Página 11 dos resultados de 125734 itens digitais encontrados em 0.071 segundos

‣ Benefit from Web services in the mobile Internet industry

Ikeda, Daizo, 1974-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 148 leaves; 6811736 bytes; 6830890 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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Over the past five years, mobile Internet services in Japan have seen major expansion as a result of collaboration between mobile operators acting as mobile portal providers, and their complementors, namely, content providers. However, the content business is currently under pressure to become profitable, and major players have found it difficult to differentiate their services from competitors In other words, service has become commoditized, which has resulted in a shift to the mature stage. This thesis suggests Web services as a solution to overcoming the commoditization of mobile Internet services and spurring new development in the industry. This emerging technology allows users to create a combination of Web resources through two fundamental approaches that lead to an innovation. The Web service requester approach enables integration of a variety of Web services as complementary assets from their business partners into their content. System Dynamics modeling methodology is used to examine how Web service requesters could promote product and process innovation as well as outsourcing. The analyses indicate that it is critical to adopt a different strategy under different scenarios of Web services diffusion, taking into consideration the requesters' dependence on Web service providers. The Web service provider approach offers an excellent opportunity to create distribution channels for services. Two case studies are analyzed in depth to understand how the subject companies took advantage of being a Web service provider with the support of complementors as well as users to promote innovation. Finally...

‣ Regulatory issues controlling carbon capture and storage

Smith, Adam (Adam M.), 1978-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 89 leaves; 4735789 bytes; 4745697 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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Climate change is increasingly being recognized by governments, industry, the scientific community, and the public as an issue that must be dealt with. Parties are pursuing various strategies to reduce CO₂ emissions. Renewable energy, energy efficiency, cleaner fuels, terrestrial CO₂ sequestration, and geologic CO₂ capture and storage (CCS) are the major efforts underway. This thesis examines some major regulatory and political issues that may affect geologic sequestration projects in the future. CCS is a technology system that captures CO₂ from a point source (e.g. power plant or industrial facility), pressurizes it into liquid form, transports it, and finally injects it underground into a porous geology for long-term storage. Technical and economic issues of capture, transportation, and injection of CO₂ have been relatively well studied over the past decade. The impacts of how current environmental regulation and political action to curb climate change will affect CCS have not been thoroughly explored. This thesis investigates the Environmental Protection Agency's Underground Injection Control Program and several types of protected and restricted land use areas to evaluate where it would be difficult or impossible to site a CCS project. I also explore state-level action on climate change and categorize them based on their attractiveness for CCS projects. I suggest a methodology for incorporating this regulatory information into a geographic information system based decision analysis tool...

‣ Multidisciplinary spacesuit modeling and optimization : requirement changes and recommendations for the next-generation spacesuit design

Jordan, Nicole Catherine
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 129 p.; 13695030 bytes; 13694497 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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The ability for crew members to perform spacewalks is an essential component of human spaceflight. Spacewalks are absolutely crucial for planetary exploration because they enable astronauts to explore their environment, conduct scientific experiments on the planetary surface, construct space-based infrastructure, and perform maintenance activities. The spacesuit is the primary piece of enabling hardware for spacewalks. Given that the United States is embarking on an ambitious mission to return to the Moon and eventually travel to Mars (as mandated by the U.S. Vision for Space Exploration), a new spacesuit will be built. The objective of this thesis is to aid the designers of the next generation spacesuit through critical analysis of existing spacesuits and quantitative optimization of future spacesuit architectures. Spacesuits change substantially over their design lifetimes; for example, the American spacesuit, the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) has undergone over five hundred changes in its twenty-five year operational life. These design changes have been triggered by requirement changes, which in turn were mandated by political and technological changes in the system's environment.; (cont.) This observation points to the fact that the next generation spacesuit must be designed with the ability to cope with the likelihood of changing requirements after it has been fielded. This goal...

‣ Managing software requirements : organizational and political challenges

Rodriguez, Laurie L., 1976-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 32 p.; 1629020 bytes; 1629632 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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Requirements management is an extremely critical and challenging part of the software development process. Correctly capturing these requirements is necessary for the user to be satisfied with the final product. Many instances of inadequate requirements management result in subsequent problems with the final product and have organizational sources. The goal of this research is to better understand the organizational processes and problems associated with software requirements management within NASA's human-rated space programs through interviews with experienced professionals within this organization. Some of the major themes that resulted from the expert interviews include: * Software engineering practices, such as the CMM, are starting to be implemented for the larger programs at NASA, however these practices have not been equally pervasive in all parts of the organization. * The main reason for lack of requirements management at NASA is not enough time or people available for the activity. * The reason that was most cited for requirements management tools not being used effectively is that these tools are too manpower intensive for NASA's current organizational situation, and require documentation that is not available. * To achieve improvements in requirements management NASA should hire more people with computer science backgrounds who also have an understanding of aerospace systems. * The lack of complete documentation on NASA projects...

