Página 11 dos resultados de 15239 itens digitais encontrados em 0.006 segundos

‣ Immunology in the clinic review series; focus on type 1 diabetes and viruses: how viral infections modulate beta cell function

Grieco, F A; Sebastiani, G; Spagnuolo, I; Patti, A; Dotta, F
Fonte: Blackwell Publishing Ltd Publicador: Blackwell Publishing Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /04/2012 Português
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‣ Immunology in the clinic review series; focus on type 1 diabetes and viruses: the innate immune response to enteroviruses and its possible role in regulating type 1 diabetes

Lind, K; Hühn, M H; Flodström-Tullberg, M
Fonte: Blackwell Publishing Ltd Publicador: Blackwell Publishing Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /04/2012 Português
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‣ Immunology in the clinic review series; focus on type 1 diabetes and viruses: enterovirus, thymus and type 1 diabetes pathogenesis

Jaïdane, H; Sané, F; Hiar, R; Goffard, A; Gharbi, J; Geenen, V; Hober, D
Fonte: Blackwell Publishing Ltd Publicador: Blackwell Publishing Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /04/2012 Português
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‣ Immunology in the clinic review series; focus on type 1 diabetes and viruses: role of antibodies enhancing the infection with Coxsackievirus-B in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes

Hober, D; Sane, F; Jaïdane, H; Riedweg, K; Goffard, A; Desailloud, R
Fonte: Blackwell Publishing Ltd Publicador: Blackwell Publishing Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /04/2012 Português
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‣ Recent progress of elucidating the mechanisms of drug hypersensitivity

Hashizume, Hideo
Fonte: Asia Pacific Association of Allergy, Asthma and Clinical Immunology Publicador: Asia Pacific Association of Allergy, Asthma and Clinical Immunology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Recent technical approaches to investigating drug hypersensitivity have provided a great deal of information to solve the mechanisms that remain poorly understood. First, immunological investigations and in silico analysis have revealed that a novel interaction between T cells and antigen-presenting cells, namely the pharmacological interaction concept, is involved in drug recognition and the hapten theory. Second, progress in immunology has provided a new concept of CD4+ T cell subsets. Th17 cells have proven to be a critical player in acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis. Our recent findings suggest that this subset might contribute to the pathogenesis of Stevens-Johnson syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis. Third, alarmins, molecules associated with innate immunity, are also associated with exaggeration and the persistence of severe drug hypersensitivity. The latest innovative techniques are providing a new landscape to examine drug hypersensitivity.

‣ Podoplanin: emerging functions in development, the immune system, and cancer

Astarita, Jillian L.; Acton, Sophie E.; Turley, Shannon J.
Fonte: Frontiers Research Foundation Publicador: Frontiers Research Foundation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 12/09/2012 Português
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Podoplanin (PDPN) is a well-conserved, mucin-type transmembrane protein expressed in multiple tissues during ontogeny and in adult animals, including the brain, heart, kidney, lungs, osteoblasts, and lymphoid organs. Studies of PDPN-deficient mice have demonstrated that this molecule plays a critical role in development of the heart, lungs, and lymphatic system. PDPN is widely used as a marker for lymphatic endothelial cells and fibroblastic reticular cells of lymphoid organs and for lymphatics in the skin and tumor microenvironment. Much of the mechanistic insight into PDPN biology has been gleaned from studies of tumor cells; tumor cells often upregulate PDPN as they undergo epithelial-mesenchymal transition and this upregulation is correlated with increased motility and metastasis. The physiological role of PDPN that has been most studied is its ability to aggregate and activate CLEC-2-expressing platelets, as PDPN is the only known endogenous ligand for CLEC-2. However, more recent studies have revealed that PDPN also plays crucial roles in the biology of immune cells, including T cells and dendritic cells. This review will provide a comprehensive overview of the diverse roles of PDPN in development, immunology, and cancer.

‣ The danger theory: 20 years later

Pradeu, Thomas; Cooper, Edwin L.
Fonte: Frontiers Media S.A. Publicador: Frontiers Media S.A.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 17/09/2012 Português
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The self–non-self theory has dominated immunology since the 1950s. In the 1990s, Matzinger and her colleagues suggested a new, competing theory, called the “danger theory.” This theory has provoked mixed acclaim: enthusiasm and criticism. Here we assess the danger theory vis-à-vis recent experimental data on innate immunity, transplantation, cancers and tolerance to foreign entities, and try to elucidate more clearly whether danger is well defined.

