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‣ Evaluation of alternative fuel cycle strategies for nuclear power generation in the 21st century

Boscher, Thomas
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 251 p.; 2679907 bytes; 2677144 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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The deployment of fuel recycling through either CONFU (COmbined Non-Fertile and UO2 fuel) thermal watercooled reactors (LWRs) or fast ABR (Actinide Burner Reactor) reactors is compared to the Once-Through LWR reactor system in terms of accumulation of actinides over the next 100 years under the assumption of a growing worldwide demand for nuclear energy. It is assumed that the growth rate is about 2.1% per year up to 2053, with alternative scenarios after that date. The transuranics (TRU) stored in temporary repositories, the TRU sent to permanent repositories, the system cost and a vulnerability index toward proliferation are calculated by the CAFCA code and taken as key figures of merit. Deployment of the ABRs is assumed to occur later (2028) than the CONFU LWRs (2015), whose technology requires less extensive additional R&D. Through 2050 the CONFU strategy performs better than the ABR strategy. The CONFU LWRs in our model yield zero net TRU incineration while the ABRs have a net consumption of TRU. Compared to the Once-Through strategy, by 2050 the CONFU (respectively ABR) strategy reduces by about 22% (respectively 16%) the total inventory of TRU in the system. This reduction corresponds to the TRU production being avoided by CONFU LWRs or being incinerated in ABRs compared to the TRU produced in the traditional LWRs used in the Once-Through strategy.; (cont.) The net consumption of TRU in ABRs makes the ABR strategy more attractive in a longer term. By 2100...

‣ Technology and public participation in environmental decisions

Yao, Basilia Wang
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 109 p.
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Since 1970, the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) has served as the main instrument for analyzing the environmental impacts of federal agency decisions and providing the public with opportunities to participate in the decision making process. For over 35 years, NEPA has defined the process by which agencies assess environmental impacts and disclose those assessments to the public. During this period however, NEPA has come under increasing scrutiny due to the considerable conflict surrounding environmental policies, eroding credibility of science-based policy information, and lack of meaningful public participation opportunities in practice. Experience has shown that collaborative decision making reduces conflict among participants, increases the credibility of science-based information underlying environmental decisions and improves the overall legitimacy of the participation process. The federal government has embraced web-based technology as a means of improving upon the traditional NEPA public participation process. Electronic participation has generated considerable interest among policymakers and scholars due to its potential to facilitate more efficient and more deliberative interaction between citizens and government.; (cont.) This paper analyzes a pilot program by the Bureau of Land Management to integrate electronic participation into its decision making process. I evaluate four cases involved in the ePlanning pilot to understand the extent to which recent electronic participation efforts build upon established best practices in traditional...

‣ An analysis of MRAM based memory technologies

Vijayaraghavan, Rangarajan, M. Eng. Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 69 leaves
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MRAM is a memory (RAM) technology that uses electron spin to store information. Often been called "the ideal memory", it can potentially combine the density of DRAM with the speed of SRAM and non-volatility of FLASH memory or hard disk, and all this while consuming a very low amount of power. However, it is the need for a fast and non-volatile computer memory that has been the key driver for evolution of this technology. At the moment, MRAM is in its final stages of development and much of the current research concentrates on issues like reducing the write current, increasing the density and making the process more reproducible. A lot of companies are pursuing research on this technology and are likely to introduce it into the market in the near future. However, it will be a while before MRAM can replace conventional memories. Nevertheless, since MRAM can resist high radiation, and can operate in extreme temperature conditions, it is likely that we will see the first MRAM in applications that need such properties.; by Rangarajan Vijayaraghavan.; Thesis (M. Eng.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering, 2006.; Includes bibliographical references (leaves 66-68).

‣ Analysis of variation in on-chip waveguide distribution schemes and optical receiver circuits

Balakrishnan, Karthik, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 103 p.
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Recently, optical interconnect has emerged as a possible alternative to electrical interconnect at chip-to-chip and on-chip length scales because of its potential to overcome power, delay, and bandwidth limitations of traditional electrical interconnect. This thesis examines the issues of variation involved in the implementation of a robust on-chip optical signal distribution network. First, the variation within the on-chip waveguide network is analyzed in terms of susceptibility to lithographic uncertainties and refractive index variations. Then, the robustness of an ultrashort pulse-based receiver circuit architecture is analyzed. Some variation sources considered are optical input power variation, load capacitance variation, parasitic capacitive coupling, and power supply noise. Simulation results show that, for both the passive waveguide network and the optical receiver circuit, variation can result in clock skew and jitter, which limit the frequencies at which the distribution network can operate. The impact of technology scaling on the optical receiver circuit architecture is assessed with respect to variation. The robustness of the optical network is compared with that of an all-electrical signal distribution network.; (cont.) Results indicate...

