Androgen insensitivity is a disorder in which the correct androgen response in an androgen target cell is impaired. The clinical symptoms of this X chromosome-linked syndrome are presumed to be caused by mutations in the androgen receptor gene. We report a G----T mutation in the splice donor site of intron 4 of the androgen receptor gene of a 46,XY subject lacking detectable androgen binding to the receptor and with the complete form of androgen insensitivity. This point mutation completely abolishes normal RNA splicing at the exon 4/intron 4 boundary and results in the activation of a cryptic splice donor site in exon 4, which leads to the deletion of 123 nucleotides from the mRNA. Translation of the mutant mRNA results in an androgen receptor protein approximately 5 kDa smaller than the wild type. This mutated androgen receptor protein was unable to bind androgens and unable to activate transcription of an androgen-regulated reporter gene construct. This mutation in the human androgen receptor gene demonstrates the importance of an intact steroid-binding domain for proper androgen receptor functioning in vivo.
RNA analysis of lesions within the 15 intron-containing
gene of maize (Zea mays) revealed that the majority of
these mutants affect RNA splicing. Here we decipher further two of
these mutants, sh2-i
intermediate phenotype) and
sh2-7460. Each harbors a G-to-A
transition in the terminal nucleotide of an intron, hence destroying
the invariant AG found at the terminus of virtually all nuclear
introns. Consequences of the mutations, however, differ dramatically.
In sh2-i the mutant site is recognized as
an authentic splice site in approximately 10% of the primary
transcripts processed in the maize endosperm. The other transcripts
exhibited exon skipping and lacked exon 3. A G-to-A transition in the
terminus of an intron was also found in the mutant
sh2-7460, in this case intron 12. The
lesion activates a cryptic acceptor site downstream 22 bp within exon
13. In addition, approximately 50% of
sh2-7460 transcripts contain intron 2 and
Studies of genetically engineered flies and mice have revealed the role that orthologs of the human LIM homeobox LHX4 have in the control of motor-neuron–identity assignment and in pituitary development. Remarkably, these mouse strains, which bear a targeted modification of Lhx4 in the heterozygous state, are asymptomatic, whereas homozygous animals die shortly after birth. Nevertheless, we have isolated the human LHX4 gene, as well as the corresponding cDNA sequence, to test whether it could be involved in developmental defects of the human pituitary region. LHX4, which encodes a protein 99% identical to its murine counterpart, consists of six coding exons and spans >45 kb of the q25 region of chromosome 1. We report a family with an LHX4 germline splice-site mutation that results in a disease phenotype characterized by short stature and by pituitary and hindbrain (i.e., cerebellar) defects in combination with abnormalities of the sella turcica of the central skull base. This intronic mutation, which segregates in a dominant and fully penetrant manner over three generations, abolishes normal LHX4 splicing and activates two exonic cryptic splice sites, thereby predicting two different proteins deleted in their homeodomain sequence. These findings...
Pseudo-exons are intronic sequences that are flanked by apparent consensus splice sites but that are not observed in spliced mRNAs. Pseudo-exons are often difficult to activate by mutation and have typically been viewed as a conceptual challenge to our understanding of how the spliceosome discriminates between authentic and cryptic splice sites. We have analyzed an apparent pseudo-exon located downstream of mutually exclusive exons 2 and 3 of the rat α-tropomyosin (TM) gene. The TM pseudo-exon is conserved among mammals and has a conserved profile of predicted splicing enhancers and silencers that is more typical of a genuine exon than a pseudo-exon. Splicing of the pseudo-exon is fully activated for splicing to exon 3 by a number of simple mutations. Splicing of the pseudo-exon to exon 3 is predicted to lead to nonsense-mediated decay (NMD). In contrast, when “prespliced” to exon 2 it follows a “zero length exon” splicing pathway in which a newly generated 5′ splice site at the junction with exon 2 is spliced to exon 4. We propose that a subset of apparent pseudo-exons, as exemplified here, are actually authentic alternative exons whose inclusion leads to NMD.
