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‣ Identification of novel mutations of the WFS1 gene in Brazilian patients with Wolfram syndrome

GASPARIN, Maria Regina R.; CRISPIM, Felipe; PAULA, Silvia L.; FREIRE, Maria Beatriz S.; DALBOSCO, Ivaldir S.; MANNA, Thais Della; SALLES, Joao Eduardo N.; GASPARIN, Fabio; GUEDES, Alexis; MARCANTONIO, Joao M.; GAMBINI, Marcio; SALIM, Camila P.; MOISES, Re
Fonte: BIO SCIENTIFICA LTD Publicador: BIO SCIENTIFICA LTD
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Objective: Wolfram syndrome (WS) is a rare, progressive, neurodegenerative disorder with an autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance. The gene for WS, WFS1, was identified on chromosome 4p16 and most WS patients carry mutations in this gene. However. some studies have provided evidence for genetic heterogeneity and the genotype-phenotype relationships are not clear. Our aim was to ascertain the spectrum of WFS1 mutations in Brazilian patients with WS and to examine the phenotype-genotype relationships in these patients. Design and methods: Clinical characterization and analyses of the WFS1. gene were performed in 27 Brazilian patients with WS from 19 families. Results: We identified 15 different mutations in the WFS1 gene in 26 patients, among which nine are novel. All mutations occurred in exon 8, except for one missense mutation which was located in exon 5. Although we did not find any clear phenotype-genotype relationship in patients with mutations in exon 8, the homozygous missense mutation in exon 5 was associated with a mild phenotype: onset of diabetes mellitus and optic atrophy during adulthood with good metabolic control being achieved with low doses of sulfonylurea Conclusions: Our data show that WFS1 is the major gene involved in WS in Brazilian patients and most mutations are concentrated in exon 8. Also...

‣ Estudo das mutações no gene COL2A1 em uma coorte de pacientes com displasias esqueléticas do grupo colagenopatia tipo II segundo critérios clínico-radiológicos; Study of mutations in the COL2A1 gene in a cohort of patients with skeletal dysplasias of type 2 collagenopathy group according to clinical and radiological criteria

Karina da Costa Silveira
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 28/02/2014 Português
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As displasias esqueléticas ou osteocondrodisplasias são doenças genéticas que afetam o crescimento e o desenvolvimento do tecido ósseo e cartilaginoso produzindo, em geral, baixa estatura. Mutações em heterozigose no gene COL2A1 são responsáveis por uma série de displasias esqueléticas conhecidas como colagenopatias do tipo II que geralmente apresentam um padrão espondiloepifisário típico. Apesar das mutações no COL2A1 serem, em geral, "privadas", o estudo molecular desse gene em pacientes com fenótipos sugestivos de colagenopatia do tipo II pode contribuir seja para um melhor entendimento das colagenopatias do tipo II seja para refinar, quando possível, a correlação genótipo-fenótipo. O objetivo desse estudo foi investigar o gene COL2A1 numa coorte de pacientes com fenótipo de colagenopatia do tipo II de modo a melhorar o conhecimento sobre essas colagenopatias. Foram estudados 33 pacientes com fenótipo de colagenopatia do tipo II. A análise molecular foi feita por sequenciamento automático bidirecional direto do gene COL2A1, começando pelos domínios relacionados a cada fenótipo seguido de sequenciamento completo das regiões codificantes do gene quando as primeiras foram negativas. Foram identificadas alterações potencialmente deletérias em heterozigose em 23 dos 33 pacientes (69...