‣ Policy implications of ubiquitous technologies in the car : privacy, data ownership, and regulation

Narváez Bustamante, Alex Fernando
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 74 leaves
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Motor vehicle travel is the primary means of transportation in the United States, providing freedom in travel and enterprise for many people. However, motor vehicle accidents are the largest component of unintentional injuries and contribute to a high degree of morbidity and mortality for all ages. This thesis analyzes the relationship between feedback technologies and driver behavior. Based on the findings, policy recommendations were made to help ensure that the privacy and trust of the public are not compromised, as ubiquitous technologies become a reality in automobiles. The thesis provides an overview of the most modem mechanisms available in cars today. Furthermore, this thesis takes the first steps to combining existing technologies into a single system that not only tracks driver behavior, but also provides feedback in the hopes of improving drive performance and safety. The qualitative discussion includes a stakeholder analysis of the prime interests and effects of all parties that are impacted by ubiquitous technologies in the car. The qualitative discussion also contains the results of four focus groups that were conducted to gain first hand insights about the view of the drivers about monitoring technologies in the car.; (cont.) This study finds that most drivers have a symbiotic relationship with the technologies that exist in their car; however...

‣ Trucking country : food politics and the transformation of rural life in Postwar America; Food politics and the transformation of rural life in Postwar America

Hamilton, Shane, 1976-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 2 v. (423 p.)
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Trucking replaced railroads as the primary link between rural producers and urban consumers in the mid-twentieth century. With this technological change came a fundamental transformation of the defining features of rural life after World War II. Trucking helped drive the shift from a New Deal-era political economy-based on centralized political authority, a highly regulated farm and food economy, and collective social values-to a postwar framework of anti-statism, minimal market regulation, and fierce individualism. Trucking and rural truck drivers were at the heart of what I call the "marketing machine," a new kind of food economy that arose after World War II, characterized by decentralized food processors and supermarkets seeking high volume, low prices, and consistent quality to eliminate uncertainties from the food distribution chain. This marketing machine developed as a reaction against the statist food and farm policies of the New Deal. Government agricultural experts-economists, engineers, and policymakers-encouraged the growth of highway transportation in an effort to redefine the "farm problem" as an industrial problem, an issue to be solved by rural food processors and non-unionized "independent" truck drivers rather than price supports or acreage controls.; by Shane L. Hamilton.; Thesis (Ph. D. in History and Social Study of Science and Technology (HASTS))--Massachusetts Institute of Technology...

‣ Medicating race : heart disease and durable preoccupations with difference

Pollock, Anne, 1975-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 350 p.
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This dissertation is an examination of intersections of race, pharmaceuticals, and heart disease over the course of the 20th century and today. Each of these parts has had a dynamic history, and when they are invoked together they provide a terrain for arguments about interventions in health and in justice in the present. An enduring aspect of discourses of heart disease over the past century has been articulating connections between characterizations of the modem American way of life and of heart disease. In that process, heart disease research and practice has participated in differentiating Americans, especially by race. This dissertation uses heart disease categories and the drugs prescribed for them as windows into racialized medicine. The chapters are organized in a way that is roughly chronological, beginning with the emergence of cardiology as a specialty just before World War II and the landmark longitudinal Framingham Heart Study that began shortly thereafter. A central chapter tracks the emergence and mobilization of African American hypertension as a disease category since the 1960s.; (cont.) Two final chapters attend to current racial invocations of two pharmaceuticals: thiazide and BiDil. Using methods from critical historiography of race...

‣ Dynamic interrelationship between technology and architecture in tall buildings

Moon, Kyoung-Sun
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 230 p.
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The interrelationship between the technology and architecture of tall buildings is investigated from the emergence of tall buildings in the late 19th century to the present. Through the historical research, a filtering concept is developed - original technology and remedial technology - through which one can clearly understand the interrelationship between the technological evolution and architectural esthetic and further stylistic transition of tall buildings. More desirable visions for the future can be constructed based on this concept. Contemporary design practice of tall buildings is reviewed, and design guidelines are provided for new design trends. Investigated in depth are the behavioral characteristics and design methodology for diagrid structures, which emerge as a new direction in the design of tall buildings with their powerful structural rationale and symbolic architectural expression. Moreover, new technologies for tall building structures and facades are developed for performance enhancement through design integration, and their architectural potentials are explored. Special emphasis is placed on the research on the structural dynamic motion control using double skin facades / distributed tuned mass dampers. Design integration among architecture-related disciplines is emphasized throughout the research process as a means to more effectively overcome or at least minimize contemporary technological limitations and to create architecture of higher quality.; (cont.) While each study makes its own contribution theoretically and in a particular design situation...

