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‣ Estudos evolutivos no gênero Astyanax (Pisces, Characidae); Evolutionary studies in the Astyanax genus (Pisces, Characidae).

Kavalco, Karine Frehner
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 03/10/2008 Português
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O gênero Astyanax é um dos mais especiosos da ordem Characiformes. Suas mais de 100 espécies distribuemse por praticamente toda a região Neotropical e habitam os mais diversos ambientes, como regiões montanhosas, trechos lóticos e leitos de rios, porções lênticas ou lagunares e nascentes. Durante cerca de trinta anos estes peixes têm sido alvo de estudos cromossômicos, que os caracterizaram como um grupo com grande diversidade citogenética. Recentemente, o advento de técnicas de citogenética molecular e de estudos empregando marcadores de DNA tem produzido novos dados sobre a biologia evolutiva do grupo, e possibilitado a revisitação de antigos problemas do gênero, como sua difícil classificação taxonômica. No presente trabalho buscouse a caracterização citogenética e a análise de segmentos do mtDNA (seqüências parciais das regiões dos genes ND2 e ATPase6/8) de diferentes espécies e populações de Astyanax, com a finalidade de contribuir para o reconhecimento de padrões e processos evolutivos no gênero. Foram analisados exemplares provenientes das bacias hidrográficas dos rios São Francisco, Tietê, Paranapanema, MogiGuaçu, Iguaçu, Paraíba do Sul, Ribeira de Iguape e Guapimirim. Os resultados forneceram panoramas filogeográficos e estabeleceram relações evolutivas entre as espécies analisadas...

‣ Integrating Evolutionary and Molecular Genetics of Aging

Flatt, Thomas; Schmidt, Paul S.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Aging or senescence is an age-dependent decline in physiological function, demographically manifest as decreased survival and fecundity with increasing age. Since aging is disadvantageous it should not evolve by natural selection. So why do organisms age and die? In the 1940’s and 1950’s evolutionary geneticists resolved this paradox by positing that aging evolves because selection is inefficient at maintaining function late in life. By the 1980’s and 1990’s this evolutionary theory of aging had received firm empirical support, but little was known about the mechanisms of aging. Around the same time biologists began to apply the tools of molecular genetics to aging and successfully identified mutations that affect longevity. Today, the molecular genetics of aging is a burgeoning field, but progress in evolutionary genetics of aging has largely stalled. Here we argue that some of the most exciting and unresolved questions about aging require an integration of molecular and evolutionary approaches. Is aging a universal process? Why do species age at different rates? Are the mechanisms of aging conserved or lineage-specific? Are longevity genes identified in the laboratory under selection in natural populations? What is the genetic basis of plasticity in aging in response to environmental cues and is this plasticity adaptive? What are the mechanisms underlying trade-offs between early fitness traits and life span? To answer these questions evolutionary biologists must adopt the tools of molecular biology...

‣ Evolutionary principles and their practical application

Hendry, Andrew P; Kinnison, Michael T; Heino, Mikko; Day, Troy; Smith, Thomas B; Fitt, Gary; Bergstrom, Carl T; Oakeshott, John; Jørgensen, Peter S; Zalucki, Myron P; Gilchrist, George; Southerton, Simon; Sih, Andrew; Strauss, Sharon; Denison, Robert F;
Fonte: Blackwell Publishing Ltd Publicador: Blackwell Publishing Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /03/2011 Português
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Evolutionary principles are now routinely incorporated into medicine and agriculture. Examples include the design of treatments that slow the evolution of resistance by weeds, pests, and pathogens, and the design of breeding programs that maximize crop yield or quality. Evolutionary principles are also increasingly incorporated into conservation biology, natural resource management, and environmental science. Examples include the protection of small and isolated populations from inbreeding depression, the identification of key traits involved in adaptation to climate change, the design of harvesting regimes that minimize unwanted life-history evolution, and the setting of conservation priorities based on populations, species, or communities that harbor the greatest evolutionary diversity and potential. The adoption of evolutionary principles has proceeded somewhat independently in these different fields, even though the underlying fundamental concepts are the same. We explore these fundamental concepts under four main themes: variation, selection, connectivity, and eco-evolutionary dynamics. Within each theme, we present several key evolutionary principles and illustrate their use in addressing applied problems. We hope that the resulting primer of evolutionary concepts and their practical utility helps to advance a unified multidisciplinary field of applied evolutionary biology.

