Página 10 dos resultados de 4394 itens digitais encontrados em 0.010 segundos
Resultados filtrados por Publicador: The American Society of Human Genetics

‣ Etiological Point Mutations in the Hereditary Multiple Exostoses Gene EXT1: A Functional Analysis of Heparan Sulfate Polymerase Activity

Cheung, Peter K.; McCormick, Craig; Crawford, Brett E.; Esko, Jeffrey D.; Tufaro, Frank; Duncan, Gillian
Fonte: The American Society of Human Genetics Publicador: The American Society of Human Genetics
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
398.22754%
Hereditary multiple exostoses (HME), a dominantly inherited genetic disorder characterized by multiple cartilaginous tumors, is caused by mutations in members of the EXT gene family, EXT1 or EXT2. The corresponding gene products, exostosin-1 (EXT1) and exostosin-2 (EXT2), are type II transmembrane glycoproteins which form a Golgi-localized heterooligomeric complex that catalyzes the polymerization of heparan sulfate (HS). Although the majority of the etiological mutations in EXT are splice-site, frameshift, or nonsense mutations that result in premature termination, 12 missense mutations have also been identified. Furthermore, two of the reported etiological missense mutations (G339D and R340C) have been previously shown to abrogate HS biosynthesis (McCormick et al. 1998). Here, a functional assay that detects HS expression on the cell surface of an EXT1-deficient cell line was used to test the remaining missense mutant exostosin proteins for their ability to rescue HS biosynthesis in vivo. Our results show that EXT1 mutants bearing six of these missense mutations (D164H, R280G/S, and R340S/H/L) are also defective in HS expression, but surprisingly, four (Q27K, N316S, A486V, and P496L) are phenotypically indistinguishable from wild-type EXT1. Three of these four “active” mutations affect amino acids that are not conserved among vertebrates and invertebrates...

‣ Niemann-Pick C1 Disease: Correlations between NPC1 Mutations, Levels of NPC1 Protein, and Phenotypes Emphasize the Functional Significance of the Putative Sterol-Sensing Domain and of the Cysteine-Rich Luminal Loop

Millat, Gilles; Marçais, Christophe; Tomasetto, Catherine; Chikh, Karim; Fensom, Anthony H.; Harzer, Klaus; Wenger, David A.; Ohno, K.; Vanier, Marie T.
Fonte: The American Society of Human Genetics Publicador: The American Society of Human Genetics
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
397.18293%
To obtain more information of the functional domains of the NPC1 protein, the mutational spectrum and the level of immunoreactive protein were investigated in skin fibroblasts from 30 unrelated patients with Niemann-Pick C1 disease. Nine of them were characterized by mild alterations of cellular cholesterol transport (the “variant” biochemical phenotype). The mutations showed a wide distribution to nearly all NPC1 domains, with a cluster (11/32) in a conserved NPC1 cysteine-rich luminal loop. Homozygous mutations in 14 patients and a phenotypically defined allele, combined with a new mutation, in a further 10 patients allowed genotype/phenotype correlations. Premature-termination–codon mutations, the three missense mutations in the sterol-sensing domain (SSD), and A1054T in the cysteine-rich luminal loop all occurred in patients with infantile neurological onset and “classic” (severe) cholesterol-trafficking alterations. By western blot, NPC1 protein was undetectable in the SSD missense mutations studied (L724P and Q775P) and essentially was absent in the A1054T missense allele. Our results thus enhance the functional significance of the SSD and demonstrate a correlation between the absence of NPC1 protein and the most severe neurological form. In the remaining missense mutations studied...

‣ Most Rare Missense Alleles Are Deleterious in Humans: Implications for Complex Disease and Association Studies

Kryukov, Gregory V.; Pennacchio, Len A.; Sunyaev, Shamil R.
Fonte: The American Society of Human Genetics Publicador: The American Society of Human Genetics
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
397.4974%
The accumulation of mildly deleterious missense mutations in individual human genomes has been proposed to be a genetic basis for complex diseases. The plausibility of this hypothesis depends on quantitative estimates of the prevalence of mildly deleterious de novo mutations and polymorphic variants in humans and on the intensity of selective pressure against them. We combined analysis of mutations causing human Mendelian diseases, of human-chimpanzee divergence, and of systematic data on human genetic variation and found that ∼20% of new missense mutations in humans result in a loss of function, whereas ∼27% are effectively neutral. Thus, the remaining 53% of new missense mutations have mildly deleterious effects. These mutations give rise to many low-frequency deleterious allelic variants in the human population, as is evident from a new data set of 37 genes sequenced in >1,500 individual human chromosomes. Surprisingly, up to 70% of low-frequency missense alleles are mildly deleterious and are associated with a heterozygous fitness loss in the range 0.001–0.003. Thus, the low allele frequency of an amino acid variant can, by itself, serve as a predictor of its functional significance. Several recent studies have reported a significant excess of rare missense variants in candidate genes or pathways in individuals with extreme values of quantitative phenotypes. These studies would be unlikely to yield results if most rare variants were neutral or if rare variants were not a significant contributor to the genetic component of phenotypic inheritance. Our results provide a justification for these types of candidate-gene (pathway) association studies and imply that mutation-selection balance may be a feasible evolutionary mechanism underlying some common diseases.