Página 11 dos resultados de 100905 itens digitais encontrados em 0.381 segundos

‣ AXCIS : rapid processor architectural exploration using canonical instruction segments; Rapid processor architectural exploration using canonical instruction segments

Liu, Rose F. (Rose Frances)
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 74 p.
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In the early stages of processor design, computer architects rely heavily on simulation to explore a very large design space. Although detailed microarchitectural simulation is effective and widely used for evaluating different processor configurations, long simulation times and a limited time-to-market severely constrain the number of design points explored. This thesis presents AXCIS, a framework for fast and accurate early-stage design space exploration. Using instruction segments, a new primitive for extracting and representing simulation-critical data from full dynamic traces, AXCIS compresses the full dynamic trace into a table of canonical instruction segments (CIST). CISTs are not only small, but also very representative of the dynamic trace. Therefore, given a CIST and a processor configuration, AXCIS can quickly and accurately estimate performance metrics such as instructions per cycle (IPC). This thesis applies AXCIS to in-order superscalar processors, which are becoming more popular with the emergence of chip multiprocessors (CMP). For 24 SPEC CPU2000 benchmarks and all simulated configurations, AXCIS achieves an average IPC error of 2.6% and is over four orders of magnitude faster than conventional detailed simulation.; (cont.) While cycle-accurate simulators can take many hours to simulate billions of dynamic instructions...

‣ A modular architecture for client-based analysis of biological microscopy images

Chan, Sheldon Y. (Sheldon Yann-Ting)
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 75 leaves
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In this project, we have proposed a decorrelator-based single antenna interference cancellation algorithm for the asynchronous GSM/GPRS network. The algorithm is tested according to the current SAIC/DARP performance requirement in the computer simulation, and is shown to give various gains in different test scenarios.; by Sheldon Y. Chan.; Thesis (M. Eng.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, 2006.; Includes bibliographical references.

‣ Modelling morphogenesis as an amorphous computation

Bhattacharyya, Arnab
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 58 leaves
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This thesis presents a programming-language viewpoint for morphogenesis, the process of shape formation during embryological development. We model morphogenesis as a self-organizing, self-repairing amorphous computation and describe how we can program large-scale shape formation by giving local instructions to cell-like objects. Our goal is to simulate systems that display properties, like robustness, regeneration, and evolvability, that are present in biological systems but ordinarily not present in computer systems. Consistent with the theory of facilitated variation from evolutionary biology, we find that many of these properties can be introduced and conserved by a hierarchical organization of growth specification.; by Arnab Bhattacharyya.; Thesis (M. Eng.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, 2006.; Includes bibliographical references (leaves 57-58).

‣ A computational study of a geometric embedding of minimum multiway cut

Shin, David (David Donghun)
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 78 p.
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In the minimum multiway cut problem, the goal is to find a minimum cost set of edges whose removal disconnects a certain set of k distinguished vertices in a graph. The problem is MAX-SNP hard for k >/= 3. Clinescu, Karloff, and Rabani gave a geometric relaxation of the problem and a rounding scheme, to produce an approximation algorithm that has a performance guarantee of 3/2 - 1/k. In a subsequent study, Karger, Klein, Stein, Thorup, and Young discovered improved rounding schemes via computation experiments for various values of k, yielding approximation algorithms with improved performance guarantees. Their rounding scheme for k = 3 is provably optimal (i.e., its performance guarantee is equal to the integrality gap of the relaxation), but their rounding schemes for k > 3 seemed unlikely to be optimal. In the present work, we improve these rounding schemes for small values of k > 3, yielding improved approximation algorithms. These improvements were discovered by applying an improved analysis to the same set of computational experiments used by Karger et al.; (cont.) We also present computer-aided proofs of improved lower bounds on the integrality gap for various values of k > 3. For the k = 4 case, for instance, our work demonstrates a lower and upper bound of 1.1052 and 1.1494...

‣ A Web application to improve emotional awareness in high-functioning autistics

Sonuyi, Temitope O
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 116 leaves
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The web application built here is based on the idea of presenting scenarios to users, using text, and having the users choose likely emotions that match the scenarios. Taken for granted by most neurotypical people, high-functioning autistics are often lacking in this area of social-skill development. This idea of emotion to scenario matching is accomplished using a series of different games that take different approaches to exercise these skills. The application relies on the two main Artificial Intelligence (AI) approaches. The first AI approach is classical, relying on computer-based algorithms developed by others to judge text and put out the correct affect or emotion. The other part of the AI relies on users of the system contributing via regular usage or explicit correction to train the system in a type of feedback loop.; by Temitope O. Sonuyi.; Thesis (M. Eng.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, 2006.; Leaf 116 blank.; Includes bibliographical references (leaf 64).