‣ Telematics industry dynamics and strategies for converging technologies

Luis, Rodrigo, 1973-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 123 p.; 9393247 bytes; 9406383 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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The Telematics Industry faces tremendous challenges for growth. Regardless of the efforts and investment from vehicle manufacturers and suppliers, telematics has not been that profitable industry that many analyst forecasted five years ago; a 40 billion industry by 2003. This paper presents an analysis of the dynamics of the telematics industry and emphasizes on factors affecting the diffusion of telematics innovation. These factors are related to openness of telematics systems and establishment of standards, network externalities effects and attractiveness of complementors, customer's willingness to pay, telematics services pricing, and consumer knowledge of newer technology. Based on an in-depth analysis of the telematics architecture and the technologies converging in the telematics system I suggest a mixed strategy with respect to standards. This strategy favors the growth of this industry. Based on this strategy there are developed some scenarios of how the telematics value network will look like and how the interaction among the players would take place. Finally, a conceptual system dynamic model is presented to illustrate the dynamics of the industry and how the factors influencing the adoption of the telematics all play together to favor or affect the diffusion of the growing telematics industry.; by Rodrigo Luis.; Thesis (S.M.M.O.T.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology...

‣ Identifying expression fingerprints using linguistic information

Uzuner, Ozlem, 1975-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 200 leaves; 11620170 bytes; 11646101 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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This thesis presents a technology to complement taxation-based policy proposals aimed at addressing the digital copyright problem. The approach presented facilitates identification of intellectual property using expression fingerprints. Copyright law protects expression of content. Recognizing literary works for copyright protection requires identification of the expression of their content. The expression fingerprints described in this thesis use a novel set of linguistic features that capture both the content presented in documents and the manner of expression used in conveying this content. These fingerprints consist of both syntactic and semantic elements of language. Examples of the syntactic elements of expression include structures of embedding and embedded verb phrases. The semantic elements of expression consist of high-level, broad semantic categories. Syntactic and semantic elements of expression enable generation of models that correctly identify books and their paraphrases 82% of the time, providing a significant (approximately 18%) improvement over models that use tfidf-weighted keywords. The performance of models built with these features is also better than models created with standard features used in stylometry (e.g....

‣ Managing technological innovation and sustaining competitive advantage in the digital imaging industry

Ishii, Katsuki
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 65 leaves; 3010516 bytes; 3013153 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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The emergence and adoption of a disruptive technology that replaces an existing industry platform not only has enormous implications to incumbent firms, but also creates business opportunities that is enabled by the newly adopted technology. Firms competing in such an evolving and dynamic industry face great management challenges in its product's technological innovation process. Furthermore, defining strategies to sustain its competitive advantage through the market evolution by transitioning to the new platform is a non-trivial management task. This thesis focuses on the digital imaging industry that consists of input/output/storage devices as well as related software and services. This thesis will -- describe the evolution, transition, and competitive/collaborative environment of the consumer photography industry, both analog and digital, by way of value chain analysis, -- identify current trends that is shaping the digital imaging industry and the challenges it faces, -- explore key factors that influence the expansion of digital imaging, focusing on two platform technologies, specifically the image data format and removable memory card format, -- discuss the strategic implications for a new format to be introduced in a fast growing industry and its diffusion strategies...

‣ The potential for a nuclear renaissance : the development of nuclear power under climate change mitigation policies

Osouf, Nicolas
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 115 p.
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Anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases are very likely to have already changed the Earth's climate, and will continue to change it for centuries if no action is taken. Nuclear power, a nearly carbon-free source of electricity, could contribute significantly to climate change mitigation by replacing conventional fossil-fueled electricity generation technologies. To examine the potential role of nuclear power, an advanced nuclear technology representing Generation III reactors is introduced into the Emissions Predictions and Policy Analysis economic model, which projects greenhouse gas and other air pollutant emissions as well as climate policy costs. The model is then used to study how the cost and availability of nuclear power affect the economy and the environment at the global scale. A literature review shows that estimates of nuclear power costs vary widely, because of differences in both calculation methods and cost parameters. Based on a sensitivity analysis, the most important parameters are the discount rate, the overnight cost, the capacity factor and the economic lifetime. The methodological differences affect not only the absolute power costs, but also the relative costs among electricity generation technologies.; (cont.) Acknowledging this uncertainty...

