tratamento para reúso de efluentes de abatedouro e frigorífico de suínos

Fappi, Devanir André
Fonte: Medianeira Publicador: Medianeira
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Português
The food industry uses large volumes of water to meet the demand processes. Because of this, there is a large volume of generated waste that need to be addressed to ensure proper final destination. In view of the growing scarcity of water, the use rationalization of procedures of the water and the reuse of treated effluent arise as solutions to these problems. Application of separation processes by membranes in the treatment of wastewater for reuse food industry presents itself as an appropriate advanced treatment process. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the use of membrane separation processes as advanced treatment of agroindustrial wastewater stemmed from a swine slaughterhouse, the western region of Paraná, aiming at the possibility of recycling these effluents. For this it was necessary: to define the physical-chemical characterization of the agro-industrial effluents; evaluate the use of microfiltration, ultrafiltration, microfiltration and ultrafiltration then under different conditions of pressure applied to the membrane, and evaluate the quality of the effluent obtained by separation processes with membranes, considering the care of the technical, legal and health requirements for different uses industrial. The results showed that membrane separation processes presented in a general way a considerable improvement in final effluent quality compared with the current tertiary treatment system used by the industry (physicochemical flotation) which promotes removal efficiencies in oscillating ranges from 3% to 29%...

‣ On the performance analysis of full-duplex networks

Alves, Hirley
Fonte: Curitiba Publicador: Curitiba
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Português
In this thesis we study Full-Duplex (FD) cooperative networks from different perspectives, using concepts of information theory, communication theory and applied statistics. We provide a comprehensive performance analysis of cooperative communications systems operating with FD relays. We demonstrate that FD relaying is feasible even when experiencing strong self-interference, and we show its application under different scenarios. More importantly, the results attained through this work serve as a benchmark for design as well as deployment of current and future wireless communications technologies. Our first contribution is a comprehensive overview of the state-of-the-art on FD communications, more specifically on FD relaying, and we revisit some of the main properties of cooperative schemes. Another contribution comes from an extensive analysis of outage probability, throughput and energy efficiency of FD relaying over Rayleigh fading channels. Besides the mathematical framework introduced herein, we also show that in some cases cooperative Half-Duplex (HD) schemes achieve better performance than FD relaying with self-interference. Therefore, we draw a discussion on the trade-offs between HD and FD schemes as well as between throughput and energy efficiency. Then...

‣ Estudo da aplicação da técnica de eletrofloculação na remoção da cor em misturas de corantes têxteis

Tones, Aline Raquel Müller
Fonte: Medianeira Publicador: Medianeira
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Português
This study aimed to apply the electrofloculation technique in aqueous solution consisting of the mixture of textile dyes, Turquoise and Red Scarlet investigating the effect of electric current, treatment time and aluminum dissolved in relation to the color removal. The analysis of the color removal was obtained from the deconvolution method of the absorption spectra in the visible region separating the two dyes of the absorption bands. Subsequently, it was set up a photovoltaic system to use energy as a power source in electrofloculation technique. For the research, the experimental procedure was performed in two stages. In the first stage, tests were conducted based on central composite rotational design (CCRD), consisting of 12 trials run in duplicate, in order to optimize the process. Electrical current and treatment time were used as independent variables, obtaining, as the dependent variable, the percentage color removal centers in three separate absorbers. In the second stage was used the energy from photovoltaic panel, coupled directly to galvanic anode with electrical current and treatment time optimized, obtained in the first step. This procedure was applied to the mixture solution and synthetic sewage in two different weather conditions: on a clear sky day and on a partly cloudy day. It was found that the use of the deconvolution method was feasible...

‣ Caracterização da digestão de resíduos agroindustriais em biodigestor de fluxo contínuo operado em escala real

Caldereiro, Gisele Maria Brod
Fonte: Medianeira Publicador: Medianeira
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Português
Slaughterhouses are potentially polluting agricultural industries due to the organic load present in the wastewater and solid waste generated in the process. To minimize the environmental impact generated by this type of activity, it is necessary to provide a treatment processes that enables the reduction of the organic matter present in slaughterhouse waste, transforms waste into value-added products and exploits energy use efficiently. The implementation of biodigesters to treat solid waste and wastewater generated in slaughterhouses is an interesting option, given the anaerobic digestion process that makes up the system and the possible benefits it provides. Therefore, the present study evaluated the efficiency of an anaerobic continuous flow digester, in real scale, used for the treatment of solid waste and liquid effluents from the process. In order to do so, physicochemical characterization of the digester feed substrates, as well as, characterization of the influent and effluent of the system were performed. In addition, analyzes were executed to evaluate the characteristics of the bio-fertilizer and biogas originating in the process. The results showed that the digester feed substrate is composed of various origins and, each has a specific and distinct physicochemical characteristic...