‣ Designing sustainable heavy lift launch vehicle architectures adaptability, lock-in, and system evolution

Silver, Matthew Robin
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 150 p.
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Long term human space exploration depends on the development of a sustainable heavy lift launch vehicle (HLLV). But what exactly is sustainability in the context of launch systems and how can it addressed in the design process? A HLLV must balance myriad technical and programmatic factors such as performance, reliability, cost, geographical configuration, logistics and assembly, as well as in-space issues such as mass and manifesting requirements for Lunar and Mars missions, and rendezvous and docking capability. The problem is further complicated by uncertainties in demand and differing stakeholder incentives. The military significance of space launch creates security externalities that often constrain design; "standing armies" of technicians and operators throughout the country affect industry and political interests; and scientific goals are often at odds with all three. The multi-dimensional nature of the design problem suggests that sustainability is best addressed at the system architecture level, where direct links can be made between technical and non-technical aspects of system operation. This thesis examines the problem of designing sustainable heavy lift architectures in three ways: First, recent advances in systems architecture are synthesized as they apply to heavy lift launch.; (cont.) Sustainability is defined more precisely...

‣ Modeling proteins, making scientists : an ethnography of pedagogy and visual cultures in contemporary structural biology; Ethnography of pedagogy and visual cultures in contemporary structural biology

Myers, Natasha
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 277 p.
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This ethnography tracks visualization and pedagogy in the burgeoning field of structural biology. Structural biologists are a multidisciplinary group of researchers who produce models and animations of protein molecules using three-dimensional interactive computer graphics. As they ramp up the pace of structure determination, modeling a vast array of proteins, these researchers are shifting life science research agendas from decoding genetic sequence data to interpreting the multidimensional forms of molecular life. One major hurdle they face is training a new generation of scientists to work with multi-dimensional data forms. In this study I document the formation and propagation of tacit knowledge in structural biology laboratories, in classrooms, and at conferences. This research shows that structural biologists-in-training must cultivate a feel for proteins in order to visualize and interpret their activity in cells. I find that protein modeling relies heavily on a set of practices I call the body-work of modeling. These tacit skills include: a) forms of kinesthetic knowledge that structural biologists gain through building and manipulating molecular models, and by using their own bodies as mimetic models to help them figure out how proteins move and interact; and b) narrative strategies that assume a teleological relationship between form and function...

‣ The impact of passive safety systems on desirability of advanced light water reactors

Eul, Ryan C
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 184 leaves
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This work investigates whether the advanced light water reactor designs with passive safety systems are more desirable than advanced reactor designs with active safety systems from the point of view of uncertainty in the performance of safety systems as well as the economic implications of the passive safety systems. Two advanced pressurized water reactors and two advanced boiling water reactors, one representing passive reactors and the other active reactors for each type of coolant, are compared in terms of operation and responses to accidents as reported by the vendors. Considering a simplified decay heat removal system that utilizes an isolation condenser for decay heat removal, the uncertainty in the main parameters affecting the system performance upon a reactor isolation accident is characterized when the system is to rely on natural convection and when it is to rely on a pump to remove the core heat. It is found that the passive system is less certain in its performance if the pump of the active system is tested at least once every five months. In addition, a cost model is used to evaluate the economic differences and benefits between the active and passive reactors. It is found that while the passive systems could have the benefit of fewer components to inspect and maintain during operation...

‣ Investigation of the use of nanofluids to enhance the In-Vessel Retention capabilities of Advanced Light Water Reactors

Hannink, Ryan Christopher
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 130 p.
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Nanofluids at very low concentrations experimentally exhibit a substantial increase in Critical Heat Flux (CHF) compared to water. The use of a nanofluid in the In-Vessel Retention (IVR) severe accident management strategy, employed in Advanced Light Water Reactors, was investigated. A model simulating the two-phase flow and heat transfer on the reactor vessel outer surface quantified the increase in decay power that can be removed using a nanofluid, predicting that the use of a nanofluid will allow a stable operating power ~40% greater than the power allowable using water to be achieved, while holding the Minimum Departure from Nucleate Boiling Ratio (MDNBR) constant. A nanofluid injection system that would take advantage of the enhanced CHF properties of the nanofluid in order to provide a higher safety margin than the current IVR strategy or, for given margin, enable IVR at higher core power, is proposed. A risk-informed analysis has revealed that this injection system has a reasonably high success probability of 0.99, comparable to the success probability without the injection system. Potential regulatory, environmental, and health risk issues were analyzed, and it was concluded that the current regulatory regimes are adequate for ensuring that the implementation of nanofluids in IVR will not endanger public health and safety. However...

