Página 10 dos resultados de 1719 itens digitais encontrados em 0.035 segundos

‣ Environmental and health management in small and medium size enterprises

Arredondo, Juan C. (Juan Carlos Arredondo Brun), 1974-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 100 p.; 3921448 bytes; 3996830 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
1398.5288%
Workers and employees are increasingly exposed in the workplace to chemical compounds and substances that are potentially toxic; for most of these compounds, no information exist regarding effects on human health. As one of the main employment generation sources, Small and Medium size Enterprises (SMEs) host a significant proportion of the environmental hazards currently present in the workplace. However, only a negligible amount of research or information has been completed and collected concerning SMEs environmental and health performance. SMEs possess environmental perceptions and an environmental and health behavior conditioned by the same qualitative attributes inherent to the small firm, from the kin relationships among the business members to the social role of the small company in a given community. With a prominent economic and social role in the society, SMEs are an important and still underestimated link in the environment-to-health chain. This thesis proposes an Environmental and Health Management model for SMEs. The model considers the convergence of medical, environmental, labor, and safety approaches and explores their interrelationship in three main components: the environmental conditions in the workplace, the (individuals) health conditions in the workplace...

‣ Street science : the fusing of local and professional knowledge in environmental policy

Coburn, Jason
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 300 p.; 28111383 bytes; 28111141 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
1398.4458%
his dissertation analyzes how local knowledge improves environmental decisions. The premise is that controlling pollution and addressing public health disparities are not problems that professionals alone can solve. Concerned lay publics, especially low-income populations and people of color that experience the greatest environmental health risks, are demanding a greater role in describing, researching and prescribing solutions for the hazards they face. Seeking environmental justice, these communities are demanding to "speak for themselves," often drawing on their first hand experience-here called local knowledge -to challenge expert-lay distinctions and how professionals define and prioritize which problems warrant attention. Community participation in environmental decisions is putting pressure on policy-makers to find new ways of fusing the expertise of professional scientists with insights from the local knowledge of communities. This dissertation asks how the local knowledge of community members can improve environmental decision-making? In answering this question, I explore the ways residents of the Greenpoint/Williamsburg neighborhood of Brooklyn, New York, are organizing and using their knowledge of local environmental and health hazards to both improve local conditions and influence the judgments of professionals. In particular...

‣ The market for self-storage in Greater Boston : an analysis of facilities, management and potential

DeNunzio, Dustin J. (Dustin James), 1976-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 104 leaves; 5266555 bytes; 5266361 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
1398.4842%
The core objective of this thesis was to undertake a comprehensive study of the Boston-area self-storage market and determine where and what to build in order to achieve the highest profitability. The study begins with a preliminary look at the history of self-storage in the United States and an analysis of the facility and market characteristics of the national self-storage industry. Then, using first-hand data accumulated through site visits, fifty local self-storage facilities in thirteen cities are analyzed. Statistical measures, including hedonic regression analysis, show the particular facility and management characteristics that affect the price per square foot that can be charged for storage unit rents. Based on information regarding national rent and occupancy levels and the field data gathered on local facility and management quality, this study concludes that the market for self-storage in the Boston-area is still young and largely underserved. The regressions showed that population density and closer distances to the Boston central business district tended to yield higher rents per square foot. Additionally, for certain sized units, the quality of security and availability of climate control were significant factors in determining price. While the data identified the most significant variables included in price per square foot for the properties surveyed...