‣ Applying ecological and evolutionary theory to cancer: a long and winding road

Thomas, Frédéric; Fisher, Daniel; Fort, Philippe; Marie, Jean-Pierre; Daoust, Simon; Roche, Benjamin; Grunau, Christoph; Cosseau, Céline; Mitta, Guillaume; Baghdiguian, Stephen; Rousset, François; Lassus, Patrice; Assenat, Eric; Grégoire, Damien; Mis
Fonte: Blackwell Publishing Ltd Publicador: Blackwell Publishing Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Since the mid 1970s, cancer has been described as a process of Darwinian evolution, with somatic cellular selection and evolution being the fundamental processes leading to malignancy and its many manifestations (neoangiogenesis, evasion of the immune system, metastasis, and resistance to therapies). Historically, little attention has been placed on applications of evolutionary biology to understanding and controlling neoplastic progression and to prevent therapeutic failures. This is now beginning to change, and there is a growing international interest in the interface between cancer and evolutionary biology. The objective of this introduction is first to describe the basic ideas and concepts linking evolutionary biology to cancer. We then present four major fronts where the evolutionary perspective is most developed, namely laboratory and clinical models, mathematical models, databases, and techniques and assays. Finally, we discuss several of the most promising challenges and future prospects in this interdisciplinary research direction in the war against cancer.

‣ Ecological perspectives on synthetic biology: insights from microbial population biology

Escalante, Ana E.; Rebolleda-Gómez, María; Benítez, Mariana; Travisano, Michael
Fonte: Frontiers Media S.A. Publicador: Frontiers Media S.A.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 26/02/2015 Português
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The metabolic capabilities of microbes are the basis for many major biotechnological advances, exploiting microbial diversity by selection or engineering of single strains. However, there are limits to the advances that can be achieved with single strains, and attention has turned toward the metabolic potential of consortia and the field of synthetic ecology. The main challenge for the synthetic ecology is that consortia are frequently unstable, largely because evolution by constituent members affects their interactions, which are the basis of collective metabolic functionality. Current practices in modeling consortia largely consider interactions as fixed circuits of chemical reactions, which greatly increases their tractability. This simplification comes at the cost of essential biological realism, stripping out the ecological context in which the metabolic actions occur and the potential for evolutionary change. In other words, evolutionary stability is not engineered into the system. This realization highlights the necessity to better identify the key components that influence the stable coexistence of microorganisms. Inclusion of ecological and evolutionary principles, in addition to biophysical variables and stoichiometric modeling of metabolism...

‣ EVOLUTIONARY FOUNDATIONS FOR MOLECULAR MEDICINE

Nesse, Randolph M.; Ganten, Detlev; Gregory, T. Ryan; Omenn, Gilbert S.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Evolution has long provided a foundation for population genetics, but many major advances in evolutionary biology from the 20th century are only now being applied in molecular medicine. They include the distinction between proximate and evolutionary explanations, kin selection, evolutionary models for cooperation, and new strategies for tracing phylogenies and identifying signals of selection. Recent advances in genomics are further transforming evolutionary biology and creating yet more opportunities for progress at the interface of evolution with genetics, medicine, and public health. This article reviews 15 evolutionary principles and their applications in molecular medicine in hopes that readers will use them and others to speed the development of evolutionary molecular medicine.