‣ Asbestos : operating system security for mobile devices; Operating system security for mobile devices

Stevenson, Martijn
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 78 p.
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This thesis presents the design and implementation of a port of the Asbestos operating system to the ARM processor. The port to the ARM allows Asbestos to run on mobile devices such as cell phones and personal digital assistants. These mobile, wireless-enabled devices are at risk for data attacks because they store private data but often roam in public networks. The Asbestos operating system is designed to prevent disclosure of such data. The port includes a file system and a network driver, which together enable future development of Asbestos applications on the ARM platform. This thesis evaluates the port with a performance comparison between Asbestos running on an HP iPAQ hand held computer and the original x86 Asbestos.; by Martijn Stevenson.; Thesis (M. Eng.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, 2006.; Includes bibliographical references (p. 75-78).

‣ Resonant readout of a superconducting persistent current qubit

Lee, Janice C. (Janice Cheng-Yee), 1978-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 218 p.
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Superconducting Josephson junction devices rank among the best candidates for realizing a quantum computer. While the coherent control of quantum dynamics has been demonstrated in these solid-state, macroscopic quantum systems, a major challenge has been to increase the coherence times for these qubits. With an objective to reduce the level of readout-induced decoherence, this thesis work focuses on a resonant readout scheme developed for a niobium persistent-current (PC) qubit. This non-dissipative readout approach detects the flux state of the qubit by sensing a change in the Josephson inductance of a SQUID magnetometer. By incorporating the SQUID inductor in a high-Q resonant circuit, we distinguished the flux states of the qubit as a shift in the resonant frequency at 300 mK. The nonlinearity due to the Josephson inductance has characteristic effects on the resonant behavior of the readout circuit. We observed novel manifestation of this nonlinearity given the high quality factor of the resonance. The readout circuit was characterized in the linear as well as the nonlinear regime for its potential use as a bifurcation amplifier. Numerical simulations based on Josephson-junction circuits were also performed to understand the observed nonlinearity in the resonant behavior.; by Janice C. Lee.; Thesis (Ph. D.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology...

‣ Sketch interpretation using multiscale stochastic models of temporal patterns

Sezgin, Tevfik Metin, 1978-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 114 p.
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Sketching is a natural mode of interaction used in a variety of settings. For example, people sketch during early design and brainstorming sessions to guide the thought process; when we communicate certain ideas, we use sketching as an additional modality to convey ideas that can not be put in words. The emergence of hardware such as PDAs and Tablet PCs has enabled capturing freehand sketches, enabling the routine use of sketching as an additional human-computer interaction modality. But despite the availability of pen based information capture hardware, relatively little effort has been put into developing software capable of understanding and reasoning about sketches. To date, most approaches to sketch recognition have treated sketches as images (i.e., static finished products) and have applied vision algorithms for recognition. However, unlike images, sketches are produced incrementally and interactively, one stroke at a time and their processing should take advantage of this. This thesis explores ways of doing sketch recognition by extracting as much information as possible from temporal patterns that appear during sketching.; (cont.) We present a sketch recognition framework based on hierarchical statistical models of temporal patterns. We show that in certain domains...

‣ Bayesian approaches to bilinear inverse problems involving spatial evidence : color constancy and blind image deconvolution

Singh, Barun, 1982-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 89 p.
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This thesis examines two distinct but related problems in low-level computer vision: color constancy and blind-image deconvolution. The goal of the former is to separate the effect of global illumination from other properties of an observed image, in order to reproduce the effect of observing a scene under purely white light. For the latter, we consider the specific instance of deblurring, in which we seek to separate the effect of blur caused by camera motion from all other image properties in order to produce a sharp image from a blurry one. Both problems share the common characteristic of being bilinear inverse problems, meaning we wish to invert the effects of two variables confounded by a bilinear relationship, and of being underconstrained, meaning there are more unknown parameters than known values. We examine both problems in a Bayesian framework, utilizing real-world statistics to perform our estimation. We also examine the role of spatial evidence as a source of information in solving both problems. The resulting blind image deconvolution algorithm produces state-of-the art results. The color constancy algorithm produces slightly improved results over the standard Bayesian approach when spatial information is used. We discuss the properties of and distinctions between the two problems and the solution strategies employed.; by Barun Singh.; Thesis (S.M.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology...