‣ Investigating mothballed brownfield properties : understanding the causes and potential solutions

Blanchet, Richard J
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 59 leaves; 3299257 bytes; 3301643 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
1398.5153%
An interview survey with 14 participants representing large corporations, non-profit organizations, regulatory agencies, and law firms was performed to determine the barriers to redeveloping brownfield properties and the proposed policies that might reduce the likelihood of mothballing properties. Based on these interviews, two overarching factors leading to mothballing include the on-going threat of liability for past disposal practices and land values that are too low to make assessment and cleanup an economically viable option for the disposition of a mothballed brownfield property. Even though federal and state statutes were amended to facilitate assessment and cleanup of contaminated property, the specter of the strict liability scheme enshrined in the environmental statutes in the 1980s still haunts corporate owners. Land values are also an important consideration for large property owners. If the sale of the property cannot at least pay for the assessment and cleanup of the property, site owners are less likely to sell the property and prefer to mothball until economic conditions are more favorable. Large property owners need to realize that the regulatory climate of the 1980s is no longer applicable in light of the amendments to federal and state environmental statutes and the enactment of new federal and state brownfield regulations.; (cont.) These new brownfield regulations have a respectable record of completing brownfield cleanup and reuse projects with little recourse to re-openers. For sites located in areas where property values are low...

‣ Select-service hotels : a guide to understanding the lodging industry and one of its most attractive segments; Guide to understanding the lodging industry and one of its most attractive segments

Berger, Brandon B. (Brandon Brooks); Chiofaro, Donald J
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 133 leaves
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
1398.5525%
This thesis serves as a pedagogical guide to the hospitality industry, and presents a broad overview of the unique issues that arise through the development, ownership and management of select-service franchised hotels. It attempts to answer the following four questions: * How is the lodging industry organized? * How has the industry changed over time, and where is the industry headed? * What hotel product type is particularly attractive from a development, investment and operational standpoint? * What are the issues to be aware of when developing this particular product? To answer the first two questions, Section One of this paper offers a full discussion of the industry evolution and focuses on three major innovations that have been gaining momentum in the lodging industry. These innovations are the trends toward franchising, market segmentation, and the "life-style" brand. The study will describe how franchise and management relationships have gained strength in the lodging industry since their introduction in the mid-twentieth century. The study will then explore the intricacies of the on-going process of market segmentation. Through market segmentation, hotel firms have been able to create and introduce greater operationally efficient hotel typologies...

‣ Rise of regions after reforms : late development strategies for the software industry in Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, and Kerala in India

Kumar, Rajendra, 1967-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 225 p.
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
1398.4842%
Emergence of India as a major center in the world for software production since the early 1990s has been a remarkable success story of economic development. However, within the country, the growth in this industry has been concentrated in mainly the southern and the western parts. Regional growth of this industry has been driven by the policies of the regional governments, especially after the early 1990s when the central government initiated wide-ranging economic and policy reforms. In this dissertation, I examine the development strategies pursued by three states in southern India for development of this industry within an overall neo-liberal policy framework of the central government. Two of these states (Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh) have been highly successful in attracting software firms since the mid 1990s, while the third state (Kerala) has lagged behind. I argue that the success of these states in establishing a technologically sophisticated industry within a short time is based on four critical factors: availability of adequate skilled labor and specialized infrastructure, pro-employer labor and policy reforms, ethnic linkages of immigrant professionals abroad who returned to establish firms in their native states, and their existing technological capabilities at the beginning of reforms. In a liberalizing economy...

‣ Dispersed concentration of high-tech jobs in the new economy : the paradox of new information and communication technologies

Kang, Myoung-Gu, 1970-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 110 leaves
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
1398.4842%
More high-tech firms are conducting their business over long distances due to the use of new information and communication technologies (ICT). However, regional scientists articulate that geographic proximity is still important, at least, to the high-tech industry and the knowledge-related business activities. My research offers a ground work for understanding the paradox - more dispersed high-tech business practices and higher geographic concentration of high-tech jobs in the new economy than before. Drawing from diverse regional and economic literatures, I suggest a paradox of new information communication technology regarding the location pattern of high knowledge-generating jobs. From this perspective, I found a dispersed concentration pattern of high knowledge-generating jobs due to less transitory tacit knowledge than codified knowledge and implicit communication; and business organization change. Both my longitudinal empirical analysis and interviews suggest that the jobs in the high knowledge-generating production industries in the United States became further concentrated during the 1990s.; (cont.) During the same period, the jobs in the high knowledge-generating customer-oriented industries dispersed. In the former industries...