‣ Evolution of Cooperation by Phenotypic Similarity

Antal, Tibor; Ohtsuki, Hisashi; Wakeley, John R.; Taylor, Peter D.; Nowak, Martin A.
Fonte: National Academy of Sciences Publicador: National Academy of Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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The emergence of cooperation in populations of selfish individuals is a fascinating topic that has inspired much work in theoretical biology. Here, we study the evolution of cooperation in a model where individuals are characterized by phenotypic properties that are visible to others. The population is well mixed in the sense that everyone is equally likely to interact with everyone else, but the behavioral strategies can depend on distance in phenotype space. We study the interaction of cooperators and defectors. In our model, cooperators cooperate with those who are similar and defect otherwise. Defectors always defect. Individuals mutate to nearby phenotypes, which generates a random walk of the population in phenotype space. Our analysis brings together ideas from coalescence theory and evolutionary game dynamics. We obtain a precise condition for natural selection to favor cooperators over defectors. Cooperation is favored when the phenotypic mutation rate is large and the strategy mutation rate is small. In the optimal case for cooperators, in a one-dimensional phenotype space and for large population size, the critical benefit-to-cost ratio is given by Formula. We also derive the fundamental condition for any two-strategy symmetric game and consider high-dimensional phenotype spaces.; Mathematics; Organismic and Evolutionary Biology

‣ Evolutionary Dynamics of Intratumor Heterogeneity

Iwasa, Yoh; Michor, Franziska L.
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Intraneoplastic diversity in human tumors is a widespread phenomenon of critical importance for tumor progression and the response to therapeutic intervention. Insights into the evolutionary events that control tumor heterogeneity would be a major breakthrough in our comprehension of cancer development and could lead to more effective prevention methods and therapies. In this paper, we design an evolutionary mathematical framework to study the dynamics of heterogeneity over time. We consider specific situations arising during tumorigenesis, such as the emergence of positively selected mutations ("drivers") and the accumulation of neutral variation ("passengers"). We perform exact computer simulations of the emergence of diverse tumor cell clones over time, and derive analytical estimates for the extent of heterogeneity within a population of cancer cells. Our methods contribute to a quantitative understanding of tumor heterogeneity and the impact of heritable alterations on this tumor trait.

‣ Seeing the Forest for the Trees: The Limitations of Phylogenies in Comparative Biology

Losos, Jonathan
Fonte: University of Chicago Press Publicador: University of Chicago Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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The last 30 years have seen a revolution in comparative biology. Prior to that time, systematics was not at the forefront of the biological sciences, and few scientists considered phylogenetic relationships when investigating evolutionary questions. By contrast, systematic biology is now one of the most vigorous disciplines in biology, and the use of phylogenies is not only requisite in macroevolutionary studies, but has been applied to a wide range of topics and fields that no one could possibly have envisioned 30 years ago. My message is simple: phylogenies are fundamental to comparative biology, but they are not the be all and end all. Phylogenies are powerful tools for understanding the past, but like any tool, they have their limitations. In addition, phylogenies are much more informative about pattern than they are about process. The best way to fully understand the past—both pattern and process—is to integrate phylogenies with other types of historical data as well as with direct studies of evolutionary process.; Organismic and Evolutionary Biology

‣ Can You Sequence Ecology? Metagenomics of Adaptive Diversification

Marx, Christopher J
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Few areas of science have benefited more from the expansion in sequencing capability than the study of microbial communities. Can sequence data, besides providing hypotheses of the functions the members possess, detect the evolutionary and ecological processes that are occurring? For example, can we determine if a species is adapting to one niche, or if it is diversifying into multiple specialists that inhabit distinct niches? Fortunately, adaptation of populations in the laboratory can serve as a model to test our ability to make such inferences about evolution and ecology from sequencing. Even adaptation to a single niche can give rise to complex temporal dynamics due to the transient presence of multiple competing lineages. If there are multiple niches, this complexity is augmented by segmentation of the population into multiple specialists that can each continue to evolve within their own niche. For a known example of parallel diversification that occurred in the laboratory, sequencing data gave surprisingly few obvious, unambiguous signs of the ecological complexity present. Whereas experimental systems are open to direct experimentation to test hypotheses of selection or ecological interaction, the difficulty in “seeing ecology” from sequencing for even such a simple system suggests translation to communities like the human microbiome will be quite challenging. This will require both improved empirical methods to enhance the depth and time resolution for the relevant polymorphisms and novel statistical approaches to rigorously examine time-series data for signs of various evolutionary and ecological phenomena within and between species.; Organismic and Evolutionary Biology

‣ The Ability of Flux Balance Analysis to Predict Evolution of Central Metabolism Scales with the Initial Distance to the Optimum