‣ A sub-threshold cell library and methodology

Kwong, Joyce Y. S. (Joyce Yui Si)
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 102 p.
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Sub-threshold operation is a compelling approach for energy-constrained applications where speed is of secondary concern, but increased sensitivity to process variation must be mitigated in this regime. With scaling of process technologies, random within-die variation has recently introduced another degree of complexity in circuit design. This thesis proposes approaches to mitigate process variation in sub-threshold circuits through device sizing, topology selection and fault-tolerant architecture. This thesis makes several contributions to a sub-threshold circuit design methodology. A formal analysis of device sizing trade-offs between delay, energy, and variability reveals that while minimum size devices provide lowest energy and delay in sub-threshold, their increased sensitivity to random dopant fluctuation may cause functional errors. A proposed variation-driven design approach enables consistent sizing of logic gates and registers for constant functional yield. A yield constraint imposes energy overhead at low power supply voltages and changes the minimum energy operating point of a circuit.; (cont.) The optimal supply and device sizing depend on the topology of the circuit and its energy versus VDD characteristic. The analysis resulted in a 56-cell library in 65nm CMOS...

‣ Summarizing multiprocessor program execution with versatile, microarchitecture-independent snapshots

Barr, Kenneth C. (Kenneth Charles), 1978-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 137 p.
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Computer architects rely heavily on software simulation to evaluate, refine, and validate new designs before they are implemented. However, simulation time continues to increase as computers become more complex and multicore designs become more common. This thesis investigates software structures and algorithms for quickly simulating modern cache-coherent multiprocessors by amortizing the time spent to simulate the memory system and branch predictors. The Memory Timestamp Record (MTR) summarizes the directory and cache state of a multiprocessor system in a compact data structure. A single MTR snapshot is versatile enough to reconstruct the microarchitectural state resulting from various coherence protocols and cache organizations. The MTR may be quickly updated by each simulated processor during a fast-forwarding phase and optionally stored off-line for reuse. To fill large branch prediction tables, we introduce Branch Predictor-based Compression (BPC) which compactly stores a branch trace so that it may be used to fill in any branch predictor structure. An entire BPC trace requires less space than single discrete predictor snapshots, and it may be decompressed 3-6x faster than performing functional simulation.; by Kenneth C. Barr.; Thesis (Ph. D.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology...

‣ From thought to action

Srinivasan, Lakshminarayan, 1981-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 146 leaves
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Systems engineering is rapidly assuming a prominent role in neuroscience that could unify scientific theories, experimental evidence, and medical development. In this three-part work, I study the neural representation of targets before reaching movements and the generation of prosthetic control signals through stochastic modeling and estimation. In the first part, I show that temporal and history dependence contributes to the representation of targets in the ensemble spiking activity of neurons in primate dorsal premotor cortex (PMd). Point process modeling of target representation suggests that local and possibly also distant neural interactions influence the spiking patterns observed in PMd. In the second part, I draw on results from surveillance theory to reconstruct reaching movements from neural activity related to the desired target and the path to that target. This approach combines movement planning and execution to surpass estimation with either target or path related neural activity alone. In the third part, I describe the principled design of brain-driven neural prosthetic devices as a filtering problem on interacting discrete and continuous random processes. This framework subsumes four canonical Bayesian approaches and supports emerging applications to neural prosthetic devices.; (cont.) Results of a simulated reaching task predict that the method outperforms previous approaches in the control of arm position and velocity based on trajectory and endpoint mean squared error. These results form the starting point for a systems engineering approach to the design and interpretation of neuroscience experiments that can guide the development of technology for human-computer interaction and medical treatment.; by Lakshminarayan Srinivasan.; Thesis (Ph. D.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology...