‣ Towards an information technology infrastructure cost model

Huang, Ken, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 139 leaves
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Ever since the introduction of the Internet in 1994, one of the defining characteristics of the global economy, particularly in the US, is a dramatic increase in expenditures on Information Technology. While this trend is expected to continue, a major issue for companies of all sizes is the manner in which precise forecasting of future IT cost may be undertaken. The present thesis investigates the possibility that a set of the essential deterministic cost drivers with varying weighted factors may prove capable of estimating total IT infrastructure costs. An online questionnaire was developed for this purpose, and was used to survey senior IT leadership teams. The data collected from this survey was then computed with Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) to illustrate the relative importance of different cost drivers. The study revealed three primary findings. First, that a set of essential deterministic cost drivers with varying weighted factors could be used as a general tool for estimating the total cost of IT infrastructure. Second, these different sectors prioritize cost drivers differently from each other. In the Financial Services sector, for instance, the security of the IT network was reported to be of greater importance than the service call response time. In the Technology sector...

‣ Can Nintendo get its crown back? : examining the dynamics of the U.S. video game console market

Chow, Samuel W
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 125 p.
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Several generations of video game consoles have competed in the market since 1972. Overall, the entire market shares many similar characteristics, such as network effects and switching cost, which are found in other network-based markets. However, on closer examination, the video game console industry experienced several generations of technological change with each generation bringing a different competitive environment and different set of competitors from the previous one. Consistent with the Schumpeterian market model, both new and later entrants have competed successfully with their strong portfolios of technological innovations. Yet, some firms with dominant market position and strong complementary assets were not able to extend their advantage to the next generation. The dynamic cause and effect relationships associated with the multi-generation video game console industry makes an intriguing subject for economic research. This thesis provides a conceptual framework for analyzing the elements and dynamics of the competitive video game console market. Using qualitative findings and empirical data found in recent research literature on market competition and innovation, a historical analysis of the video game console market was performed. In addition...

‣ Executive coaching : crafting a versatile self in corporate America; Crafting a versatile self in corporate America

Ozkan, Esra
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 218 leaves
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In recent years, coaching has become a major form of personal and professional development service offered to executives to help develop leadership skills, enhance performance, and remediate patterns of problematic workplace behavior. This dissertation examines the emergence and development of executive coaching in the United States as a new form of professional expertise. Drawing on eighteen months of ethnographic research, the majority of which took place in New York City, this study analyzes the ways in which executive coaching brings together theories of individual psychology and of organizational efficiency in order to increase functionality and productivity at work. Executive coaching is: a) a new form of professional expertise, b) a management tool to increase productivity and efficiency at work, c) a window to changing notions of the self and personhood in America and, finally d) an access point to the corporate world. This study explores these four dimensions of executive coaching. I argue that the emergence of coaching is a product of and a response to a fast changing business environment where continuous improvement is required to adapt to the volatility of changes. Change in the larger context (corporate settings and business environments) is not to be resisted or criticized but to be enabled through the change of the self. This dissertation illustrates and explains the grounds of a shift away from systemic approaches and systemic criticism towards individualistic approaches. Coaching emerges in and becomes an illustration of a neo-liberal economy that emphasizes constant retraining of a self that is versatile...

‣ U.S. geothermal district heating : barriers and enablers; United States geothermal district heating : barriers and enablers

Thorsteinsson, Hildigunnur H
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 131 p.
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Geothermal district heating experience in the U.S. is reviewed and evaluated to explore the potential impact of utilizing this frequently undervalued renewable energy resource for space and hot water heating. Although the first U.S. geothermal district heating system (GDHS) was constructed in the 1890s in Boise, Idaho, growth in the sector has been slow. Currently there are only twenty-one operating GDHS in the U.S. with a capacity of about 100 MW thermal. In this study the main barriers and enablers to the growth of district heating were identified and investigated. Initially a literature review and interviews with current U.S. district heating operators were used to collect data on various aspects of the systems and their development. Based on analysis of the data and the current structure of the geothermal district heating regulatory and market environment in the U.S. recommendations on how to advance geothermal district heating in the U.S. are developed. Technical feasibility of increasing the geothermal district heating capacity to 10,000 MWt was established by identifying the available resource and technology for utilization. Furthermore, the opportunity presented by Engineered Geothermal System (EGS) was briefly explored. Social feasibility was analyzed and the need for geothermal energy education and expanded resource exploration was recognized. Furthermore...