‣ Value network modeling : a quantitative method for comparing benefit across exploration architectures

Cameron, Bruce G. (Bruce Gregory)
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 170 p.
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In the design of complex systems serving a broad group of stakeholders, it can be difficult to prioritize objectives for the architecture. I postulate that it is possible to make architectural decisions based on consideration of stakeholder value delivery, in order to help prioritize objectives. I introduce the concept of value network models to map out the indirect benefit delivered to stakeholders. A numerical methodology for prioritizing paths through this network model is presented, with a view to discovering the most important organizational outputs. I show how value network models can be linked to architecture models to provide decision support to the architect. I present a case study to examine the connectivity and sensitivity of a test architecture to value delivery. I conclude that a limited subset of NASA's outputs will discriminate between architectures. In this manner, I show how value considerations can be used to structure the design space before critical technical decisions are made to narrow it. A number of organizational implications for value delivery are generated from this analysis. In particular, I show that benefit flows should be aligned to organizational processes and responsibilities, and that failure to map stakeholder input to architecture evaluation can weaken benefit.; by Bruce G. Cameron.; Thesis (S.M.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology...

‣ Pathways to adoption of carbon capture and sequestration in India : technologies and policies; Pathways to adoption of CCS in India

Narain, Mudit
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 87 p.
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India is the world's second most populous country with a rapidly growing economy and increasing emissions. With the imminent threat of anthropogenic climate change in the coming decades, helping to control India's emissions will have to be a global priority. Carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) can play a pivotal role in reducing India's emissions in the future, given India's reliance on coal power and the large coal reserves. The motivation for this dissertation is the need to ascertain the current situation and conditions relevant to carbon capture in India so as to help guide the processes to prepare for large scale adoption if desired in the future. For carbon capture to be undertaken at a significant scale, various pieces will have to fall in to place in sync with each other. The technological capability would have to be complemented by adequate geological capacity under the umbrella of the right policies. Adoption of carbon capture would need a tailored approach for each country and for a diverse country the size of India, these approaches may need to be customized even locally to each region.; (cont.) The objective of this thesis is to increase the understanding of the opportunities, issues and challenges amongst the stakeholders regarding CCS in India regarding the capacity...

‣ Understanding the differences in the development and use of advanced traveler information systems for vehicles (ATIS/V) in the U.S., Germany, and Japan

Sugawara, Yoshihiko
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 157 p.
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Traffic congestion is becoming a serious problem. As a solution, advanced traveler information systems (ATIS) mitigate traffic congestion by providing real-time traffic information to travelers. ATIS includes various applications such as radio traffic reporting services and websites. Among those, this thesis focuses on more advanced real-time traffic information systems, which provide sophisticated traffic information to drivers via in-vehicle devices such as car navigation systems: we call them ATISN (advanced traveler information systems for vehicles). ATISN has a high potential to mitigate traffic congestion and improve travel for individual drivers. However, in some countries, ATISN has not been accepted well by drivers. To improve this situation, three questions motivate this study: (1) why does ATISN in some parts of the world have more penetration than in others, (2) what can be done to increase the penetration of ATISN, and (3) what kinds of strategic alliances among stakeholders can help to make better ATISNs. This thesis compares three countries, the U.S., Germany, and Japan, by a qualitative analysis of the system dynamics methodology to clarify reasons which have been causing differences in the penetration.; (cont.) Additionally...

‣ Future contactless payment options for transport for London : demand, cost, equity, and fair policy implications

Dorfman, Matthew James
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 120 p.
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This thesis assesses fare payment technologies for Transport for London in 2015. Based on a survey of technical literature, feasible payments technologies in 2015 include current smartcard technology, contactless bankcards and near-field communication (NFC) mobile phones. Five fare payment options based on these three technologies are proposed. Options 1-3 use contactless bankcards and NFC phones as the fare medium. Option 1 requires tap-in only and uses flat fares; it is a standard retail transaction. Option 2 is like Option 1 but adds a rebate program to approximate the effects of passes and transfer discounts. Option 3 requires users to tap-in and tap-out, and supports traditional transit fares. Option 4 continues the current use of a proprietary smartcard to implement traditional transit fare structures. Option 5 uses a vehicle-based smartcard reader that does not require barriers or fareboxes; it supports traditional transit fare structures and path- and service-based pricing. The five options are evaluated on four dimensions: cost, demand, equity, and fare policy. Options 1-3 have significantly lower costs due to the use of commercial payment media. Option 4's costs are similar to current costs.; (cont.) Option 5 is significantly more expensive and offers few benefits for London. To analyze demand...

