En mai 2009, l’Ontario a adopté la Loi sur l’énergie verte et devint ainsi la première
juridiction en Amérique du Nord à promouvoir l’énergie renouvelable par le biais de tarifs de rachat garantis. En novembre 2010, dans son Plan énergétique à long terme, la province s’est engagée à déployer 10,700 MW en capacité de production d’énergie renouvelable non-hydroélectrique par 2018. Il s’agit de la cible de déploiement la plus élevée dans ce secteur au Canada. Les infrastructures de production et de distribution d’électricité comprennent des coûts d’installation élevés, une faible rotation des investissements et de longs cycles de vie, facteurs qui servent habituellement à ancrer les politiques énergétiques dans une dynamique de dépendance au sentier. Depuis le début des années 2000, cependant, l’Ontario a commencé à diverger de sa traditionnelle dépendance aux grandes centrales hydroélectriques, aux centrales
à charbon et aux centrales nucléaires par une série de petits changements graduels qui feront grimper la part d’énergie renouvelable dans le mix énergétique provincial à 15% par 2018. Le but de ce mémoire est d’élucider le mécanisme de causalité qui a sous-tendu l’évolution graduelle de l’Ontario vers la promotion de l’énergie renouvelable par le biais de tarifs de rachat garantis et d’une cible de déploiement élevée. Ce mémoire applique la théorie du changement institutionnel graduel de Mahoney et Thelen au cas du développement de politiques d’énergie renouvelable en Ontario afin de mieux comprendre les causes...
Well publicized cases of drinking water contamination in First Nations communities in
Ontario throughout the 1990s the first five years of the twentieth century have brought
the issue of drinking water contamination in First Nations communities to the public’s
attention. The most common form of drinking water contamination in First Nations
reserves is microbial contamination. While cases of drinking water contamination have
been reported in both northern and southern Ontario over the last decade and a half, it is
unclear whether the nature and/or severity of drinking water contamination differs
between First Nations communities in southern Ontario and more isolated communities
in northern Ontario. In this document the cause(s) and the extent of microbial
contamination of drinking water in two First Nations communities in southern Ontario
and two First Nations communities in northern Ontario are examined and compared. The
actions taken to address the drinking water contamination at all levels of government are
also examined and compared between the communities in northern and southern Ontario.
The results of this analysis suggest that while First Nations on southern Ontario appear to
be more prone to drinking water contamination due to development and population
pressure outside of the reserve...
Ontario Colleges of Applied Arts and Technology (CAATs) are currently in
the process of restructuring to ensure quality, accountability, and accessibility of
college education. References to learner involvement and self-directed learning are
prevalent. "Alternative delivery" and "paradigm shift" are current buzzwords within
the Ontario CAAT system as an environment is created supportive of change.
Instability of funding has also dictated a need for change. Therefore, a focus
has become quality of learning with less demand on public resources.
This qualitative case study was conducted at an Ontario CAAT to gather
descriptive, perceptual data from post-secondary community college educators who
were identified as supportive of self-directed learning and from post-secondary,
traditional-aged college students who were perceived by their educators to be selfdirected
learners. This college was selected because of initiatives to modify its
academic paradigm to encourage what was reputed in the Ontario CAAT system to be
self-directed learning. The purpose of this study was to investigate how postsecondary,
traditional-aged college students and their educators perceive self-directed
learning as part of the teaching-learning experience within a community college
Educator participants of the study were selected based on the results of a
teaching and learning survey intended to identify educators supportive of self-directed
learning. A total of 317 surveys were distributed to every full-time educator at the
sample college; 192 completed surveys were returned for a return rate of 61 %. Of
The relationships among chick feeding, size and type of prey item, and
foraging time away from the brood have not been well studied in seabirds. This
study investigated spatial and temporal patterns of foraging and chick-provisioning
among 23 radio-tagged male common terns nesting at Hamilton Harbour, Lake
Ontario during 1991 and 1992. Telemetry data were collected concurrently with
behavioural observations from an elevated blind.