‣ Opportunities and obstacles for foreign investors in Turkish real estate

Halkali, Hasan
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 71 leaves
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
1398.4458%
This paper examines the Turkish real estate market from the viewpoint of foreign investors contemplating entering into that market. Since 2002, the government of Turkey has been implementing an aggressive economic reform program within which, foreign direct investment (FDI) plays a crucial role. To attract foreign investments, the government has instituted major reforms in tax and finance laws and has provided incentives to develop many industries including real estate. The underlying question this paper seeks to answer is: What factors make Turkey attractive for foreign commercial real estate investors? To answer this question, I examined the following factors: geopolitical situation, key economic indicators, current state of and forecasts for Turkey's real estate markets, applicable laws, and requirements for establishing a business in Turkey. The research method I utilized for this paper mainly involved literature review. Analysis of government documents, industry reports, law journals, and audio recordings of papers delivered at conferences revealed several factors that could affect the country's real estate markets.; (cont.) Turkey's political stability, favorable demographics, established financial structure, increasing economic power...

‣ Written in invisible ink : a case study on the politics of free trade reform and labor regulation in Guatemala; Case study on the politics of free trade reform and labor regulation in Guatemala

Pipkin, Seth Daniel
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 75 p.
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
1398.4458%
This thesis makes two primary claims: first, that the US - Dominican Republic - Central America Free Trade Agreement (US-DR CAFTA, or CAFTA) has had important effects on labor regulation in Guatemala that are not contained in the explicit agreement text. These effects are referred to in the title as "invisible ink" because they constitute changes to labor law and regulation that would not have occurred without a trade deal on the table, but are nowhere mentioned in the text of the treaty. The second claim of this thesis is that the causes and meanings of invisible ink can only begin to be understood after a thorough consideration of domestic political and institutional history in countries undertaking the reforms that are the invisible ink. Based on five months of field work interviewing key actors in Guatemala and the United States, three examples are presented to illustrate these points: the first two are similar unionization efforts in Guatemalan apparel export manufacturers wherein the difference between success and failure meant tapping into the Guatemalan government's need to present itself to critics abroad, particularly in United States, as ready and competent to participate in the CAFTA.; (cont.) The third is a case of rule reform in the Guatemalan Ministry of Labor that shows how informal pressure using CAFTA as leverage resulted in the creation and expansion of a specially-trained and successful commission of Inspectors. These Inspectors have in turn used CAFTA as a source of legitimacy in expanding their roles and reaching out to other actors in the private sector and civil society to reduce labor conflict and improve conditions for workers. The implication of these cases is that more opportunities exist for labor-friendly market reform if actors are willing to think beyond the formal rules contained within trade agreements.; by Seth Pipkin.; Thesis (M.C.P.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology...

‣ After the flood : crisis, voice and innovation in Maputo's solid waste management sector; Crisis, voice and innovation in Maputo's solid waste management sector

Kruks-Wisner, Gabrielle (Gabrielle K.)
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 82 p.
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
1398.4458%
This thesis explores responses to the problem of solid waste management (SWM) in two neighborhoods of Maputo, Mozambique in the wake of catastrophic flooding in 2000. In these neighborhoods, small-scale service providers began to organize door-to-door garbage collection on a fee-for-service basis. The emergence of community-level responses to a problem in the wake of a crisis the like the floods is not surprising in and of itself. What is surprising, however, is that the city of Maputo stepped in almost three years later, to finance and formalize what had been a private service through the extension of public contracts. What motivated the city to upgrade SWM services in these two poor, and traditionally underserved neighborhoods? Catastrophic flooding in 2000 and the implementation of a "garbage tax" in 2002 set in motion a chain of events that increased pressure on the city to improve garbage collection. The floods catapulted the issue of solid waste onto the local political agenda, creating the political will necessary for reform. The tax was a major driver of citizen protest, simultaneously angering residents and instilling them with a sense of entitlement to better service.; (cont.) Citizen protest, in turn, pushed the city to improve performance in solid waste management and...