‣ Ancient mtDNA sequences in the human nuclear genome: A potential source of errors in identifying pathogenic mutations

Wallace, Douglas C.; Stugard, Carol; Murdock, Deborah; Schurr, Theodore; Brown, Michael D.
Fonte: The National Academy of Sciences of the USA Publicador: The National Academy of Sciences of the USA
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 23/12/1997 Português
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Nuclear-localized mtDNA pseudogenes might explain a recent report describing a heteroplasmic mtDNA molecule containing five linked missense mutations dispersed over the contiguous mtDNA CO1 and CO2 genes in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) patients. To test this hypothesis, we have used the PCR primers utilized in the original report to amplify CO1 and CO2 sequences from two independent ρ° (mtDNA-less) cell lines. CO1 and CO2 sequences amplified from both of the ρ° cells, demonstrating that these sequences are also present in the human nuclear DNA. The nuclear pseudogene CO1 and CO2 sequences were then tested for each of the five “AD” missense mutations by restriction endonuclease site variant assays. All five mutations were found in the nuclear CO1 and CO2 PCR products from ρ° cells, but none were found in the PCR products obtained from cells with normal mtDNA. Moreover, when the overlapping nuclear CO1 and CO2 PCR products were cloned and sequenced, all five missense mutations were found, as well as a linked synonymous mutation. Unlike the findings in the original report, an additional 32 base substitutions were found, including two in adjacent tRNAs and a two base pair deletion in the CO2 gene. Phylogenetic analysis of the nuclear CO1 and CO2 sequences revealed that they diverged from modern human mtDNAs early in hominid evolution about 770...

‣ Diversity and Function of Mutations in P450 Oxidoreductase in Patients with Antley-Bixler Syndrome and Disordered Steroidogenesis

Huang, Ningwu; Pandey, Amit V.; Agrawal, Vishal; Reardon, William; Lapunzina, Pablo D.; Mowat, David; Jabs, Ethylin Wang; Vliet, Guy Van; Sack, Joseph; Flück, Christa E.; Miller, Walter L.
Fonte: The American Society of Human Genetics Publicador: The American Society of Human Genetics
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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P450 oxidoreductase (POR) is the obligatory flavoprotein intermediate that transfers electrons from reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) to all microsomal cytochrome P450 enzymes. Although mouse Por gene ablation causes embryonic lethality, POR missense mutations cause disordered steroidogenesis, ambiguous genitalia, and Antley-Bixler syndrome (ABS), which has also been attributed to fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2) mutations. We sequenced the POR gene and FGFR2 exons 8 and 10 in 32 individuals with ABS and/or hormonal findings that suggested POR deficiency. POR and FGFR2 mutations segregated completely. Fifteen patients carried POR mutations on both alleles, 4 carried mutations on only one allele, 10 carried FGFR2 or FGFR3 mutations, and 3 patients carried no mutations. The 34 affected POR alleles included 10 with A287P (all from whites) and 7 with R457H (four Japanese, one African, two whites); 17 of the 34 alleles carried 16 “private” mutations, including 9 missense and 7 frameshift mutations. These 11 missense mutations, plus 10 others found in databases or reported elsewhere, were recreated by site-directed mutagenesis and were assessed by four assays: reduction of cytochrome c, oxidation of NADPH...

‣ Spectrum and frequency of jagged1 (JAG1) mutations in Alagille syndrome patients and their families.

Krantz, I D; Colliton, R P; Genin, A; Rand, E B; Li, L; Piccoli, D A; Spinner, N B
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /06/1998 Português
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Alagille syndrome (AGS) is a dominantly inherited disorder characterized by liver disease in combination with heart, skeletal, ocular, facial, renal, and pancreatic abnormalities. We have recently demonstrated that Jagged1 (JAG1) is the AGS gene. JAG1 encodes a ligand in the Notch intercellular signaling pathway. AGS is the first developmental disorder to be associated with this pathway and the first human disorder caused by a Notch ligand. We have screened 54 AGS probands and family members to determine the frequency of mutations in JAG1. Three patients (6%) had deletions of the entire gene. Of the remaining 51 patients, 35 (69%) had mutations within JAG1, identified by SSCP analysis. Of the 35 identified intragenic mutations, all were unique, with the exceptions of a 5-bp deletion in exon 16, seen in two unrelated patients, and a C insertion at base 1618 in exon 9, also seen in two unrelated patients. The 35 intragenic mutations included 9 nonsense mutations (26%); 2 missense mutations (6%); 11 small deletions (31%), 8 small insertions (23%), and 1 complex rearrangement (3%), all leading to frameshifts; and 4 splice-site mutations (11%). The mutations are spread across the coding sequence of the gene within the evolutionarily conserved motifs of the JAG1 protein. There is no phenotypic difference between patients with deletions of the entire JAG1 gene and those with intragenic mutations...