Terns fitted with transmitters did not differ from controls with respect to either
brood attendance, patterns of chick mortality, species and size distributions of prey
delivered to offspring, or chick-provisioning rates. There was a clear separation of
parental roles: males were primarily responsible for feeding chicks while females
allocated more time to brood attendance. The prey species most commonly
delivered to chicks by adults were rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) and alewife
(A/osa pseudoharengus), followed in importance by larval fish, emerald shiner
(Notropis antherinoides), salmonids, and fathead minnows (Pimepha/es prome/as).
The relative proportions of various fish speCies delivered to chicks by males
differed over the course of each breeding season, and there was also much
variability in species composition of prey between years. Sizes of prey delivered to
chicks also differed between sampling periods. The modal size of fish brought to
chicks during Peak 1991 was 1.5 bill lengths...
Some Ecological Factors Affecting the Input and Population Levels of Total
and Faecal Coliforms and Salmonella in Twelve Mile Creek, Lake Ontario and
Sewage Waters Near St. Catharines, Ontario. Supervisor: Dr. M. Helder.
The present study was undertaken to investigate the role of some
ecological factors on sewage-Dorne bacteria in waters near St. Catharines,
Ontario. Total and faecal coliform levels and the presence of Salmonella
were monitored for a period of a year along with determination of temperature,
pH, dissolved oxygen, total dissolved solids, nitrate N, total phosphate
P and ammonium N. Bacteriological tests for coliform analysis were
done according to APHA Standard Methods by the membrane filtration technique.
The grab sampling technique was employed for all sampling.
Four sample sites were chosen in the Port Dalhousie beach area to
determine what bacteriological or physical relationship the sites had to
each other. The sample sites chosen were the sewage inflow to and the
effluent from the St. Catharines (Port Dalhousie) Pollution Control Plant,
Twelve Mile Creek below the sewage outfall and Lake Ontario at the Lakeside
Park beach. The sewage outfall was located in Twelve Mile Creek, approximately
80 meters from the creek junction with the beach and piers on Lake
Ontario. Twelve Mile Creek normally carried a large volume of water from
the WeIland Canal which was diverted through the DeCew Generating Station
located on the Niagara Escarpment. An additional sample site...
On February 29, 1912 The Ontario Paper Company Limited was incorporated under the leadership of Col. Robert R. McCormick. Four months later construction began in Thorold, Ontario as this location was best for the abundance of power and water and water transportation. The first machine was started at the mill on September 5, 1913. The mill was one of the most advanced of its era, using electricity instead of water power. The mill was also the first of its kind as it combined pulp and paper making instead of separating the two operations.; This archive contains materials relating to the Ontario Paper Company Limited. The bulk of the materials are correspondence, and media releases including some photographs and publications.
The Retired Women Teachers of Ontario (RWTO) was founded in Toronto by a small group of retired women teachers known as the Rendezvous Club. This group brought together several branches in 1956 to form the Ontario Association of Superannuated Teachers (OAWST), which was changed to the RWTO in 1999. The group was initially formed in order to provide retired women teachers with the same pension that was received by their male colleagues. The group came to the realization that they would have a better chance of success if they had a larger group of supporters. As a result, new branches were formed throughout Ontario. In 1967, the government concurred that the pension should be raised, and the minimum pension level was increased to $1200 a year. The following year the Retired Teachers of Ontario was formed, representing both male and female retired teachers. This new group was now responsible for communicating and negotiating with the government concerning pension matters. However, the RWTO continued to exist with a focus on the special interests and well-being of retired women teachers. There are currently 53 branches throughout Ontario.; Fonds contains material about the activities of the Retired Women’s Association of Ontario—St. Catharines branch. Most of the material is photographs...