‣ Integrated electronic waste management in Mexico : law, technology and public policy

Gonzalez Llera, Ricardo, 1971-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 128 p.; 6074596 bytes; 6074405 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
1398.5628%
What is electronic waste? Why is it considered a problem? What are the public health implications of its mishandling? The electronic industry, a sector that has experienced one of the highest growth rates of the last decade, has had a great success in growing the mass consumer market for personal computers, cell phones, and other types of personal electronic equipment. Supporting this incredible growth, the electric industry has also provided electric cells and battery systems to power all these devices. Unfortunately, personal computers as well as other electric and electronic equipment (EEE) become obsolete faster than ever. The mounting quantities of obsolete EEE and spent batteries represent a serious problem for the industrial sector, as well as for governments and citizens, not only because of the volumes being generated, but because of the hazardous materials and toxic metals, including lead, nickel, cadmium, mercury and chromium to mention some of the most important health wise and the gold, copper, aluminum, nickel, silver and palladium they contain. These contents also offer incentives for their collection and recovery. They need to be diverted from the waste stream reaching the sanitary landfills and in some instances incineration facilities...

‣ The question of faith : U.S.-based religious NGOs in international relief and development

Emmert, Mark David, 1971-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 173 p.; 13385489 bytes; 13407062 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
1398.5525%
(cont.) humanitarian role? (4) How do these organizations deal with the ICRC's humanitarian principles of neutrality, impartiality and independence? To answer these questions, I analyze organizational documents, examine USAID reports and IRS tax forms, as well as interview staff members of six US-based FBOs. This thesis uses a continuum as the primary framework to analyze the relevant dimensions of an organization's religious identity. The continuum is based on six criteria: self-identity; participants; resources; mission, vision and goals; organizational interaction; and cultural congruence of the host countries. Ultimately, the continuum provides a means to differentiate between these organizations and to shed light on the challenges and tensions that each organization may encounter in the field of international relief and development. The findings show that, although each provides secular products and services, the six organizations appear to exhibit significant differences in their religious identity, resource base, hiring practices and organizational interaction, as well as differences in their cultural congruence with host countries. These differences and their potential implications warrant further study.; Faith-based organizations (FBOs) capture public attention now more than at any other time in recent history. The U.S. government...

‣ The application of information and incentives as tools to promote green affordable housing development

Geng, Lining, 1976-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 173 p.; 10305592 bytes; 10326903 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
1398.5153%
(cont.) developers to produce more green affordable housing.; This thesis examines development barriers to green buildings, particularly to green affordable housing. Green buildings offer intangible benefits in the form of improved environment and health through better air quality. Certain green features also offer significant life-cycle operating savings. These advantages are particularly valuable for affordable housing projects, where low operating costs are critical to affordability and higher indoor air quality is beneficial to modest-income residents that can rarely affect the quality of their living environment. Furthermore, there are many monetary, regulatory, and technical regulations and incentives in the U.S. to promote green building development. Notwithstanding the above advantages and supports, green affordable housing is not yet standard practice. Information and incentives are identified as two of the most important and easy-to-implement tools to promote green affordable housing development. Examples of available information and incentive mechanisms in the U.S. are briefly presented for the green affordable housing industry. Meanwhile, gaps and dysfunctions in the application of these tools are identified as development barriers. The Upham's Corner Marketplace Redevelopment in Massachusetts is presented as an example of a green affordable housing project. Finally...