‣ Role of Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus (LCMV) in Understanding Viral Immunology: Past, Present and Future

Zhou, Xin; Ramachandran, Srividya; Mann, Margaret; Popkin, Daniel L.
Fonte: MDPI Publicador: MDPI
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 29/10/2012 Português
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Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) is a common infection of rodents first identified over eighty years ago in St. Louis, MO, U.S.A. It is best known for its application in immunological studies. The history of LCMV closely correlates with the development of modern immunology. With the use of LCMV as a model pathogen several key concepts have emerged: Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) restriction, T cell memory, persistent infections, T cell exhaustion and the key role of immune pathology in disease. Given the phenomenal infrastructure within this field (e.g., defined immunodominant and subdominant epitopes to all T cell receptor specificities as well as the cognate tetramers for enumeration in vivo) the study of LCMV remains an active and productive platform for biological research across the globe to this day. Here we present a historical primer that highlights several breakthroughs since the discovery of LCMV. Next, we highlight current research in the field and conclude with our predictions for future directions in the remarkable field of LCMV research.

‣ Toward a molecular understanding of adaptive immunity: a chronology, part I

Smith, Kendall A.
Fonte: Frontiers Media S.A. Publicador: Frontiers Media S.A.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 06/12/2012 Português
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The adaptive immune system has been the core of immunology for the past century, as immunologists have been primarily focused on understanding the basis for adaptive immunity for the better part of this time. Immunological thought has undergone an evolution with regard to our understanding as the complexity of the cells and the molecules of the system became elucidated. The original immunologists performed their experiments with whole animals (or humans), and for the most part they were focused on observing what happens when a foreign substance is introduced into the body. However, since Burnet formulated his clonal selection theory we have witnessed reductionist science focused first on cell populations, then individual cells and finally on molecules, in our quests to learn how the system works. This review is the first part of a chronology of our evolution toward a molecular understanding of adaptive immunity.

‣ Toward a molecular understanding of adaptive immunity: a chronology – part II

Smith, Kendall A.
Fonte: Frontiers Media S.A. Publicador: Frontiers Media S.A.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 29/11/2012 Português
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By 1980 it was obvious that to more fully understand adaptive immunity, one needed to somehow reduce the tremendous complexity of antigen recognition by T cell populations. Thus, there were two developments that resulted in a paradigm shift in immunology, one being the generation of monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs), and the other the development of monoclonal functional antigen-specific T cell lines. For the first time, the cellular reagents became available to ask new questions as to how individual cells comprising the complex cell populations recognize and respond to changes in their molecular environments. The first successful generation of monoclonal T cells depended upon the understanding that antigen renders cells responsive to the antigen non-specific T cell growth factor that came to be termed interleukin-2 (IL-2), which could then be used in propagating large numbers of the progeny of single cells, which in turn could then be used for molecular analyses. Monoclonal functional human T cells were used to immunize mice to generate clone-specific (clonotypic) MoAbs, which then permitted the first biochemical characterizations of the antigen recognition elements of the T cell antigen receptor (TCR) complex. Moreover, the use of monoclonal cytolytic and helper/inducer human T cell clones essentially proved that the T cell-specific molecules T4 (CD4) and T8 (CD8) functioned as accessory molecules in antigen recognition by defining MHC class II or class I restriction respectively. As well...

‣ The promise of the anti-idiotype concept

Kieber-Emmons, Thomas; Monzavi-Karbassi, Bejatohlah; Pashov, Anastas; Saha, Somdutta; Murali, Ramachandran; Kohler, Heinz
Fonte: Frontiers Media S.A. Publicador: Frontiers Media S.A.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 19/12/2012 Português
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A basic tenet of antibody-based immunity is their specificity to antigenic determinates from foreign pathogen products to abnormal cellular components such as in cancer. However, an antibody has the potential to bind to more than one determinate, be it an antigen or another antibody. These observations led to the idiotype network theory (INT) to explain immune regulation, which has wax and waned in enthusiasm over the years. A truer measure of the impact of the INT is in terms of the ideas that now form the mainstay of immunological research and whose roots are spawned from the promise of the anti-idiotype concept. Among the applications of the INT is understanding the structural implications of the antibody-mediated network that has the potential for innovation in terms of rational design of reagents with biological, chemical, and pharmaceutical applications that underlies concepts of reverse immunology which is highlighted herein.