The Ontario Federation of Agriculture was established in 1936 and is the largest voluntary farm organization in Canada, representing 37,000 farm families. The Federation came about in response to the creation of the Canadian Chamber of Agriculture (later renamed the Canadian Federation of Agriculture) in 1935. The establishment of an Ontario branch was needed to provide a forum through which similar organizations from other provinces could communicate about farm issues that were of interprovincial, national, or international importance.
The organization is led by farmers and is based in Guleph, Ontario. Their missionis to enable prosperous and sustainable farms. They accomplish this through lobbying, government and media relations, and community representation.; This archive is part of the larger Ontario Editorial Bureau Fonds (OEB) housed at Brock University. The records contain information about the activities of the Ontario Federation of Agriculture. The bulk of the material is correspondence, media releases, reports, promotional material and photographs.
The Ontario Forest Industries Association (OFIA) was founded in 1944. It is a provincial trade association that represents member companies who produce a wide range of products, including pulp, paper, paperboard, lumber, panelboard, plywood and veneer. The OFIA works with its member companies to address issues of common interest and concern, and communicates these issues to the appropriate government, industrial or business sector.
The Ontario Forest Information Service represented the OFIA from 1951 to 1988 as the publishers of their industry periodicals. Bush News was the first periodical published by the Service for the OFIA and ran until 1964, when it was replaced by Ontario Logger. In 1968, the name was changed to The Logger. In 1970, this was replaced by The Forest Scene. This new periodical was a departure from the earlier versions, which had served primarily as an internal communication system for the industry. The Forest Scene adopted a new format and editorial approach, emphasizing outdoor activities, recreation, hunting and fishing, conservation, and forestry operations and methods, thus appealing to a much wider readership. The Forest Scene ceased publication in 1988.; This archive is part of the larger Ontario Editorial Bureau Fonds (OEB) housed at Brock University. The records contain information about the Ontario Forest Industries Association and the Ontario Forest Information Service. Some material about the Ontario Professional Foresters Association...
The Ontario Tender Fruit Marketing Board operates under the Farm Producers Marketing Act. It covers all tender fruit farmers who produce either fresh or canned products. Today the board has over 500 grower-members. Tender fruit in the Niagara region includes: peaches, pears, plums, grapes and cherries. The fruits are used in a number of different ways, from jams and jellies to desserts, sauces and wine.
Peaches were first harvested along the Niagara river in 1779. Peter Secord (Laura Secord’s uncle) is thought to be the first farmer to plant fruit trees when he took a land grant near Niagara in the mid 1780s. Since the beginnings of Secord’s farm, peaches, pears and plums have been grown in the Niagara region ever since. However, none of the original varities of peach trees remain today. Peaches were often used for more than eating by early settlers. The leaves and bark of the tree was used to make teas for conditions such as chronic bronchitis, coughs and gastritis. Cherries have been known to have anti-inflammatory and pain relieving properties.
Like peaches and cherries, pears had many uses for the early pioneers. The wood was used to make furniture. The juice made excellent ciders and the leaves provided yellow dyes. Plums have been around for centuries...
The Association of Major Power Consumers in Ontario (AMPCO) was founded as the Niagara Basic Power Users' Association in the early 1960s. It was a coalition of seven companies in the chemical, pulp and paper, and abrasives industries within the Niagara region. The Association was formed to address increasing electricity rates. In 1974, the name changed to the Association of Direct Customers of Ontario. This change reflected the expansion of the regional Association to a provincial one, which grew in response to Ontario Hydro’s proposed rate increases of over 30 per cent. In 1975, the Association adopted its current name. AMPCO continues to advocate for “electricity rates that are competitive, fair and efficient, and a reliable supply of electrical energy across Ontario.”; This archive is part of the larger Ontario Editorial Bureau Fonds (OEB) housed at Brock University. The records contain information about the Association of Major Power Consumers in Ontario (AMPCO). The bulk of the material consists of correspondence, media releases, and promotional material.