Harcombe, William R.; Delaney, Nigel F.; Leiby, Nicholas; Klitgord, Niels; Marx, Christopher J.
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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The most powerful genome-scale framework to model metabolism, flux balance analysis (FBA), is an evolutionary optimality model. It hypothesizes selection upon a proposed optimality criterion in order to predict the set of internal fluxes that would maximize fitness. Here we present a direct test of the optimality assumption underlying FBA by comparing the central metabolic fluxes predicted by multiple criteria to changes measurable by a 13C-labeling method for experimentally-evolved strains. We considered datasets for three Escherichia coli evolution experiments that varied in their length, consistency of environment, and initial optimality. For ten populations that were evolved for 50,000 generations in glucose minimal medium, we observed modest changes in relative fluxes that led to small, but significant decreases in optimality and increased the distance to the predicted optimal flux distribution. In contrast, seven populations evolved on the poor substrate lactate for 900 generations collectively became more optimal and had flux distributions that moved toward predictions. For three pairs of central metabolic knockouts evolved on glucose for 600–800 generations, there was a balance between cases where optimality and flux patterns moved toward or away from FBA predictions. Despite this variation in predictability of changes in central metabolism...

‣ Metabolic Erosion Primarily Through Mutation Accumulation, and Not Tradeoffs, Drives Limited Evolution of Substrate Specificity in Escherichia coli

Leiby, Nicholas; Marx, Christopher J.
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Evolutionary adaptation to a constant environment is often accompanied by specialization and a reduction of fitness in other environments. We assayed the ability of the Lenski Escherichia coli populations to grow on a range of carbon sources after 50,000 generations of adaptation on glucose. Using direct measurements of growth rates, we demonstrated that declines in performance were much less widespread than suggested by previous results from Biolog assays of cellular respiration. Surprisingly, there were many performance increases on a variety of substrates. In addition to the now famous example of citrate, we observed several other novel gains of function for organic acids that the ancestral strain only marginally utilized. Quantitative growth data also showed that strains with a higher mutation rate exhibited significantly more declines, suggesting that most metabolic erosion was driven by mutation accumulation and not by physiological tradeoffs. These reductions in growth by mutator strains were ameliorated by growth at lower temperature, consistent with the hypothesis that this metabolic erosion is largely caused by destabilizing mutations to the associated enzymes. We further hypothesized that reductions in growth rate would be greatest for substrates used most differently from glucose...

‣ SOCIAL EVOLUTION IN ANTS: DIRECT AND INDIRECT GENETIC EFFECTS

Linksvayer, Timothy A.
Fonte: [Bloomington, Ind.] : Indiana University Publicador: [Bloomington, Ind.] : Indiana University
Tipo: Doctoral Dissertation
Português
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Thesis (PhD) - Indiana University, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, 2005; When social interactions occur, the phenotype of an individual can be influenced both directly by its own genes and indirectly by genes expressed in social partners. Eusocial insect colonies are notable for extensive behavioral interactions among larval, worker, and queen nestmates. In particular, developing larvae are reliant on care provided by workers and queens. Social insect phenotypes are thus affected by zygotic genes expressed during development (direct genetic effects), genes expressed in care-giving adult workers (sibsocial genetic effects), and genes expressed in queens (maternal genetic effects). The purpose of this dissertation was to incorporate this complexity into models of social insect evolution and to empirically study the evolutionary importance of direct and indirect genetic effects on ant phenotypes. The first chapter reviews existing models for the evolutionary origin and maintenance of eusociality in social insects and proposes a new model incorporating both direct and indirect genetic effects. The second chapter uses a quantitative genetic approach to estimate variation for direct and indirect genetic effects on worker, gyne...