‣ Outcomes of international research projects on technology applied to education

García-Peñalvo, Francisco J.; Colomo-Palacios, Ricardo; Lytras, Miltiadis D.
Fonte: Graz University of Technology Publicador: Graz University of Technology
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; info:eu-repo/semantics/article Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/01/2012 Português
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Technology-based education or technology applied to education is a key issue in Knowledge Society. There are several conferences, journals and specialized books that reflect the researching advances in this area, but there exists a huge experience background and efforts regarding international research projects development on technology-based education that not always spread their outcomes in a suitable way. This special issue includes information and the main outcomes of 12 international research projects on technology applied to education organized in 7 papers.; This work has been partially supported by Universidad Carlos III de Madrid under "Ayudas para la organización de congresos y workshops" programme.

‣ Electrothermal controlled-exposure technology

Maloney, John Mapes
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 79 p.
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A technology is presented for exposing the contents of microfabricated cavities in a substrate. These contents are hermetically sealed until exposure is triggered by an electronic signal. The exposure mechanism uses electrothermal heating to rupture a metal membrane at one end of the cavity. The device's capability for storing a variety of contents and exposing them on demand makes it well suited for periodic exposure of new sensors as old ones degrade. Two commercialization possibilities are investigated: biowarfare agent detection and in vivo glucose sensing. Both applications employ sensing mechanisms that can be miniaturized and packaged in an array. These sensors are susceptible to fouling or degradation over time from environmental factors. The controlled-exposure technology addresses this problem by periodically exposing fresh sensors. The two applications are thought to be especially favorable markets because of the need for reliable, continuous sensing. The engineering aspects of the technology are investigated by identifying key material properties for each component of the device.; (cont.) The key properties for the substrate material are suggested to be its vapor permeability and suitability for cavity formation. The most important properties of the membrane are its electrical requirements (the current and voltage required to expose or "activate" the device)...

‣ Design of dual-output alternators with switched-mode rectification

Hassan, Gimba, 1957-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 96 leaves; 4647052 bytes; 4657965 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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Electrification of many automotive functions and the desire to introduce many new features are dramatically increasing the electrical power requirements of vehicles. The increasing power demands are becoming very challenging within the context of the present 14V electrical system and have sparked investigation of a higher-voltage electrical system. The introduction of a 42V electrical system for future automobiles is therefore gaining widespread industry acceptance. The large number of electrical subsystems in today's 14 Volt vehicles make it extremely challenging for manufacturers to make a direct transition to a single 42 V electrical system, therefore dual-voltage (42V/14V) automotive electrical systems are attracting considerable interest. This push to introduce dual-voltage (42V/14V) automotive electrical systems necessitates power generation solutions that are capable of supplying power to both 14V and 42V electrical loads. A number of approaches for implementing dual-voltage electrical systems have been proposed, but most suffer from severe cost or performance limitations. This thesis explores the design of alternators incorporating dual-output switched-mode rectifiers. The approach enables the full load-matched power capability of the alternator machine to be achieved...

‣ Best practices for university-industry collaboration

Calder, Edward Spencer
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 56 p.
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This thesis reports findings from a study of best practices for university-industry collaboration. The study involved over 70 interviews at 17 large technology companies with company managers and individuals having responsibility for the portfolio of industry sponsored projects at universities. A primary finding concerns the role of boundary agents in a company, i.e. individuals that facilitate knowledge transfer across organizational boundaries. Boundary agents are shown to have a strong positive influence on the value of a project and practices are thus described that foster boundary agent activity. For the cases studied, it is also found that longer term collaborations produce results that have more impact on the company and that geographic separation between university researchers and the company has little affect on project outcomes. Three different types of alignment have been found to affect project results and practices relevant to achieving each type are presented. External alignment, the mutual understanding between university researchers and the company of a project's goals and methods, is achieved primarily through regular meetings and selection of a university researcher with an appropriate background.; (cont.) Internal exploitative alignment...