Since the early 1970's, Canadians have expressed many concerns
about the growth of government and its impact on their daily lives. The
public has requested increased access to government documents and
improved protection of the personal information which is held in
government files and data banks. At the same time, both academics and
practitioners in the field of public administration have become more
interested in the values that public servants bring to their decisions and
recommendations. Certain administrative values, such as accountability
and integrity, have taken on greater relative importance.
The purpose of this thesis is to examine the implementation of
Ontario's access and privacy law. It centres on the question of whether or
not the Freedom of Information and Protection of Privacy Act, 1987,
(FIPPA) has answered the demand for open access to government while at
the same time protecting the personal privacy of individual citizens. It
also assesses the extent to which this relatively new piece of legislation
has made a difference to the people of Ontario.
The thesis presents an overview of the issues of freedom of
information and protection of privacy in Ontario. It begins with the
evolution of the legislation and a description of the law itself. It focuses
on the structures and processes which have been established to meet the
procedural and administrative demands of the Act. These structures and
processes are evaluated in two ways. First...
This study examined how the athletic career of Roderick R. McLennan
contributed to the popularization and subsequent development of Caledonian
games in Ontario during the latter nineteenth century.
Initially, the development of Caledonian games during the 1800s was
examined to provide a contextual framework for McLennan's career. This
investigation revealed that the games emerged from rural athletic events at pioneer
working bees in the first quarter of the nineteenth century to regional sporting
events by the mid-1800s, and finally into annual federated Caledonian games in
1870. Noteworthy primary source material for this chapter included the John
MacGillivray Papers at the National Archives of Canada, the Scottish American
Journal (NY) and the files retained by the Glengarry Sport Hall of Fame in
Following the investigation of Caledonian games, McLennan's early athletic
career was studied. Analysis of the Roderick and Farquhar McLennan Papers at
the Archives of Ontario and the newspapers from the period revealed that
McLennan rose to popularity in 1865 through a "Championship of the World"
hammer throwing match in Cornwall and two "Starring Tours".
The next chapter examined the height of McLennan's career through an
investigation of the Roderick McLennan versus Donald Dinnie rivalry of the early
1870s. It was detennined that the rivalry between McLennan and Dinnie...
The lack of long-term data on the response of boreal lakes to climate change has been seen as an impediment to the assessment of the vulnerability and risks that northwest Ontario faces in light of future climate change. The overall objective of this thesis was to provide a centennial-to-multi-millennial perspective on the impacts of past climate change on boreal lakes in northwest Ontario. Second chapter has resulted in the development and application of a paleoecological model, based on the modern-day distributions of chironomid assemblages to lake depth, in a small boreal lake. Changes in the chironomid assemblages provided significant and strong support for the diatom-based inference techniques that estimated lower water levels, and consequently drought-like conditions, throughout northwest Ontario during the Medieval Climate Anomaly. Third chapter provides evidence that supports an early-to-mid-Holocene period of aridity, with reduced water levels across the boreal region in northwest Ontario. This conclusion was based on changes in diatom assemblages in well-dated sediment cores from three lakes spanning a distance of ~200 km across the boreal forest region. During the early-to-mid-Holocene, benthic diatom taxa predominate in all cores...
This thesis analyzes selective land use and resource management policies in the province of Ontario, Canada and their relative capacity at recognizing and supporting First Nations. Written in a manuscript format, this thesis addresses the three following questions:
1. How have land use and resource management legislation and policies in Ontario recognized and supported First Nations’ rights and notions of honouring past Crown-First Nation relationships?
2. How are First Nations recognized and supported in the current and past versions of the Provincial Policy Statement in the province of Ontario?
3. How can top-down territorial planning policies in Ontario take a fundamental shift towards promoting new types of relationships and mutual understanding between municipalities and Indigenous peoples by learning from the Aotearoa New Zealand planning context?