‣ Why did they comply while others did not? : environmental compliance of small firms and implications for regulation

Lee, Eungkyoon
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 239 p.
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
1398.5005%
This doctoral dissertation aims to offer new insights into the environmental compliance behavior of small firms (SFs). Specifically, the dissertation examines the impacts of two categories of factors. The first category concerns internal motivations that drive SFs' decisions to comply or not comply with a formal environmental regulation. The other comprises external factors that affect formation of SFs' perspectives on rule compliance. Rule compliance behavior results from complicated webs of both economic and social factors. Nevertheless, existing regulatory enforcement strategies have focused heavily on rational/economic factors without considering the significant effects of interactions between the two and consequently failed to produce the behavior they seek. Starting from an examination of the crucial characteristics of SFs that distinguish them from large firms, the dissertation sheds light on how social factors affect SFs' views on economic factors such as the price of penalty and compliance costs/benefits. In so doing, it contributes to knowledge of how formal regulatory enforcement can alter SFs' environmental compliance behavior. The regulatory programs in Massachusetts and southern California targeting the dry cleaning industry are excellent cases through which to evaluate the central issues of SFs' compliance.; (cont.) The two programs are comparable in that regulatory requirements are equally strict; formal sanctions are equally severe; and regulated groups are similar in cultural background and other sectoral aspects. A notable difference is that there was a sudden rise in compliance rates in Massachusetts as compared to southern California. The comparative case study draws on ethnographic analysis based on participant observation...

‣ Innovation and the big builders : barriers to integrating sustainable design and construction practices into the production homebuilding industry : the case of Pulte Homes

Pauly, Justin T. (Justin Talbott)
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 176 p.; 12321423 bytes; 12331972 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
1398.5005%
The homebuilding industry has held a dominant presence in the U.S. economy over the past century. It has been a source of profit, shelter and jobs for countless Americans. In order to meet the needs of an ever-burgeoning population, the industry itself has grown into a complex and vast linkage of developers, designers, contractors and regulatory officials whose job it is to build the houses that most Americans live in. Yet the growth and success of the homebuilding industry in America has not come without repercussions. Today, more than ever, we are cognizant of the environmental impacts that the homebuilding industry is having on our physical landscape and our natural resources. As a response to this cognizance, there has been a growing movement towards less environmentally harmful methods of design and construction. Many, if not most, of these methods require substantial changes to the way the industry currently builds homes. In this sense, they are considered innovations. This thesis will provide an illustration of the process of innovation and how it diffuses throughout an existing industry in addition to recapping historical arguments for why the U.S. homebuilding industry has long been characterized as resistant to change. The industry...

‣ Economic advancement or social exclusion? : less-educated workers, cost-of-living and migration in high-tech regions

Navarro Díaz, Criseida
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 194 leaves
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
1398.4842%
Several high-tech regions today show signs of displacement and exclusion of low-skill workers from the employment and wage benefits of a booming economy. Whether high-tech activities are responsible for these trends or if the ex ante characteristics of the region could predispose its residents to exclusion, in the absence of high-tech growth, are issues that regional scientists have left largely unexplored. Understanding what low-skill and high-skill workers undergo in the presence of this activity, and how that compares to the reality of those who reside in regions whose economy is not dependent on knowledge-intensive sectors, provides a backdrop for policy makers to evaluate industry-choice decisions in the interest of economic growth and social equity in regional development. To provide that backdrop, I empirically answer: How are the benefits of high-tech development distributed between less- and more-educated workers? How does this distribution compare to that of regions that do not follow an education-intensive development path? Are social equity and sustained growth possible under these conditions? Through regression analysis across 50 regions in the United States during the 1990s, I show that shifts in regional economic-base composition towards a greater concentration of high-tech activity cannot be held on its own responsible for exclusionary patterns in these regions.; (cont.) As high-tech activity increases in a region it attracts workers of all skill levels...