‣ Context-based visual feedback recognition

Morency, Louis-Philippe, 1977-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 195 p.
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During face-to-face conversation, people use visual feedback (e.g., head and eye gesture) to communicate relevant information and to synchronize rhythm between participants. When recognizing visual feedback, people often rely on more than their visual perception. For instance, knowledge about the current topic and from previous utterances help guide the recognition of nonverbal cues. The goal of this thesis is to augment computer interfaces with the ability to perceive visual feedback gestures and to enable the exploitation of contextual information from the current interaction state to improve visual feedback recognition. We introduce the concept of visual feedback anticipation where contextual knowledge from an interactive system (e.g. last spoken utterance from the robot or system events from the GUI interface) is analyzed online to anticipate visual feedback from a human participant and improve visual feedback recognition. Our multi-modal framework for context-based visual feedback recognition was successfully tested on conversational and non-embodied interfaces for head and eye gesture recognition. We also introduce Frame-based Hidden-state Conditional Random Field model, a new discriminative model for visual gesture recognition which can model the substructure of a gesture sequence...

‣ Acquisition and modeling of material appearance

Ngan, Wai Kit Addy, 1979-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 143 p.
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In computer graphics, the realistic rendering of synthetic scenes requires a precise description of surface geometry, lighting, and material appearance. While 3D geometry scanning and modeling have advanced significantly in recent years, measurement and modeling of accurate material appearance have remained critical challenges. Analytical models are the main tools to describe material appearance in most current applications. They provide compact and smooth approximations to real materials but lack the expressiveness to represent complex materials. Data-driven approaches based on exhaustive measurements are fully general but the measurement process is difficult and the storage requirement is very high. In this thesis, we propose the use of hybrid representations that are more compact and easier to acquire than exhaustive measurement, while preserving much generality of a data-driven approach. To represent complex bidirectional reflectance distribution functions (BRDFs), we present a new method to estimate a general microfacet distribution from measured data. We show that this representation is able to reproduce complex materials that are impossible to model with purely analytical models.; (cont.) We also propose a new method that significantly reduces measurement cost and time of the bidirectional texture function (BTF) through a statistical characterization of texture appearance. Our reconstruction method combines naturally aligned images and alignment-insensitive statistics to produce visually plausible results. We demonstrate our acquisition system which is able to capture intricate materials like fabrics in less than ten minutes with commodity equipments. In addition...

‣ Real-time enveloping with rotational regression

Wang, Robert Yuanbo
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 53 p.
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Enveloping (or skinning) is the process that relates a skeleton, which an animator controls, to a 3-D surface mesh, which the audience sees. This process is necessary in most computer graphics applications that involve animated characters. The complexity (and speed) of enveloping solutions vary from photo-realistic muscle simulations used for movie production, to artifact-ridden heuristics such as linear blend skinning used for video games and training simulations. We propose a method for example-based enveloping of 3-D characters. We can approximate the output of muscle simulations or other high-quality enveloping tools with a model that can be evaluated at speeds comparable to the fastest enveloping techniques. Our technique introduces a rotational regression model that can accurately capture common skinning behaviors such as muscle bulging, twisting, and challenging areas such as the shoulders. Our better treatment of rotational quantities is made possible by a framework that predicts mesh deformation gradients instead of mesh vertex positions. We reconstruct the vertex positions from deformation gradients in an additional step by solving a Poisson equation. We show that our model is significantly more expressive than linear blend skinning and capable of capturing a wider variety of effects without generalization problems. Our method is also comparable in run-time speed to linear blend skinning. All in all...

‣ Perceptual data mining : bootstrapping visual intelligence from tracking behavior

Stauffer, Christopher P. (Christopher Paul), 1971-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 166 p.
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One common characteristic of all intelligent life is continuous perceptual input. A decade ago, simply recording and storing a a few minutes of full frame-rate NTSC video required special hardware. Today, an inexpensive personal computer can process video in real-time tracking and recording information about multiple objects for extended periods of time, which fundamentally enables this research. This thesis is about Perceptual Data Mining (PDM), the primary goal of which is to create a real-time, autonomous perception system that can be introduced into a wide variety of environments and, through experience, learn to model the activity in that environment. The PDM framework infers as much as possible about the presence, type, identity, location, appearance, and activity of each active object in an environment from multiple video sources, without explicit supervision. PDM is a bottom-up, data-driven approach that is built on a novel, robust attention mechanism that reliably detects moving objects in a wide variety of environments. A correspondence system tracks objects through time and across multiple sensors producing sets of observations of objects that correspond to the same object in extended environments. Using a co-occurrence modeling technique that exploits the variation exhibited by objects as they move through the environment...