The common approach to address these research questions is content analysis of policy documents through two separate analytical frameworks. The first manuscript addresses questions one and provides a baseline review of 337 provincial texts and their relative capacity at recognizing First Nations and Aboriginal and treaty rights, and embodying past Crown-First Nations relationships. The second manuscript then addresses the remaining questions by engaging in a comparative between the Ontario Provincial Policy Statement (PPS) (2014) and the Auckland Council Regional Policy Statement (ACRPS) (1999) from the Aotearoa New Zealand planning context.
The results highlight the relative limits of Ontario’s current approach and practical areas of improvement. From a theoretical standpoint...
This study aimed to determine whether summer water temperature affected Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) growth in Lake Ontario. In 1968, an intensive salmonid stocking program featuring Chinook Salmon was initiated in the Great Lakes to control invasive Alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus) populations, restore food web balance and create a recreational fishery. In 2014, anglers reported a decline in Chinook Salmon size in Lake Ontario, though catches had been very large in previous years. Fish otoliths were used to infer on annual growth rates of individual Chinook Salmon. A sample of years (2006-2014) from the Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources and Forestry’s (OMNRF) annual Chinook Salmon spawning index on the Credit River in Port Credit, Ontario was examined. Water temperature data was obtained from Buoy 45012 (43.619 N 77.405 W) maintained by the National Ocean and Atmospheric Administration’s (NOAA) National Data Buoy Centre (NDBC). Results showed a positive correlation between summer water temperature and Chinook Salmon growth, represented by cumulative growing degrees above a 10°C threshold (cumulative °C) and in-year otolith growth (mm), respectively. These results, in collaboration with previous research, provide evidence of the relationship between water temperature and teleost fish growth...
I hypothesize that specific aspects of education are central to the revitalization of culture amongst Aboriginal peoples in Ontario, and that this revitalization is integral to cultural continuity. I will show the relationship between key aspects of education and cultural revitalization as I track and assess the impacts of Ontario's high school Native Studies suite of courses. The key aspects are: the ability to generate and control content, the content itself (who it targets and serves and how it is applied) and how innovative ideas are implemented, through what processes and with whose help.
Recent trends emerging from the analysis of Ontario Ministry of Education (OME) data on the implementation of its suite of ten Native Studies high school courses suggest that the consistent efforts of several generations of First Nations, Métis and Inuit educators working behind the scenes since the late 1960s have resulted in significant and meaningful increases in the number of Native Studies courses offered, the number of schools and school boards offering them, and the number of students enrolling.
Considering the context of Aboriginal education in Ontario since the 1960s these general results may certainly be interpreted as progressive. I discuss seven catalysts that have had an indisputable influence over the ability of Indigenous educators to exercise an increasing degree of control over the Ontario Ministry of Education Native Studies curricula. While acknowledging the perspectives of scholars such as Taiaiake Albert...
The objective of this dissertation is to unearth the multi-scalar political geographies of regional development using an empirically intensive, single-region, case study approach focussing on Northern Ontario. This research focuses on Northern Ontario because it provides a unique setting to understand the political strategizing and contestation of regional development. Northern Ontario has had a long history of federal and provincial regional development initiatives from region specific policies, reports, and studies to regional development institutions. In fact, up until recently it was the only sub-provincial region in Canada with a federally appointed regional development institution. In Northern Ontario there is also a deep sense of territorial grievance and discontent that has generated a number of organizations and movements to mobilize regional interests in the quest for greater autonomy over decision-making and economic development.
The main objective of unpacking the multi-scalar political geographies of regional development in Northern Ontario translates into the following questions: 1) How and why have federal regional development initiatives in Northern Ontario changed since the 1960s? 2) How and why have provincial regional development initiatives in Northern Ontario changed since the 1960s? and 3) What are the regional responses? Answers to these questions underscore the messy and complex nature and politics of regional development. More pointedly...