[Purpose] An understanding of pain is very important in the study of nanophysiotherapy.
In this review, we summarize the mechanisms of endothelin-1 (ET-1)- and mitogen-activated
protein kinase (MAPK)-related pain, and suggest their applications in pain physiotherapy.
[Method] This review focuses on the signal transduction of pain and its mechanisms.
[Results] Our reviews show that mechanisms of ET-1- and MAPK-related pain exist.
[Conclusions] In this review article, we carefully discuss the signal transduction in
ET-1- and MAPK-related pain with reference to pain nanophysiotherapy from the perspective
of nanoparticle-associated signal transduction.