‣ Otimização evolutiva multiobjetivo baseada em decomposição e assistida por máquinas de aprendizado extremo

Pavelski, Lucas Marcondes
Fonte: Curitiba Publicador: Curitiba
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Português
Many real optimization problems have more than one objective function. When the objectives are in conflict, there is a need for specialized strategies, as is the case of the Multi-objective Optimization Evolutionary Algorithms (MOEAs). However, if the functions evaluation is expensive (high computational or economical costs) many proposed MOEAs are impractical. An alternative might be the use of a machine learning model to approximate the fitness function (surrogates) in the optimization algorithm. This work proposes and investigates a framework called ELMOEA/D that aggregates state-of-the-art MOEAs based on decomposition of objectives (MOEA/D) and extreme learning machines as surrogate models. The proposed framework is tested with different MOEA/D variants and show good results in benchmark problems, compared to a literature algorithm that also encompasses MOEA/D but uses surrogate models based on radial basis function networks. The ELMOEA/D framework is also applied to the protein structure prediction problem (PSPP). Despite the fact that the results achieved by the proposed approach were not as encouraging as the ones achieved in the benchmarks (when the algorithms with and without surrogates are compared), many aspects of both algorithm and problem are explored. Finally...

‣ Fontes de enxofre e manejo de nitrogênio na produtividade e qualidade industrial de trigo

Fano, Ademir
Fonte: Pato Branco Publicador: Pato Branco
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Português
This study aimed to evaluate the effect of sulfur (S) and the management of nitrogen (N) coverage in relation to grain yield and Wheat industrial quality. Three experiments were conducted in the field, on winter 2013 season, in Captain Leônidas Marques, Realeza and Santa Isabel do Oeste, Paraná state. In all the three places were used the wheat cultivar CD 150, sown in the straw of wheat. We used the experimental of randomized blocks with three replications in a 3x4 factorial design. The treatments consist of two sulfur sources (gypsum and elemental sulfur patched, applied by throwing at tillering, witness) and forms of nitrogen application in coverage (100% at tillering; 100% in the elongation and 50% + 50%, Witness). The doses used are 80 kg ha-1 S and N, being the nitrogen applied in the urea form coated with inhibitor of urease (41% of N). The Weather conditions (rainfall and frost) observed in the conduct of experiments resulted in a general productive low average of experiments. It was observed, in general, no significant differences between the N management tested for grain yield (RG) and relative chlorophyll index (IRC), there is high direct correlation between these variables. The use of elemental sulfur patched increased by 16.3% grain yield testing in Realeza...

‣ Componentes de rendimento e qualidade de sementes de soja relacionado a aplicação de fertilizantes foliares

Machado, Fábio Ribeiro
Fonte: Pato Branco Publicador: Pato Branco
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Português
Abstract The use of foliar fertilizers on soybean has increased in the last crops, thanks to your fast answer and low cost of use. However, the application usually is carried without a prior diagnosis of tillage, in other words, without technical criteria that justify your use. In order to give more subsidies to technicians and producers the present study aimed to study the effect of different foliar fertilizers about the yield components and soybean seed quality. The experiment was deployed in three locations, in experimental delimitation of randomized block in factorial plan 9 x2, with three replicates per treatment. The first factor relates to the treatment (T) regarding the application of different foliar fertilizers are: T1-Attestant, T2-Product A, T3- Product B; T4- Product C; T5- Product D; T6 – Product E; T7- Product F, T8- Product G e T9- Product H. The second factor refers to the two times of application of the product, one in R2 (full bloom) and the other in R5 (grain filling). The experiment was divided into two studies. In the first study, it was found the effect of foliar application of different manures on yield components and soybean yield, where the variables were evaluated, foliar nutrient content, chlorophyll content...

‣ Efeito de épocas de semeadura no desenvolvimento e produtividade do trigo (Triticum aestivum L.) na região de Pato Branco-PR

Civiero, João Carlos
Fonte: Pato Branco Publicador: Pato Branco
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Português
For each subperiod development of wheat are produced in different organs and is the formation of the number of these organs dependent on the duration of each subperiod. The temperature of the vernalization photoperiod and contribute significantly to determine the rate of development of the length of such sub-periods. In this context, this study aims to map the temporal variability of environmental factors in Pato Branco, and discuss its possible implications for the expression of yield potential of wheat. Also, we attempted to analyze the periods of the year that offer the best environmental conditions, in terms of temperature and solar radiation to define the increase in yield components and development of culture, seeking the best seasons to the cultivars studied. The experiment was conducted during the years 2008 and 2009 at the Experimental Station of Agronomy Course UTFPR in Pato Branco-PR (26º10'S; 52º41'W and 750 m). The experimental design was randomized blocks with three replications in the first year and four replications in the second year in a factorial scheme (BRS 208, BRS 220 and BRS Guamirim x seven sowing dates). The sowings were made in the period of: 06/05 17/05 31/05 14/06 28/06 12/07 and 26/07 for the year 2008 and 02/05 16/05...