‣ The Granuloma in Tuberculosis: Dynamics of a Host–Pathogen Collusion

Ehlers, Stefan; Schaible, Ulrich E.
Fonte: Frontiers Media S.A. Publicador: Frontiers Media S.A.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 07/01/2013 Português
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A granuloma is defined as an inflammatory mononuclear cell infiltrate that, while capable of limiting growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, also provides a survival niche from which the bacteria may disseminate. The tuberculosis lesion is highly dynamic and shaped by both, immune response elements and the pathogen. In the granuloma, M. tuberculosis switches to a non-replicating but energy-generating life style whose detailed molecular characterization can identify novel targets for chemotherapy. To secure transmission to a new host, M. tuberculosis has evolved to drive T cell immunity to the point that necrotizing granulomas leak into bronchial cavities to facilitate expectoration of bacilli. From an evolutionary perspective it is therefore questionable whether vaccination and immunity enhancing strategies that merely mimic the natural immune response directed against M. tuberculosis infection can overcome pulmonary tuberculosis in the adult population. Juxtaposition of molecular pathology and immunology with microbial physiology and the use of novel imaging approaches afford an integrative view of the granuloma’s contribution to the life cycle of M. tuberculosis. This review revisits the different input of innate and adaptive immunity in granuloma biogenesis...

‣ Endothelin-2, the forgotten isoform: emerging role in the cardiovascular system, ovarian development, immunology and cancer

Ling, Lowell; Maguire, Janet J; Davenport, Anthony P
Fonte: Blackwell Publishing Ltd Publicador: Blackwell Publishing Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /01/2013 Português
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Endothelin-2 [ET-2; also known as vasoactive intestinal contractor (VIC), in rodents] differs from endothelin-1 (ET-1) by only two amino acids, and unlike the third isoform, endothelin-3 (ET-3), it has the same affinity as ET-1 for both ETA and ETB receptors. It is often assumed that ET-2 would mimic the actions of the more abundant ET-1 and current pharmacological interventions used to inhibit the ET system would also block the actions of ET-2. These assumptions have focused research on ET-1 with ET-2 studied in much less detail. Recent research suggests that our understanding of the ET family requires re-evaluation. Although ET-2 is very similar in structure as well as pharmacology to ET-1, and may co-exist in the same tissue compartments, there is converging evidence for an important and distinct ET-2 pathway. Specifically is has been demonstrated that ET-2 has a key role in ovarian physiology, with ET-2-mediated contraction proposed as a final signal facilitating ovulation. Furthermore, ET-2 may also have a pathophysiological role in heart failure, immunology and cancer. Comparison of ET-2 versus ET-1 mRNA expression suggests this may be accomplished at the level of gene expression but differences may also exist in peptide synthesis by enzymes such as endothelin converting enzymes (ECEs) and chymase...

‣ World Allergy Organization Study on Aerobiology for Creating First Pollen and Mold Calendar With Clinical Significance in Islamabad, Pakistan; A Project of World Allergy Organization and Pakistan Allergy, Asthma & Clinical Immunology Centre of Islamabad

Abbas, Shahid; Katelaris, Connie H; Singh, Anand B; Raza, Syed M; Khan, Mir Ajab; Rashid, Muhammad; Abbas, Maryam; Ismail, Muhammad
Fonte: World Allergy Organization Publicador: World Allergy Organization
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 15/09/2012 Português
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Pollen and mold allergies are highly problematic in Islamabad. This study was conducted to investigate the type and concentration of airborne pollens/molds causing allergic diseases in susceptible individuals. A volumetric spore trap (Burkard) was placed at the height of 11 m and ran continuously for 3 years. Once a week, the collecting drum was prepared by affixing Melinex tape with a double sided adhesive that was coated with a thin layer of silicone grease. Every Sunday at 9:00 AM the drum was replaced by another drum and the pollen/mold spores were removed and permanently mounted on slides. Using a microscope, the trapped particles were identified and recorded as counts per cubic meter of air per hour. From these data, the pollen and mold calendars were constructed and expressed as counts per cubic meter of air per day. Skin prick tests were performed on more than 1000 patients attending the Pakistan Allergy, Asthma & Clinical Immunology Centre of Islamabad. The results indicated that there were 2 main pollen plants that contributed to seasonal allergies. These were Broussonetia papyrifera and Cannabis sativa during the March/April season and the July/September season, respectively. Although mold spores were continuously detected throughout the year...