‣ Institutional arrangements and land reallocation during transition : a regional analysis of small farms in Romania

Vidican Sgouridis, Georgeta
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 309 p.
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
1398.466%
My dissertation examines an unexpected outcome of post-socialist agricultural transformation in the Central and Eastern European countries. Contrary to the initial expectations of Neoliberal transition policy-makers, various forms of agricultural associations emerged throughout the former communist countries, following the distribution of private property rights to individuals. The reallocation of land in associations occurred while this institutional arrangement was criticized in the literature and individual farming was portrayed as the panacea for these countries. The main research question that frames my dissertation is: Why do farmers still persist in joining associations despite perceived collective action problems and the availability of leasing as a close substitute? Additional questions are also examined: Why did associations emerge in some regions and not in others? What are the factors that affect landowners' choices between associations and leasing transactions? How different, or similar are associations from the old socialist collective farms? While earlier literature focused on explaining why landowners choose to farm the land individually, the choice between associations and leasing has not been previously researched. Using statistical analysis on household surveys and qualitative fieldwork I explain why and under what conditions associations are the optimal farming alternatives for landowners. Going beyond the capital constraints argument...

‣ Privatization of transit in Yokohama : social and financial impacts

Nakajima, Tsukihito
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 165 p.
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
1398.4842%
This research examines both social and financial impacts of the privatization of municipally-owned transit systems from the perspective of a privatizing city and its citizens by studying the case of Yokohama, Japan's second largest city whose transit systems are now subject to privatization arguments. First, privatization models are defined based on two dimensions - degree of privatization and deregulation, which are frequently commingled and misused. Then, this research examines the social impact on fare levels, service quality, safety, service provision, and labor condition is analyzed based on prior privatization cases such as Singapore's MRT system, the UK municipal bus systems, and Japan National Rails. Third, this research suggests a new framework and methodology based on the perpetuity valuation for financial impact analysis and quantifies the financial value of each option from the perspective of the City of Yokohama and its citizens.; (cont.) Based on the above analysis, this research concludes that publicly-controlled full privatization in which government retains regulatory power over a privatized entity after full privatization is the most effective managerial model among the examined options at least for the City of Yokohama because this option maximizes the net financial value (Citizens' Equity Value) for the city...

‣ The family child care trilemma and community development : seeking a balancing strategy

Kaminsky, Jenifer Beth, 1976-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 142 p.; 6485203 bytes; 6485010 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
1398.5153%
This thesis examines promotion of licensed family child care businesses as a strategy for community development. Accessing high quality, affordable child care is a vital need in low income communities. Often times, however, the care available is of low educational value, prohibitively expensive, or located far from the neighborhood. The research in this thesis examines how community development corporations have innovated to deal with these three challenges. The thesis conceptualizes of child care in terms of the three parties most affected by it-children, parents, and child care providers. Given how the child care agenda is commonly conceptualized and executed the interests of the players are often seen to be in conflict. The tripartite model developed in the thesis analyzes the intimate linkages and delicate balance among the three groups, showing that any interventions that focus on one group -such as improving the quality of care that children receive -affects the well-being of the other groups, often with negative impacts, such as raised parent fees or reduced provider income. In order to create initiatives to address the challenges faced by each group, the thesis delineates three categories of interventions that provide a comprehensive framework for action: professionalism to speak to quality...

‣ Why do poor people demand accountability from some participatory programs and not others?

Serrano Berthet, Rodrigo
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 170 leaves; 11224507 bytes; 11231654 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
1398.4458%
There is a consensus that citizen oversight, or the capacity of citizens to demand accountability, over government programs improves program performance. Yet little is known about the conditions that enable citizens/beneficiaries to demand accountability. This dissertation approaches this void in the literature by comparing two Community Driven Development (CDD) programs in Argentina and asking the question of why beneficiary oversight was higher in one program than in the other and why, within the same program, it was higher in some provinces than in others. The main conclusions are: (i) for beneficiary oversight to work at the project level (i.e., for beneficiaries to be able to control subcontracted providers of technical assistance) it was not sufficient to have accountability mechanisms at that level (in this case being able to hire and fire providers); (ii) due to asymmetries of technical knowledge and power between beneficiaries and providers, the former depended on the support of program staff willing to level out these asymmetries; (iii) given a highly politicized context, ensuring that program staff supported beneficiaries at the project level required having beneficiary oversight at the program governance level; in the program where this did not happen...