‣ Evaluating Two Approaches to Helping College Students Understand Evolutionary Trees through Diagramming Tasks

Perry, Judy; Meir, Eli; Herron, Jon C.; Maruca, Susan; Stal, Derek
Fonte: American Society for Cell Biology Publicador: American Society for Cell Biology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2008 Português
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To understand evolutionary theory, students must be able to understand and use evolutionary trees and their underlying concepts. Active, hands-on curricula relevant to macroevolution can be challenging to implement across large college-level classes where textbook learning is the norm. We evaluated two approaches to helping students learn macroevolutionary topics. Treatment 1 is a laboratory for the software program EvoBeaker designed to teach students about evolutionary trees. We tested Treatment 1 among nine college-level biology classes and administered pre/posttests to assess learning gains. We then sought to determine whether the learning gains from Treatment 1 were comparable to those derived from an alternate hands-on treatment, specifically the combination of a prerecorded lecture on DVD and paper-based activity based on Goldsmith's Great Clade Race (Treatment 2). Comparisons of pre- and posttests among participants using either Treatment 1 or 2 show large learning gains on some misconceptions and skills beyond knowledge gained from reading standard textbook entries. Both treatments performed equivalently in overall learning gains, though both had areas where they performed better or worse. Furthermore, gains among students who used Treatment 1 representing a wide range of universities suggest that outcomes are potentially applicable to a variety of “real-world” biology classes.

‣ Are there laws of genome evolution?

Koonin, Eugene V.
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 17/08/2011 Português
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Research in quantitative evolutionary genomics and systems biology led to the discovery of several universal regularities connecting genomic and molecular phenomic variables. These universals include the log-normal distribution of the evolutionary rates of orthologous genes; the power law-like distributions of paralogous family size and node degree in various biological networks; the negative correlation between a gene's sequence evolution rate and expression level; and differential scaling of functional classes of genes with genome size. The universals of genome evolution can be accounted for by simple mathematical models similar to those used in statistical physics, such as the birth-death-innovation model. These models do not explicitly incorporate selection, therefore the observed universal regularities do not appear to be shaped by selection but rather are emergent properties of gene ensembles. Although a complete physical theory of evolutionary biology is inconceivable, the universals of genome evolution might qualify as 'laws of evolutionary genomics' in the same sense 'law' is understood in modern physics.; Comment: 17 pages, 2 figures

‣ Life is physics: evolution as a collective phenomenon far from equilibrium

Goldenfeld, Nigel; Woese, Carl
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 17/11/2010 Português
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Evolution is the fundamental physical process that gives rise to biological phenomena. Yet it is widely treated as a subset of population genetics, and thus its scope is artificially limited. As a result, the key issues of how rapidly evolution occurs, and its coupling to ecology have not been satisfactorily addressed and formulated. The lack of widespread appreciation for, and understanding of, the evolutionary process has arguably retarded the development of biology as a science, with disastrous consequences for its applications to medicine, ecology and the global environment. This review focuses on evolution as a problem in non-equilibrium statistical mechanics, where the key dynamical modes are collective, as evidenced by the plethora of mobile genetic elements whose role in shaping evolution has been revealed by modern genomic surveys. We discuss how condensed matter physics concepts might provide a useful perspective in evolutionary biology, the conceptual failings of the modern evolutionary synthesis, the open-ended growth of complexity, and the quintessentially self-referential nature of evolutionary dynamics.; Comment: To appear in Annual Reviews of Condensed Matter Physics (2011)

‣ Inferring evolutionary histories of pathway regulation from transcriptional profiling data

Schraiber, Joshua G.; Mostovoy, Yulia; Hsu, Tiffany Y.; Brem, Rachel B.
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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One of the outstanding challenges in comparative genomics is to interpret the evolutionary importance of regulatory variation between species. Rigorous molecular evolution-based methods to infer evidence for natural selection from expression data are at a premium in the field, and to date, phylogenetic approaches have not been well-suited to address the question in the small sets of taxa profiled in standard surveys of gene expression. We have developed a strategy to infer evolutionary histories from expression profiles by analyzing suites of genes of common function. In a manner conceptually similar to molecular evolution models in which the evolutionary rates of DNA sequence at multiple loci follow a gamma distribution, we modeled expression of the genes of an \emph{a priori}-defined pathway with rates drawn from an inverse gamma distribution. We then developed a fitting strategy to infer the parameters of this distribution from expression measurements, and to identify gene groups whose expression patterns were consistent with evolutionary constraint or rapid evolution in particular species. Simulations confirmed the power and accuracy of our inference method. As an experimental testbed for our approach, we generated and analyzed transcriptional profiles of four \emph{Saccharomyces} yeasts. The results revealed pathways with signatures of constrained and accelerated regulatory evolution in individual yeasts and across the phylogeny...