Heuser, Arnd ; Plovie, Eva R. ; Ellinor, Patrick T. ; Grossmann, Katja S. ; Shin, Jordan T. ; Wichter, Thomas ; Basson, Craig T. ; Lerman, Bruce B. ; Sasse-Klaassen, Sabine ; Thierfelder, Ludwig ; MacRae, Calum A. ; Gerull, Brenda
Fonte: The American Society of Human GeneticsPublicador: The American Society of Human Genetics
Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) is a genetically heterogeneous heart-muscle disorder characterized by progressive fibrofatty replacement of right ventricular myocardium and an increased risk of sudden cardiac death. Mutations in desmosomal proteins that cause ARVC have been previously described; therefore, we investigated 88 unrelated patients with the disorder for mutations in human desmosomal cadherin desmocollin-2 (DSC2). We identified a heterozygous splice-acceptor–site mutation in intron 5 (c.631-2A→G) of the DSC2 gene, which led to the use of a cryptic splice-acceptor site and the creation of a downstream premature termination codon. Quantitative analysis of cardiac DSC2 expression in patient specimens revealed a marked reduction in the abundance of the mutant transcript. Morpholino knockdown in zebrafish embryos revealed a requirement for dsc2 in the establishment of the normal myocardial structure and function, with reduced desmosomal plaque area, loss of the desmosome extracellular electron-dense midlines, and associated myocardial contractility defects. These data identify DSC2 mutations as a cause of ARVC in humans and demonstrate that physiologic levels of DSC2 are crucial for normal cardiac desmosome formation...
We used antisense morpholino oligonucleotides (AMOs) to redirect and restore normal splicing of three prototypic splicing mutations in the ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) gene. Two of the mutations activated cryptic 5′ or 3′ splice sites within exonic regions; the third mutation activated a downstream 5′ splice site leading to pseudoexon inclusion of a portion of intron 28. AMOs were targeted to aberrant splice sites created by the mutations; this effectively restored normal ATM splicing at the mRNA level and led to the translation of full-length, functional ATM protein for at least 84 h in the three cell lines examined, as demonstrated by immunoblotting, ionizing irradiation-induced autophosphorylation of ATM, and transactivation of ATM substrates. Ionizing irradiation-induced cytotoxicity was markedly abrogated after AMO exposure. The ex vivo data strongly suggest that the disease-causing molecular pathogenesis of such prototypic mutations is not the amino acid change of the protein but the mutated DNA code itself, which alters splicing. Such prototypic splicing mutations may be correctable in vivo by systemic administration of AMOs and may provide an approach to customized, mutation-based treatment for ataxia-telangiectasia and other genetic disorders.
Hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN1-4) channels play an important role in the regulation of neuronal rhythmicity. In the present study we describe the mutation analysis of HCN1 and HCN2 in 84 unrelated patients with idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE). Several functional variants were identified including the amino acid substitution R527Q in HCN2 exon 5. HCN2 channels containing the R527Q variant demonstrated a trend towards a decreased slope of the conductance-voltage relation. We also identified a variant in the splice donor site of HCN2 exon 5 that results in the formation of a cryptic splice donor. In HCN1, the amino acid substitution A881T was identified in one sporadic IGE patient but was not observed in 510 controls. Seven variants were examined further in a case-control association study consisting of a larger cohort of IGE patients. Further studies are warranted to more clearly establish the contribution of HCN1 and HCN2 dysfunction to the genetic variance of common IGE syndromes.
Understanding the function of noncoding regions in the genome, such as introns, is of central importance to evolutionary biology. One approach is to assay for the targets of natural selection. On one hand, the sequence of introns, especially short introns, appears to evolve in an almost neutral manner. Whereas on the other hand, a large proportion of intronic sequence is under selective constraint. This discrepancy is largely dependent on intron length and differences in the methods used to infer selection. We have used a method based on DNA strand asymmetery that does not require comparison with any putatively neutrally evolving sequence, nor sequence conservation between species, to detect selection within introns. The strongest signal we identify is associated with short introns. This signal comes from a family of motifs that could act as cryptic 5′ splice sites during mRNA processing, suggesting a mechanistic justification underlying this signal of selection. Together with an analysis of intron length and splice site strength, we observe that the genomic signature of splicing-coupled selection differs between long and short introns.
