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‣ Electromagnetic recording and playback device

Chavez, Dylan, 1981-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 40 leaves; 1732649 bytes; 1732326 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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The purpose of this thesis is the design and manufacture of an electromagnetic recording and playback device. The device was designed to record information onto a steel wire which can replay the signal. The device is of simple mechanical design, resilient to impacts, minor compression, and operator error. The design has a minimal number of parts and requires limited maintenance or replacement of parts. The device is comprised of three systems: a magnetic head, transport system, and a support structure. Each of these systems is described and mechanical drawings for all parts are included.; by Dylan Chavez.; Thesis (S.B.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, 2004.; Includes bibliographical references (leaf 24).

‣ Coherent decay of Bose-Einstein condensates

Cragg, George E. (George Edwin), 1972-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 209 p.; 1492585 bytes; 1741758 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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As the coldest form of matter known to exist, atomic Bose-Einstein condensates are unique forms of matter where the constituent atoms lose their individual identities, becoming absorbed into the cloud as a whole. Effectively, these gases become a single macroscopic object that inherits its properties directly from the quantum world. In this work, I describe the quantum properties of a zero temperature condensate where the atoms have a propensity to pair, thereby leading to a molecular character that coexists with the atoms. Remarkably, the addition of this molecular component is found to induce a quantum instability that manifests itself as a collective decay of the assembly as a whole. As a signature of this phenomenon, there arises a complex chemical potential in which the imaginary part quantifies a coherent decay into collective phonon excitations of a collapsing ground state. The unique decay rate dependencies on both the scattering length and the density can be experimentally tested by tuning near a Feshbach resonance. Being a purely quantum mechanical effect, there exists no mechanical picture corresponding to this coherent many-body process. The results presented can serve as a model for other systems with similar underlying physics.; by George E. Cragg.; Thesis (Ph. D.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology...

‣ Large displacement fast conducting polymer actuators

Chen, Angela Y. (Angela Ying-Ju), 1982-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 96 leaves; 4543697 bytes; 4547707 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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Conducting polymers are a promising class of electroactive materials that undergo volumetric changes under applied potentials, which make them particularly useful for many actuation applications. Polypyrrole , is one of the most common conducting polymers of choice for the development of actuator technologies and has been well characterized in its mechanical, electrical, and electrochemical response. Although capable of producing almost 10 times more active stress for a given cross-sectional area than skeletal muscle, strains are relatively low on the order of 1 to 2 %, as are strain rates, which are on the order of a couple percent per second. Small strains can be amplified to produce large bending displacements by configuring the conducting polymer film in a trilayer configuration with two conducting polymer films sandwiching an electrolyte gel layer. This thesis focuses on the development of conducting polymer bending actuators in air. There is a strong correlation found between applied voltage, temperature, and the speed of actuation. Several experiments were carried out to determine the effect of temperature on the mechanical, electrical, and electrochemical properties of the components of the trilayer.; (cont.) This data coupled with thermal profiles of trilayers during actuation...

‣ The design and construction of interactive architectural environments : the digital mile, Zaragoza, Spain; Digital mile, Zaragoza, Spain

Chai, Shutsu K. (Shutsu Kindness)
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 117 p.
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As a part of a master plan for the Digital Mile, a park in Zaragoza, Spain, this thesis will undertake the mechanical design and construction of a responsive and rearrangeable system of walls and doors for increasing the flexibility of the "edge" between open space and a new museum building. In order to study this question, this thesis builds on a previous planning thesis and the prescribed architectural forms as a basis for investigation of potential construction materials and joint technologies. Through this study, a design will emerge for this unique system that allows space to expand and contract and the building edge to become porous or sealed, responding to the demands for different activities and situations. Construction materials and mechanisms will be studied based on the functional requirements of the system. These investigations will lead to recommendations for mechanical means to achieve the prescribed architectural and performance specifications. It is anticipated that this new building-edge will support a wider variety of activities and in this way enhance the livability and usability of public space. Beyond the physical design, this thesis will also demonstrate the ability of interdisciplinary work to enrich the design process.; by Shutsu K. Chai.; Thesis (S.B.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology...