‣ A Novel Quantitative Fluorescent Reporter Assay for RAG Targets and RAG Activity

Trancoso, Inês; Bonnet, Marie; Gardner, Rui; Carneiro, Jorge; Barreto, Vasco M.; Demengeot, Jocelyne; Sarmento, Leonor M.
Fonte: Frontiers Media S.A. Publicador: Frontiers Media S.A.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 16/05/2013 Português
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Recombination-Activating Genes (RAG) 1 and 2 form the site specific recombinase that mediates V(D)J recombination, a process of DNA editing required for lymphocyte development and responsible for their diverse repertoire of antigen receptors. Mistargeted RAG activity associates with genome alteration and is responsible for various lymphoid tumors. Moreover several non-lymphoid tumors express RAG ectopically. A practical and powerful tool to perform quantitative assessment of RAG activity and to score putative RAG-Recognition signal sequences (RSS) is required in the fields of immunology, oncology, gene therapy, and development. Here we report the detailed characterization of a novel fluorescence-based reporter of RAG activity, named GFPi, a tool that allows measuring recombination efficiency (RE) by simple flow cytometry analysis. GFPi can be produced both as a plasmid for transient transfection experiments in cell lines or as a retrovirus for stable integration in the genome, thus supporting ex vivo and in vivo studies. The GFPi assay faithfully quantified endogenous and ectopic RAG activity as tested in genetically modified fibroblasts, tumor derived cell lines, developing pre-B cells, and hematopoietic cells. The GFPi assay also successfully ranked the RE of various RSS pairs...

‣ Of Creatures Great and Small: The Advantages of Farm Animal Models in Immunology Research

Gibson, Amanda J.; Coffey, Tracey J.; Werling, Dirk
Fonte: Frontiers Media S.A. Publicador: Frontiers Media S.A.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 27/05/2013 Português
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‣ The Immunology of Cellular Stress Proteins

Van Eden, Willem; Bonorino, Cristina; Van Der Zee, Ruurd
Fonte: Frontiers Media S.A. Publicador: Frontiers Media S.A.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 18/06/2013 Português
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‣ Extracellular Chromatin Traps Interconnect Cell Biology, Microbiology, and Immunology

Radic, Marko; Kaplan, Mariana J.
Fonte: Frontiers Media S.A. Publicador: Frontiers Media S.A.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 24/06/2013 Português
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‣ Mucosal Immunology of HIV Infection

Xu, Huanbin; Wang, Xiaolei; Veazey, Ronald S.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /07/2013 Português
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Recent advances in the immunology, pathogenesis, and prevention of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection continue to reveal clues to the mechanisms involved in the progressive immunodeficiency attributed to infection but more importantly have shed light on the correlates of immunity to infection and disease progression. HIV selectively infects, eliminates, and/or dysregulates several key cells of the human immune system, thwarting multiple arms of the host immune response, and inflicting severe damage to mucosal barriers, resulting in tissue infiltration of ‘symbiotic’ intestinal bacteria and viruses that essentially become opportunistic infections promoting systemic immune activation. This leads to activation and recruitment or more target cells for perpetuating HIV infection, resulting in persistent, high level viral replication in lymphoid tissues, rapid evolution of resistant strains, and continued evasion of immune responses. However, vaccine studies and studies of spontaneous controllers are finally providing correlates of immunity from protection and disease progression, including virus-specific CD4+ T-cell responses, binding antibodies, innate immune responses, and generation of antibodies with potent antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity activity. Emerging correlates of immunity indicate that prevention of HIV infection may be possible through effective vaccine strategies that protect and stimulate key regulatory cells and immune responses in susceptible hosts. Further...

‣ Alcohol and epigenetic changes: Summary of the 2011 Alcohol and Immunology Research Interest Group (AIRIG) meeting

Zahs, Anita; Curtis, Brenda J.; Waldschmidt, Thomas J.; Brown, Lou Ann S.; Gauthier, Theresa W.; Choudhry, Mashkoor A.; Kovacs, Elizabeth J.; Bird, Melanie D.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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On November 18, 2011, the 16th annual Alcohol and Immunology Research Interest Group (AIRIG) meeting was held at Loyola University Medical Center in Maywood, Illinois. The focus of this year’s meeting was alcohol’s effect on epigenetic changes and possible outcomes induced by these changes. Two sessions, which consisted of talks from invited speakers as well as presentations of selected abstracts, were held in addition to a poster session. Participants presented information on alcohol-induced alterations in histone modifications and gene expression along with immunologic responses to alcohol. Speakers shared new research specifically on histone deacetylase enzyme expression and modifications due to alcohol and the downstream effect of these modifications may have on gene expression and tissue damage. Additional studies suggested that alcohol exacerbates inflammation when combined with other insults such as infection, trauma, inhalation injury, and disease.