X-linked retinitis pigmentosa (XLRP) is genetically heterogeneous with two causative genes identified, RPGR and RP2. We previously mapped a locus for a severe form of XLRP, RP23, to a 10.71 Mb interval on Xp22.31-22.13 containing 62 genes. Candidate gene screening failed to identify a causative mutation, so we adopted targeted genomic next-generation sequencing of the disease interval to determine the molecular cause of RP23. No coding variants or variants within or near splice sites were identified. In contrast, a variant deep within intron 9 of OFD1 increased the splice site prediction score 4 bp upstream of the variant. Mutations in OFD1 cause the syndromic ciliopathies orofaciodigital syndrome-1, which is male lethal, Simpson–Golabi–Behmel syndrome type 2 and Joubert syndrome. We tested the effect of the IVS9+706A>G variant on OFD1 splicing in vivo. In RP23 patient-derived RNA, we detected an OFD1 transcript with the insertion of a cryptic exon spliced between exons 9 and 10 causing a frameshift, p.N313fs.X330. Correctly spliced OFD1 was also detected in patient-derived RNA, although at reduced levels (39%), hence the mutation is not male lethal. Our data suggest that photoreceptors are uniquely susceptible to reduced expression of OFD1 and that an alternative disease mechanism can cause XLRP. This disease mechanism of reduced expression for a syndromic ciliopathy gene causing isolated retinal degeneration is reminiscent of CEP290 intronic mutations that cause Leber congenital amaurosis...
The spliceosomal factor TRAP150 is essential for pre-mRNA splicing in vivo and, when overexpressed, it enhances splicing efficiency. In this study, we found that TRAP150 interacted with the cleavage and polyadenylation specificity factor (CPSF) and co-fractionated with CPSF and RNA polymerase II. Moreover, TRAP150 preferentially associated with the U1 small ribonucleoprotein (snRNP). However, our data do not support a role for TRAP150 in alternative 5′ splice site or exon selection or in alternative polyadenylation. Because U1 snRNP participates in premature cleavage and polyadenylation (PCPA), we tested whether TRAP150 is a cofactor in the control of PCPA. Although TRAP150 depletion had no significant effect on PCPA, overexpression of TRAP150 forced activation of a cryptic 3′ splice site, yielding spliced PCPA transcripts. Mechanistic studies showed that TRAP150-activated splicing occurred in composite but not authentic terminal exons, and such an activity was enhanced by debilitation of U1 snRNP or interference with transcription elongation or termination. Together, these results indicate that TRAP150 provides an additional layer of PCPA regulation, through which it may increase the diversity of abortive RNA transcripts under conditions of compromised gene expression.
In sporadic breast cancer, loss of heterozygosity (LOH) frequently occurs in three discrete regions of the long arm of chromosome 16q, the most telomeric of which is located at 16q24.3. Among the genes mapped to this region,PISSLREis a plausible candidate tumor suppressor gene. It codes for a putative cyclin-dependent kinase that, as with other members of this family, is likely to be involved in regulating the cell cycle and therefore may have a role in oncogenesis. We characterized the genomic structure ofPISSLREand found that the splicing of this gene is complex. A variety of different transcripts were identified, including those due to cryptic splice sites, exon skipping, insertion of intronic sequences, and exon scrambling. The last phenomenon was observed in a rarePISSLREtranscript in which exons are joined at a nonconsensus splice site in an order different from that predicted by the genomic sequence. To screen thePISSLREgene in breast tumors with ascertained LOH at 16q24.3, we have analyzed each exon by single-strand conformational polymorphism. No variation was found in the coding sequence, leading us to conclude that another tumor suppressor must be targeted by LOH in sporadic breast cancer.; http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journaldescription.cws_home/622838/description#description; Joanna Crawford...
The aminoglycoside antibiotic neomycin B inhibits translation in prokaryotes and interferes with RNA-protein interactions in HIV both in vivo and in vitro. Hitherto, inhibition of ribozyme catalysis has only been observed in vitro. We therefore monitored the activity of neomycin B and several other aminoglycoside antibiotics on splicing of the T4 phage thymidylate synthase (td) intron in vivo. All antibiotics tested inhibited splicing, even chloramphenicol, which does not inhibit splicing in vitro. Splicing of the td intron in vivo requires translation for proper folding of the pre-mRNA. In the absence of translation, two interactions between sequences in the upstream exon and the 5' and 3' splice sites trap the pre-mRNA in splicing-incompetent conformations. Their disruption by mutations rendered splicing less dependent on translation and also less sensitive to neomycin B. Intron splicing was affected by neither neomycin B nor gentamicin in Escherichia coli strains carrying antibiotic-resistance genes that modify the ribosomal RNA. Taken together, this demonstrates that in vivo splicing of td intron is not directly inhibited by aminoglycosides, but rather indirectly by their interference with translation. This was further confirmed by assaying splicing of the Tetrahymena group I intron...