‣ A knowledge services roadmay for online learning

Rajagopal, Anand, 1979-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 79 p.; 5081019 bytes; 5089453 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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In today's society, there is a need for organizations to have a robust knowledge infrastructure in place, so that they can create or acquire knowledge; store knowledge; disseminate knowledge, and protect and manage their knowledge assets. However, with advances in the publishing media, our ability to generate information has far exceeded our abilities to find, review and understand it, thus leading to "Information Overload". Information overload refers to the inability to extract needed knowledge from existing information due to the volume of information, or lack of understanding of information and its whereabouts, or efficient ways to locate relevant information. These issues could be addressed by having efficient Knowledge Management Systems/Knowledge Services, so that people can create and understand available information, and have services to help them learn effectively and make better decisions. To tackle the new information needs, the use of technologies such as Weblog Services (weblog-enabled knowledge services) offer opportunities for decentralized knowledge creation and dissemination; as such tools put the authors in charge of knowledge creation process without any administration-enforced policies. Learning environments are also typically characterized by challenges such as barriers to use...

‣ Building communities for design education : using telecommunication technology for remote collaborative learning

Yee, Susan, 1966-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 280 p.; 21023755 bytes; 21023513 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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The design studio, as both a learning environment and a social place, is one of the major components of architectural education. Traditionally, the studio has been considered a place for individual design work and one-on-one mentoring between an instructor and a student. With the integration of new information and telecommunication technologies, the nature of the design studio and the learning processes within it are being altered. This new landscape of the design studio offers opportunities for globally distributed collaborative work as well as new interpretations of design processes and studio practices. The technologies and the studio system are interwoven and their symbiotic relationships need to be understood if these technology-mediated long-distance collaborative design studios are to be common, valuable, and creative occurrences in architectural education. In this study, the consequences of integrating telecommunication technologies into the design studio are examined through ten cases. The new studios involve multidisciplinary design participants from separate and distant physical and social environments that are electronically connected for sharing design ideas, creating a common understanding of design practices, and co-constructing design objects. With technology use...

‣ Technology Suuply Chains: An Introductory Essay

Fine, Charles H.; Gilboy, George; Parker, Geoffrey G.
Fonte: MIT - Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: MIT - Massachusetts Institute of Technology
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This essay addresses strategic technology sourcing -- the determination of what technologies are strategic to a firm (or nation) and the management of the policy options that follow from this determination. This work is certainly not the first word on this subject, nor will it be the last. In fact, we hope that it will stimulate significant discussion about strategic technology sourcing especially in those organizations where such discussion has been absent, naive, or just shouted down by the manage-by-the-numbers types. In the business press today, outsourcing is the rage. "Restructure and downsize your organization; outsource as many functions as possible" seems to be the message from many of the world's most profitable corporations -- large and small -- as well as their consultant-armies.; MIT: Leaders for Manufacturing, the International Motor Vehicle Program, the Industrial Performance Center, the International Center for Research on the Management of Technology, and the Japan Program; Chrysler; Intel; Sematech; and Texas Instruments.

‣ The State Machine : politics, ideology, and computation in Chile, 1964-1973

Miller Medina, Jessica Eden
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 2 v. (392 leaves)
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This dissertation argues that Chile's history of computing is tightly interwoven with the history of the Chilean state. It begins by documenting the government use of mechanical tabulating machines during the 1920s and 1930s and concludes with the disbanding of the state computer enterprise known as ECOM in 1991. The dissertation pays particular attention to the period between 1964 and 1973, which was marked by the presidencies of Christian Democrat Eduardo Frei Montalva and Socialist Salvador Allende Gossens. The dissertation addresses three central questions. First, it asks how Chilean economic policies and political events shaped the country's technological history. Second, it asks what we can learn from computers if we treat them as texts for understanding historical processes in Chile, the Latin American region, and the developing world. Finally, it addresses how Chile's political leaders used computing machines in their attempts to control Chile's social, economic, and political development and to forward their plans to modernize the Chilean nation. It argues that computers proved valuable not only in producing the Chile of today but in articulating national goals that changed over time.; (cont.) Government, use of computers both reflected and made possible the ideological programs of developmentalism...