‣ Modeling dislocation density evolution in continuum crystal plasticity

Arsenlis, Athanasios, 1975-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 229 p.
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Dislocations are the singly most important material defects in crystal plasticity, and although dislocation mechanics has long been understood as the underlying physical basis for continuum crystal plasticity formulations, explicit consideration of crystallo- graphic dislocation mechanics has been largely absent in working constitutive models. In light of recent theoretical developments in dislocation dynamics, and the introduc- tion of geometrically necessary dislocation (GND) density in continuum formulations through plastic strain gradients, a single crystal plasticity model based on dislocation density state variables is developed. The density state variables evolve from initial conditions according to equations based on fundamental concepts in dislocation me- chanics such as the conservation of Burgers vector in multiplication and annihilation processes. Along with those processes that account for bulk statistical dislocation evolution, the evolving polarity due to dislocation species flux divergences may be in- cluded to detail the length-scale dependence of mechanical properties on the micron level. The full dislocation density description of plasticity allows a simple evaluation of the role of GND density in non-homogeneously deforming bodies. A local version of the constitutive model...

‣ Design of a novel anterior cruciate ligament prosthesis; Design of a novel ACL prosthesis

Talei Franzesi, Giovanni
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 19 p.
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Injuries to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) are extremely common (approximately 100,000 every year in the US) and result in greatly reduced mobility; although several surgical procedures have been devised to address this condition, they are far from being completely satisfactory. The golden standard is currently represented by tendon autografts which, however, result in considerable donor site morbidity. An ideal solution would be to use effective, off-the-shelf permanent prostheses: however, all such devices proposed to date have proved highly disappointing, because of poor long term stability and biocompatibility, and unphysiological mechanical behavior. To address both concerns a novel prosthetic device has been developed, employing crimped NiTi superelastic wire bundles. To achieve near-physiological mechanical behavior, the fiber geometry resembles (on a much larger scale) that of the collagen fibrils that naturally make up the ligament, using as a starting point the Comninou-Yannas crimped-fiber model.; (cont.) NiTi (a superelastic alloy of titanium and nickel) has been tested and employed in a variety of biomedical settings and its excellent wear and biocompatibility characteristics make it a superior candidate for this application; the relevant literature has been reviewed and assessed. A detailed design for such prosthesis has been proposed...

‣ Design of a fluidic test bed for MEMS piezoelectric energy harvester

Farm, Christopher P
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 37 leaves
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This document outlines the basic theory behind generating mathematical models, choosing materials and designing geometries for simulating a 900 mile Alaskan Pipeline. The use of dimensional analysis is useful for simulating the vibration spectrum given off in the pipeline due to turbulent flow of the fluid. In the design of Pm pg devices, that transform the mechanical vibration to electrical energy, the scaled down model will be used as a test bed for future prototype PMPG designs. After modeling the Alaskan pipeline and designing it around dimensional analysis, a Vernier Low-g accelerometer is used to measure the vibration spectrum. The frequency that was analyzed was 251.01 ± 0.447 Hz and when converted back to the Alaskan pipeline we achieved a frequency of 6.94Hz. Using this information we can design PMPG devices that will resonate in this frequency bandwidth to create a higher efficiency in mechanical to electrical conversion.; by Christopher P. Farm.; Thesis (S.B.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, 2006.; Includes bibliographical references.

‣ Design of biomimetic compliant devices for locomotion in liquid environments

Valdivia y Alvarado, Pablo (Pablo Alvaro), 1977-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 164 p.
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Presently, there is a need for devices capable of autonomous locomotion in liquid environments. Humanitarian, industrial and defense applications are numerous and include examples such as search and rescue missions, ocean exploration, and de-mining operations. Due to the nature of the environments involved, the required devices must overcome several challenges. The main challenges are related to hardware performance in terms of propulsion efficiency, mechanical robustness, maneuverability, adaptability, stealth and autonomy. Current traditional approaches that use propeller driven devices have limited success in addressing these challenges. As a result devices that mimic fish-like swimming techniques have emerged as a promising alternative that can provide additional maneuvering features and the promise of improved performance. However, the inherent problems of current biomimetic devices have been identified as: (i) mechanical complexity due to the use of discrete and rigid components, and (ii) lack of a systematic design approach. These problems limit the practical implementation of biomimetic techniques in real mission environments. This thesis presents an alternative approach for implementing biomimetic fish-like swimming techniques by exploiting natural dynamics of compliant bodies.; (cont.) The resultant devices are simpler and more mechanically robust than traditional biomimetic devices. Models are developed to express both the swimming kinematics and the corresponding swimming performance of the proposed devices...