Many mutations in the skeletal-muscle sodium-channel gene SCN4A have been associated with myotonia and/or periodic paralysis, but so far all of these mutations are located in exons. We found a patient with myotonia caused by a deletion/insertion located in intron 21 of SCN4A, which is an AT-AC type II intron. This is a rare class of introns that, despite having AT-AC boundaries, are spliced by the major or U2-type spliceosome. The patient's skeletal muscle expressed aberrantly spliced SCN4A mRNA isoforms generated by activation of cryptic splice sites. In addition, genetic suppression experiments using an SCN4A minigene showed that the mutant 5′ splice site has impaired binding to the U1 and U6 snRNPs, which are the cognate factors for recognition of U2-type 5′ splice sites. One of the aberrantly spliced isoforms encodes a channel with a 35-amino-acid insertion in the cytoplasmic loop between domains III and IV of Nav1.4. The mutant channel exhibited a marked disruption of fast inactivation, and a simulation in silico showed that the channel defect is consistent with the patient's myotonic symptoms. This is the first report of a disease-associated mutation in an AT-AC type II intron, and also the first intronic mutation in a voltage-gated ion channel gene showing a gain-of-function defect.
Lapoumeroulie, C; Acuto, S; Rouabhi, F; Labie, D; Krishnamoorthy, R; Bank, A
Fonte: PubMedPublicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 26/10/1987Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
Expression of a cloned human beta thalassemia gene with a single base change at position 5 of IVS 1 has been analyzed 48 hours after transfer of the gene into HeLa cells (transient expression). Little or no normal beta globin mRNA accumulates in the presence of the abnormal beta gene in contrast to significantly more normal beta mRNA produced with other mutations at this same position. By contrast, large amounts of an abnormal beta globin mRNA are present; this is due to the use of a cryptic 5' splice site in exon 1 rather than the normal 5' splice site of IVS 1. The results indicate the variability of the effect on RNA splicing of different single base defects within IVS.
All retroviruses require both unspliced and spliced RNA for a productive infection. One mechanism by which Rous sarcoma virus achieves incomplete splicing involves suboptimal env and src 3' splice sites. We have previously shown that mutagenesis of the nonconsensus src polypyrimidine tract to a 14-nucleotide uninterrupted polypyrimidine tract results in an oversplicing phenotype and a concomitant defective replication in permissive chicken embryo fibroblasts. In this report, we show that splicing at the src 3' splice site (3'ss) is further negatively regulated by the suppressor of src splicing cis element which is located approximately 100 nucleotides upstream of the src 3'ss. The increase in splicing at the src 3'ss results in a corresponding increase in splicing at a cryptic 5'ss within the env gene. Two classes of replication-competent revertants of the src oversplicing mutant (pSAP1) were produced after infection, and these mutants were characterized by molecular cloning and sequence analysis. Class I revertants are transformation-defective revertants in which the src 3'ss and the src gene are deleted by homologous recombination at several different sites within the imperfect direct repeat sequences that flank the src gene. Cells infected with these transformation-defective revertants produce lower levels of virus particles than cells infected with the wild-type virus. Class II revertants bear small deletions in the region containing the branchpoint sequence or polypyrimidine tract of the src 3'ss. Insertion of these mutated sequences into pSAP1 restored inefficient splicing at the src 3'ss and efficient replication in chicken embryo fibroblasts. All of these mutations caused reduced splicing at the src 3'ss when they were tested in an in vitro splicing system. These results indicate that maintenance of a weak src 3'ss is necessary for efficient Rous sarcoma virus replication.
Two overlapping c-ets-1 cDNA clones were isolated which contained the alpha and beta genomic sequences homologous to the 5' end of v-ets not detected in the previously described c-ets RNA species or proteins. Nucleotide sequencing demonstrated that these cDNAs corresponded to the splicing of alpha and beta to a common set of 3' exons (a through F) already found in the p54c-ets-1 mRNA. They contained an open reading frame of 1,455 nucleotides which could encode a polypeptide of 485 amino acids with a predicted molecular mass of 53 kilodaltons. However, when expressed in COS-1 cells, the cDNAs directed the synthesis of a protein with an apparent molecular mass in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of 68 kilodaltons, p68c-ets-1, comigrating with a protein expressed at low levels in normal chicken spleen cells. These two proteins were shown to be identical by partial digestion with protease V8. Northern (RNA) blot hybridization analysis with the p68c-ets-1 -specific sequence and RNase protection experiments showed that the corresponding mRNA was expressed in normal chicken spleen and not in normal chicken thymus or in various T lymphoid cell lines. Thus, two closely related proteins, having distinct amino-terminal parts...