‣ The mechanisms underlying convergent evolution in the plumage patterns of birds

Gluckman, Thanh-Lan
Fonte: Elsevier - Animal Behaviour; University of Cambridge; Department of Zoology Publicador: Elsevier - Animal Behaviour; University of Cambridge; Department of Zoology
Tipo: Thesis; doctoral; PhD
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This thesis is embargoed until 2017-01 for publication reasons; Convergent evolution is a central theme in biology. Birds are an ideal system to examine the mechanisms underlying convergent evolution. Although bird patterning is diverse, within-feather patterns have repeatedly converged on the same four types: mottled patterns, scales, bars and spots. Other avian patterns occur, e.g. stripes, but are rare. In my thesis I examine the four main mechanisms underlying convergent evolution in plumage patterns: evolutionary genetics, evolutionary development, natural selection for signaling and camouflage. Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) is a model system in developmental biology. Examining the developmental basis of pattern formation using molecular techniques, the dorsal patterning of embryonic quail is likely due to activation of the melanocortin-1 receptor, which is a highly conserved pathway in vertebrates. I examined whether a reaction-diffusion based theoretical model of pattern formation may predict developmental constraint in two groups that have different lifestyles and spectacular patterns: waterfowl (Anseriformes) and gamebirds (Galliformes). Tracing the evolutionary trajectory of pattern evolution with Bayesian comparative modeling there was evidence for developmental constraint in pattern evolution. Adaptive explanations may also result in convergence. Cuckoo-hawk mimicry has been demonstrated in the common cuckoo (Cuculus canorus) and the Eurasian sparrowhawk (Accipiter nisus)...

‣ Molecular Evolution of Anthocyanin Biosynthesis in Morning Glories

Des Marais, David Lee
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: 752841 bytes; application/pdf
Publicado em 26/09/2008 Português
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Determining the genetic basis of adaptation has become a central focus of evolutionary biology, and the incorporation of increasingly sophisticated analytical tools from molecular biology has made identifying causal genes a practical reality. The work presented herein addresses the effects of pleiotropic constraint on evolutionary change at the level of individual genes and genetic networks. In the first chapter, I combine molecular phylogenetic analyses and direct assays of enzymatic function to determine the evolutionary processes following a gene duplication in the anthocyanin pathway. My results show that, prior to duplication, the DFR gene was constrained from functional improvement by its multiple enzymatic roles. Following duplication, this constraint was released and adaptive evolution proceeded along both paralog lineages. In the second chapter, I determine the molecular genetic basis of a flower color transition that is associated with change in pollinator attraction in morning glories. A regulatory change in a branching gene in the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway restricted flux down the cyanidin-producing branch, conferring nearly exclusive production of red pelargonidin pigment in flowers. I further demonstrate that this regulatory change was restricted to floral tissue...

‣ The extended evolutionary synthesis: Its structure, assumptions and predictions

Laland, Kevin; Uller, Tobias; Feldman, Marcus W.; Sterelny, Kim; Mu¨ller, Gerd B.; Moczek, Armin; Jablonka, Eva; Odling-Smee, John
Fonte: Royal Society of London Publicador: Royal Society of London
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Scientific activities take place within the structured sets of ideas and assumptions that define a field and its practices. The conceptual framework of evolutionary biology emerged with the Modern Synthesis in the early twentieth century and has since expanded into a highly successful research program to explore the processes of diversification and adaptation. Nonetheless, the ability of that framework satisfactorily to accommodate the rapid advances in developmental biology, genomics and ecology has been questioned. We review some of these arguments, focusing on literatures (evo-devo, developmental plasticity, inclusive inheritance and niche construction) whose implications for evolution can be interpreted in two ways-one that preserves the internal structure of contemporary evolutionary theory and one that points towards an alternative conceptual framework. The latter, which we label the 'extended evolutionary synthesis' (EES), retains the fundaments of evolutionary theory, but differs in its emphasis on the role of constructive processes in development and evolution, and reciprocal portrayals of causation. In the EES, developmental processes, operating through developmental bias, inclusive inheritance and niche construction, share responsibility for the direction and rate of evolution...