‣ Stable hopping of a muscle-actuated leg system using positive force feedback

Wongviriyawong, Chanikarn Mint
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 92 leaves
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In control of movement, two key components, which are pure mechanical response of the system and response due to sensory feedback, must be thoroughly understood. Recent studies suggest not only the existence of positive force feedback in vivo, but also the emergent property of positive force feedback in having a stabilizing effect on a dynamical system in the presence of disturbances. In this thesis, simulated environment of simple one-dimensional point mass hopping model with positive force feedback as well as experimental results of the same dynamical system are compared and studied in detail. Three important hypotheses are investigated. The first hypothesis involves positive force feedback and its stabilization property despite disturbances in the system. A system with positive force feedback control attains cyclic motion while system energy is being added or removed without changing its steady state system energy. Secondly, overall mechanical behavior of the leg becomes elastic in the existence of positive force feedback. In locomotion, elastic leg behavior is desired for a pertinent adaptation to physical properties of the environment and utilization of the locomotory performances.; (cont.) The last hypothesis investigated is the effect of feedback control parameters on closed loop system behavior...

‣ Shear deformation of amorphous and nanocrystalline copper microstructures via atomistic simulation

Gandy, David R
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 24 p.
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In the well-known Hall-Petch behavior, yield and flow stresses in polycrystalline metals increase with a decrease in grain size. As grain size continues to decrease, mechanical strength peaks. As grain size further decreases, mechanical strength begins to decrease. As grain size approaches zero, the total structure is composed of an increasingly high percentage of grain boundaries, which exhibit the properties of an amorphous structure. Molecular dynamics simulations, with the goal of exploring this behavior, were performed on nanocrystalline and amorphous microstructures using the embedded atom potential developed by Mishin et al. A 0.2 shear strain was applied to each of the nanocrystalline and amorphous samples. From these simulations, we have observed the inverse Hall-Petch behavior of nanocrystalline structures. We have also shown that the amorphous structure as zero grain size is reasonable as the limiting case for the inverse Hall-Petch trends in nanocrystalline structures.; by David R. Gandy.; Thesis (S.B.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, 2007.; Includes bibliographical references (p. 24).

‣ Investigation of deployable structures and their actuation

Munro, Logan
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 51 p.
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Deployable Structures had not been designed for use in the oil field industry, and additionally have not been designed as devices to perform mechanical work. By analyzing deployable structures a detailed understanding of the mechanism kinematics has been developed. Further, we have analyzed new design concepts of deployable structures that include void filling alterations and snap fit strengthening. The actuation and mechanical loading of the structures and the input to output force ratio were investigated. This understanding was applied to several actuation methods.; by Logan Munro.; Thesis (S.B.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, 2007.; Includes bibliographical references (p. 27).

‣ An Advanced Fast Steering Mirror for optical communication; AFSM for optical communication

Kluk, Daniel Joseph
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 243 p.
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I describe in this thesis the design, fabrication, assembly, and testing of an Advanced Fast Steering Mirror (AFSM) for precision optical platforms. The AFSM consists of a mirror driven in two rotational axes by normal force electromagnetic actuators, and controlled via position feedback loops. The dynamic performance is sufficient to provide high bandwidth (approximately 5 kHz) disturbance rejection of base motion, and as such the device is particularly suited to beam stabilization tasks in laser communication, lidar, and similar optical applications. In fact, work on the Mars Laser Communication Demonstration project at MIT Lincoln Laboratory provided the original impetus for developing the subject technology. My work on this project is divided into five distinct phases: Electromagnetic and mechanical design of the mirror itself; fabrication and assembly of the mechanical hardware; initial testing and dynamic model generation; design and fabrication of an electronic analog controller; and final closed loop performance demonstrations. I performed the first two phases on the MIT campus, and the final three phases at MIT Lincoln Laboratory. Each project phase is described in detail herein. Ultimately, I demonstrate performance from the hardware and control electronics exceeding the original design goal of 5 kHz. As this original prototype is merely a testbed...