Null mutations of the Caenorhabditis elegans unc-22 gene cause a pronounced body surface twitch associated with impaired movement and disruption of muscle structure. Partial sequence analysis of unc-22 has previously revealed that its encoded polypeptide, named twitchin, consists of a single protein kinase domain and multiple copies of both an immunoglobulin-like domain and a fibronectin type III-like domain. This paper reports additional DNA sequence information that has revealed the transcription start of unc-22, the N terminus of twitchin, and an explanation for the weak phenotype of a transposon insertion allele. These new data indicate that the unc-22 gene is 18 kb larger than previously reported and has a transcription unit of 38,308 bp. These data add 791 amino acids to the twitchin N terminus for a complete polypeptide size of 6,839 amino acids and a predicted molecular weight of 753,494. This new polypeptide sequence includes four additional copies of the above-mentioned immunoglobulin-like domains and also includes a glycine-rich sequence that might form a flexible hinge. The additional coding sequence reveals that the insertion of the Tc1 transposon, in the unc-22 allele, st139, should disrupt twitchin structure because it is located in an exon. However...
Two murine monocytic leukemia cell lines, WEHI-265 and WEHI-274, were found to carry a rearranged c-myb gene. The rearrangements are due to insertion of a deleted Moloney murine leukemia virus (Mo-MLV) provirus in the 5' region of the c-myb gene and thus are similar to rearrangements in the ABPL tumors (G. L. C. Shen-Ong, M. Potter, J. F. Mushinski, S. Lavu, and E. P. Reddy, Science 226:1077-1080, 1984). In each cell line, the retroviral insertion has induced high levels of two aberrant RNA species, which, as in the ABPL tumors (G. L. C. Shen-Ong, H. C. Morse, M. Potter, and J. F. Mushinski, Mol. Cell. Biol. 6:380-392, 1986), contain both viral (Mo-MLV) and cellular (myb) sequences. Both species lack the sequences encoding the amino terminus of the c-myb protein and thus could encode a protein which, like the v-myb gene products (and the predicted ABPL myb proteins), is truncated at the amino terminus. We have found that the larger (5.3 kilobase [kb]) and more abundant of the tumor-specific myb RNAs was predominantly nuclear, while the smaller species (3.9 kb) was cytoplasmic. Furthermore, our data imply that the 3.9-kb RNA was derived from the 5.3-kb RNA by an additional splice which utilized a cryptic splice acceptor site within the viral gag sequences. On the basis of subcellular distribution and predicted translational potential...
We have isolated a naturally arising human immunodeficiency type 1 (HIV-1) mutant containing a point mutation within the env gene. The point mutation resulted in complete loss of balanced splicing, with dominant production of aberrant mRNAs. The aberrant RNAs arose via activation of normally cryptic splice sites flanking the mutation within the env terminal exon to create exon 6D, which was subsequently incorporated in aberrant env, tat, rev, and nef mRNAs. Aberrant multiply spliced messages contributed to reduced virus replication as a result of a reduction in wild-type Rev protein. The point mutation within exon 6D activated exon 6D inclusion when the exon and its flanking splice sites were transferred to a heterologous minigene. Introduction of the point mutation into an otherwise wild-type HIV-1 proviral clone resulted in virus that was severely inhibited for replication in T cells and displayed elevated usage of exon 6D. Exon 6D contains a bipartite element similar to that seen in tat exon 3 of HIV-1, consisting of a potential exon splicing silencer (ESS) juxtaposed to a purine-rich sequence similar to known exon splicing enhancers. In the absence of a flanking 5' splice site, the point mutation within the exon 6D ESS-like element strongly activated env splicing...
In a patient with a beta-thalassemia intermedia, a mutation was identified in the second intron of the human beta-globin gene. The U-->G mutation is located within the polypyrimidine tract at position -8 upstream of the 3' splice site. In vivo, this mutation leads to decreased levels of the hemoglobin protein. Because of the location of the mutation and the role of the polypyrimidine tract in the splicing process, we performed in vitro splicing assays on the pre-messenger RNA (pre-mRNA). We found that the splicing efficiency of the mutant pre-mRNA is reduced compared to the wild type and that no cryptic splice sites are activated. Analysis of splicing complex formation shows that the U-->G mutation affects predominantly the progression of the H complex towards the pre-spliceosome complex. By cross-linking and immunoprecipitation assays, we show that the hnRNP C protein interacts more efficiently with the mutant precursor than with the wild-type. This stronger interaction could play a role, directly or indirectly, in the decreased splicing efficiency.