‣ Selective microorganism concentration using a dielectrophoresis-based microfabricated device

Puchała, Katarzyna Anna
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 55 leaves
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Detection of pathogenic microorganisms is a significant challenge in medicine, environmental protection and biological threat safety because samples are often contaminated. This work presents a method of separating bacterial spores from typical air contaminants such as sand or soot by means of dielectrophoresis. Spores of B. subtilis as well as model airborne interferents are characterized electrically; based on their properties, schemes of their electrical separation are proposed. The separation based on the frequency of applied electric field is implemented using microfabricated chips. To relate the data obtained from these microtools to particle concentration, a computer program is designed, implemented and validated. Experiments show that separation of bacterial spores from soot and sand suspended in water based on electrical properties of particles is possible and may serve as a way of enhancing spore concentration in mixtures.; by Katarzyna Anna Puchała.; Thesis (M. Eng.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, 2007.; This electronic version was submitted by the student author. The certified thesis is available in the Institute Archives and Special Collections.; "February 2007."; Includes bibliographical references (leaves 54-55).

‣ OpenBlocks : an extendable framework for graphical block programming systems; Extendable framework for graphical block programming systems

Roque, Ricarose Vallarta
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 61 leaves
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Graphical programming systems have been built to lower the threshold to programming for beginners. However, because these systems were designed to make programming more accessible to novices, they were developed with narrower intentions for their users and applications. For example, in StarLogo TNG, a graphical block programming environment, users may create games and simulations, but they cannot use this same system to create programs that can automate their computer processes, like the text-based scripting system AppleScript. Application developers can create their own programming systems, but doing so can take a significant amount of time to design and implement. This thesis describes an extendable framework called OpenBlocks that enables application developers to build and iterate their own graphical block programming systems by specifying a single XML file. Application developers can focus more on the design of their systems instead of oil the details of implementation. The design and implementation of OpenBlocks are described, along with a user study conducted to test its usability and extendability.; by Ricarose Vallarta Roque.; Thesis (M. Eng.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science...

‣ ELVIS iLab : a flexible platform for online laboratory experiments in electrical engineering; Flexible platform for online laboratory experiments in electrical engineering

Gikandi, Samuel
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 83 leaves
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This thesis describes a project that is part of the collaboration between MIT and universities in sub-Sahara Africa to exploit the value of iLabs in the developing world. The main goal of this project is to develop software that will exploit the value of the National Instruments Educational Laboratory Virtual Instrumentation Suite (ELVIS) system in Africa by integrating it into the iLabs shared architecture, while taking into consideration the special circumstances surrounding the deployment of iLabs in Africa such as bandwidth limitations, limited access to networked computers and lack of computer skills on the part of students. Integrating ELVIS into iLabs will facilitate the rapid deployment of new online labs to augment the Physics and Electrical engineering curricula in these universities. iLab development efforts for this project are being done in parallel with developers at the Obafemi Awolowo University (OAU) in Nigeria. One of the main goals of the new system is to fill the gap of laboratory experiences in introductory level electronics and physics classes, which are hardest hit by the lack of equipment due to their typically large enrollment. Our goal is to support the development of electronic circuit building skills by providing an environment where students can easily try different circuit configurations before submitting experiments for execution. We are therefore investigating new iLab client user interface designs that will enable students to create and edit circuit schematics from provided electronic components. Our ELVIS iLab design will also formalize and simplify the process of creating and administering such labs for instructors...

‣ YAMA : a system for marking network traffic; System for marking network traffic

Hernández González, Néstor Felipe
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 108 p.
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Computer security performance analysis requires precise labeling of traffic as either background or attack traffic. When an experiment is performed on-line, it may also be important to identify traffic from the security system. Today this is tedious and difficult, requiring personnel with a deep understanding of multiple protocols. YAMA (Your Able Marking Aide) is a tool that labels sessions and packets associated with a set of user actions given those actions, the traffic, and a network configuration (host information and web page corpus). An evaluation of a version that processes web traffic is performed using data from Alexas Top 100 Sites. YAMA 1.0 correctly associates the action of visiting a specific site with 90% of all HTTP packets, and 99% of both HTTP GET and DNS packets. Furthermore, YAMA 1.0 produces zero false positives when given a high-level event indicating a user visited one web site and packets from a different site.; by Néstor Felipe Hernández González.; Thesis (M. Eng.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, 2006.; Includes bibliographical references (p. 105-108).