‣ Manufacturing muscle : the hot rod industry and the American fascination with speed, 1915-1984

Lucsko, David Nicholas
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 2 v. (437 p.)
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This dissertation focuses on the pursuits of a particular subset of automobile users: hot rodders, those who modify their standard production automobiles for improved performance. More specifically, this project examines the history of the speed equipment industry - the aftermarket subsector which manufactures high-performance products for hot rodders - from its infancy in the 1910s through the mid 1980s. The thesis begins by examining the role of technological enthusiasm in the early growth of hot rodding, focusing in particular on the ways in which this enthusiasm led a handful of individuals to begin to manufacture high-performance parts in the 1910s, 1920s, and 1930s. After tracing the wartime experiences of these industry pioneers, the project then explores the ways in which, in the midst of America's postwar affluence, the spectacular growth both of the high-performance industry and of hot rodding itself helped spawn the youth-oriented musclecar movement upon which the Big Three would later feed. In its examination of the 1940s and 1950s, the dissertation closely examines the evolution of this industry's production methods in an attempt to understand the manufacturing dynamics of a market-sensitive, flexibly-oriented, late-twentieth-century industrial sector.; (cont.) The thesis then explores the ways in which this industry dealt with automotive safety and environmental legislation in the 1960s and 1970s. It concludes with a discussion of the fragmentation of the hot rod market during the 1970s and 1980s...

‣ Flesh yours, bones mine : the making of the biomedical subject in Turkey; Making of the biomedical subject in Turkey

Sanal, Aslihan
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 2 v. (257 leaves)
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With the emergence of biomedical technologies, human body parts from living or dead donors have become commodities in the international networks of trade. This dissertation tries to understand religious, political and ethical discourses on this emerging economy and how it creates its subjects in Turkey. By drawing analogies from the early days of anatomy and mental health practices and by using a three-fold-corpus (state, body and law) as a framework, it illustrates how the state, the religious law on the body, and social inequalities turn some subjects to objects of this biomedical practice while extending life for others. Life histories, oral histories, doctors' and patients' accounts, media reporting, urban legends, cinematography, theater, poetry and literature speak of this new biomedical life. The meaning of the cadaver, the brain-dead body, and the living donor are reevaluated. The personhood of suicides, the homeless, the poor, the mentally ill, the immigrant, and women are all questioned with the redefinition of boundaries of life and death. Biomedicine effects this kind of social change.; (cont.) A cultural history of this production sheds a light onto how Turkey has become one of the centers of organ trafficking in the Middle East in the 1990s...

‣ Japan and Taiwan in the wake of bio-globalization : drugs, race and standards

Kuo, Wen-Hua
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 545 p.
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This is a study of Japan and Taiwan's different responses to the expansion of the global drug industry. The thesis focuses on the problematic of "voicing," of how a state can make its interests heard in the International Conference on Harmonization of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH). The ICH is a unique project that facilitates the formation of a single global market by creating universal standards for clinical trials and drug approvals. Tracing, through "slow motion" ethnography, step by step, why Japan claims a racial difference requires additional local clinical trials with "Asian bodies," this thesis rejects conventional interpretations of protectionism for Japan's resistance to globalization. It argues that more than protectionism is involved, and that a rich ethnographic understanding of Japan's medical infrastructure is required to understand the claim of biological, cultural, and national differences, as well as biostatistical arguments about the ambiguities of "extrapolation" of clinical data from one place to another.; (cont.) The inherent ambiguities of efforts to create "bridging" studies as a temporary solution to these problematics created a deadlock in the ICH, and provided an opening for Taiwan...

‣ Clean energy investments in an uncertain future

Harrison, Jessica (Jessica Kit)
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 96 p.; 7160104 bytes; 7164069 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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The energy sector faces a multitude of challenges related to climate change and energy security. These challenges will likely prompt considerable changes in the coming decades, including significant investment and new market design. To help fulfill multiple goals and limit the necessary tradeoffs among them, industry and policymakers alike are looking to new technologies. However, uncertainty regarding the challenges, the solutions, and the behavior of the energy system, make it difficult to discern which investment is right for what time. This thesis reviews the potential changes in today's energy system and examines the difficulties of addressing challenges that appear urgent yet elusive. An extensive literature review considers the problems of clean energy investment decision-making in modern energy systems, and evaluates the potential contributions of a real options approach and system dynamics. A case study on the market growth of Gas-to-Liquids technology provides more detail on the use of system dynamics to gauge market uncertainties. Admitting to the lack of appropriate tools to objectively evaluate strategies for tackling today's energy challenges, this thesis helps answer why such questions as the appropriate timing investment are so difficult to answer...