‣ A template modeling for an assembly control : the source chamber alignment

Guerra, Simone, M. Eng. Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 111, [1] leaves
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Managers and engineers are trying to lead Varian Semiconductor Equipment to a flow line shipment program, the intent being to eliminate the clean room area and ship all of the components of the ion implanter directly from the flow line to the customer, without the currently necessary step of a final assembly prior to shipment. The purpose of the thesis is to identify a solution for one of the several mechanical concerns that the company is facing to achieve its goal; in particular this work examines the correct alignment of the source chamber inside the terminal module. In the flow line shipment context, the correct alignment of subassembly components becomes a critical aspect and needs to be checked before a shipment, since assembly errors or out of specification components from suppliers may lead to long delays and reworks. This last aspect cannot be ignored, since if adjustments and modifications can easily be accomplished in the flow line without conspicuous waste of time, the same cannot be said in the field, thousands miles away from the factory. Specifically, the contribution of the project is to achieve the right orientation of the source chamber in relation to the position of the feet of the terminal module, by designing a mechanical fixture. The tool has been conceived to be used directly in the terminal module flow line...

‣ A template modeling for an assembly control : jig design

Liscaio, Matteo
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 95, iii, [4] leaves
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The purpose of this thesis is to identify a solution for one of the several mechanical concerns that Varian Semiconductor Equipment is facing to achieve its goal. Managers and engineers are trying to lead Varian Semiconductor Equipment to a flow line shipment program, the intent being to eliminate the clean room area and ship all of the components of the ion implanter directly from the flow line to the customer, without the currently necessary step of a final assembly. In particular this work examines the correct alignment of the source chamber inside the terminal module prior to the final assembly of ion implantation equipment. In the flow line shipment context, the correct alignment of subassembly components becomes a critical aspect and needs to be checked before a shipment, since assembly errors or out of specification components from suppliers may lead to long delays and reworks. This last aspect cannot be ignored, since if adjustments and modifications can easily be accomplished in the flow line without conspicuous waste of time, the same cannot be said in the field, thousands miles away from the factory. Specifically, the contribution of the project is to achieve the right orientation of the source chamber in relation to the position of the feet of the terminal module...

‣ Micro-and macromechanics of single crystal and polygrannular lamellar block copolymers

Tzianetopoulou, Theodora, 1974-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 186 leaves
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Block copolymers (BCPs) are a relatively new class of thermoplastic elastomers. Their macromolecular chain consists of covalently bonded repeating blocks of thermoplastic and elastomeric molecular chains. When given the thermodynamic freedom, the chain constituents phase separate into domains of various morphologies with sizes that can range between ten to hundreds of nanometers. BCPs are in essence nanocomposites with chemically bonded interfaces. As such, their mechanical behavior is consistent both with that of elastomers, and of thermoplastics. Due to this unique behavior, BCPs are among the most popular polymeric materials with diverse commercial applications that cover a number of industries. Furthermore, BCPs are emerging as instrumental for the future of nanotechnology as an increasing number of new techniques and applications seek to utilize their nanostructural features. BCPs, whether as polycrystalline configurations or as "highly" oriented single-crystals, attract an accumulating number of applications, and the increasing demand for efficient material design and product development extends over a range of length scales. Hence, there exists a need for continuum models that will predict both the oriented as well as the polycrystalline response of block-polymer materials to generic loading conditions. This thesis presents a general micromechanical framework for the derivation of large-strain continuum constitutive models for hyperelastic materials with layered micro- or macro-structures. The framework was implemented for the case of oriented (single-crystal) lamellar BCPs with Neo-Hookean phase behavior...

‣ Genomic response, bioinformatics, and mechanics of the effects of forces on tissues and wound healing

Saxena, Vishal, 1971-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 167 leaves; 8967520 bytes; 8977203 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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The mechanical environment of the cell is important for changes in behavior. Cellular behavioral changes can be traced to gene expression profile changes. These effects were studied in the context of Micromechanical force therapy, a novel therapeutic treatment in the management of different types of wounds. The mechanism of therapies that work by applying suction pressures is still not completely understood. It is proposed that micromechanical forces are the dominant mechanism by which they obtain accelerated wound healing. However, these therapies don't only impose forces to (wounded) tissue. They also remove edematous tissue as well as applies hypobaric oxygen conditions to the tissue. Therefore, it was decided first to study only the effects of pure forces on normal tissue. 50g forces were applied to rat ears in vivo. The ears were then sampled over a period of time for their gene expression profiles on Affymetrix RAE 230 2.0 gene chips. 8 time points were obtained for each of control and stretch conditions. One rat ear was chosen to be control (and without stretch), the other was stretched. A modified Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) on the expression profiles was conducted using the paired difference t statistic squared as the ranking metric. A further refinement which didn't use the sign of the t statistic looked at expression changes in either direction (the combined analysis). Important genesets were obtained relevant to the differences seen between control and stretch conditions. In the combined GSEA analysis...

‣ Design and prototype of a hovering ornithopter based on dragonfly flight

Guo, Theresa (Theresa W.)
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 31 leaves
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Hovering is normally achieved using a horizontal wing path to create lift; bees, wasps and helicopters use this technique. Dragonflies hover using a unique method, by flapping along an inclined stroke plane. This seems to create a higher efficiency than is possible for normal hovering. The aim of this project is to build a mechanical model to mimic the aerodynamic properties and hovering motion of dragonflies. Through the design and evaluation of this model, we can evaluate the mechanical feasibility of reproducing the wing path using single motor control and establish whether the difference in stroke plane is advantageous for the dragonfly. By adjusting the initial angle of attack of the ornithopter's wings, we can artificially recreate varying stroke planes. A comparison of the resultant lift generated from different stroke planes showed that greater lift forces were generated with non-zero stroke planes as demonstrated in normal hovering.; by Theresa Guo.; Thesis (S.B.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, 2007.; Includes bibliographical references (leaf 31).

‣ Biocompatibility of an implantable ophthalmic drug delivery device

Cohen, Sarah J. (Sarah Jennifer)
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 94 p.
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Diseases of the posterior eye present clinicians with a treatment challenge mainly due to the region's inaccessible location. Several drugs, including those available for the treatment of exudative age-related macular degeneration, are currently delivered by periodic injection into the eyeball. To avoid the risks and complications associated with this method, several implantable, timed release devices have been investigated to deliver these drugs directly to affected areas. Draper Laboratory and Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary have proposed an implantable, fully programmable, mechanical device for long-term drug delivery to the eye wall. To investigate the biocompatibility of this solution, test devices containing gears or a ball bearing were designed to mimic elements of its moving parts, geometry and materials. Cell culture studies identified a polytetrafluoroethylene filter with 100m pores as a promising addition to seal devices from interaction with fibroblasts. Test devices with or without this membrane were implanted on the rabbit eye for 2 or 10 week periods. They were evaluated mechanically after implant, and surrounding tissues were inspected histologically. Gross observation revealed a significant amount of tissue formation around the devices...

‣ Lattice modeling of ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation of attenuating materials

Thomas, Anton F. (Anton Felipe), 1977-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 208 p.
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Theoretical predictions of specific strength and specific stiffness of nanocomposites make them attractive replacements for alloys and fiber reinforced composites in future generations of numerous structures. The reliable and safe utilization of nanocomposites will require their periodic characterization with nondestructive evaluation. When subjected to ultrasonic waves, nanocomposites often exhibit attenuation that is an order of magnitude higher than that of carbon fiber reinforced polymeric composites. Thus, an accurate model of ultrasonic wave propagation in nanocomposites as well as several other modem composites must include attenuation. Lattice modeling is a heuristic approach that consists of the discretization of solids into regularly spaced particles interconnected via nearest-neighbor interactions. For example, the mass-spring-lattice model (MSLM), a lattice model for the simulation and visualization of elastic wave propagation, has been used in favor of other finite-difference and finite-element methods due to its straightforward implementation of boundary conditions and relatively inexpensive explicit numerical integration. Its utility notwithstanding, MSLM discretization produces documented, yet previously unresolved and uncharacterized...

‣ Propulsion through wake synchronization using a flapping foil

Beal, David Nelson, 1973-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 150 p.; 5720027 bytes; 5719836 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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The design issues associated with underwater vehicles operating in the surf zone or other high-energy environments are likely to have viable biomimetic solutions. The flapping fin is capable of producing high instantaneous forces, giving fish the ability to turn and accelerate rapidly, and fish are capable of sensing the flow characteristics in their environment using the lateral line, aiding obstacle entrainment, schooling, rheotaxis, and prey detection. A highly maneuverable vehicle that is capable of sensing the changing flows in its environment would have a considerably higher survival rate in dangerous currents. As an initial foray into the sensory and control methods that could be used by a biomimetic vehicle, we studied energy extraction through synchronization with an incoming Karman wake for both fish and mechanical flapping foils. Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) swimming within a flow channel voluntarily positioned themselves 4D downstream from a 2" D-section cylinder, and synchronized with the cylinder wake in both frequency and phase. The phase of the trout's lateral position relative to the wake, described through a Wake Function W(x, t) defined as the lateral-sum of vorticity at a point downstream from the cylinder...