‣ Novel ITGB4 mutations in lethal and nonlethal variants of epidermolysis bullosa with pyloric atresia: missense versus nonsense.

Pulkkinen, L; Rouan, F; Bruckner-Tuderman, L; Wallerstein, R; Garzon, M; Brown, T; Smith, L; Carter, W; Uitto, J
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /11/1998 Português
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Epidermolysis bullosa with pyloric atresia (EB-PA), an autosomal recessive genodermatosis, manifests with neonatal cutaneous blistering associated with congenital pyloric atresia. The disease is frequently lethal, but nonlethal cases have also been reported. Expression of the alpha6 beta4 integrin is altered at the dermal-epidermal basement-membrane zone; recently, mutations in the corresponding genes (ITGA6 and ITGB4) have been disclosed in a limited number of patients, premature termination codons in both alleles being characteristic of lethal variants. In this study, we have examined the molecular basis of EB-PA in five families, two of them with lethal and three of them with nonlethal variants of the disease. Mutation analysis disclosed novel lesions in both ITGB4 alleles of each proband. One of the patients with lethal EB-PA was a compound heterozygote for premature termination-codon mutations (C738X/4791delCA), whereas the other patient with a lethal variant was homozygous for a missense mutation involving a cysteine residue (C61Y). The three nonlethal cases had missense mutations in both alleles (C562R/C562R, R1281W/R252C, and R1281W/R1281W). Immunofluorescence staining of skin in two of the nonlethal patients and in one of the lethal cases was positive...

‣ Characterization of 18 new mutations in COL7A1 in recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa provides evidence for distinct molecular mechanisms underlying defective anchoring fibril formation.

Hovnanian, A; Rochat, A; Bodemer, C; Petit, E; Rivers, C A; Prost, C; Fraitag, S; Christiano, A M; Uitto, J; Lathrop, M; Barrandon, Y; de Prost, Y
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /09/1997 Português
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We have characterized 21 mutations in the type VII collagen gene (COL7A1) encoding the anchoring fibrils, 18 of which were not previously reported, in patients from 15 unrelated families with recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa (RDEB). COL7A1 mutations in both alleles were identified by screening the 118 exons of COL7A1 and flanking intron regions. Fourteen mutations created premature termination codons (PTCs) and consisted of nonsense mutations, small insertions, deletions, and splice-site mutations. A further seven mutations predicted glycine or arginine substitutions in the collagenous domain of the molecule. Two mutations were found in more than one family reported in this study, and six of the seven missense mutations showed clustering within exons 72-74 next to the hinge region of the protein. Patients who were homozygous or compound heterozygotes for mutations leading to PTCs displayed both absence or drastic reduction of COL7A1 transcripts and undetectable type VII collagen protein in skin. In contrast, missense mutations were associated with clearly detectable COL7A1 transcripts and with normal or reduced expression of type VII collagen protein at the dermo/epidermal junction. Our results provide evidence for at least two distinct molecular mechanisms underlying defective anchoring fibril formation in RDEB: one involving PTCs leading to mRNA instability and absence of protein synthesis...

‣ Mutations in argininosuccinate synthetase mRNA of Japanese patients, causing classical citrullinemia.

Kobayashi, K.; Shaheen, N.; Terazono, H.; Saheki, T.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /12/1994 Português
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Citrullinemia is an autosomal recessive disease caused by a genetic deficiency of argininosuccinate synthetase. In order to characterize mutations in Japanese patients with classical citrullinemia, RNA isolated from 10 unrelated patients was reverse-transcribed, and cDNA amplified by PCR was cloned and sequenced. The 10 mutations identified included 6 missense mutations (A118T, A192V, R272C, G280R, R304W, and R363L), 2 mutations associated with an absence of an exon 7 or exon 13, 1 mutation with a deletion of the first 7 bp in exon 16 (which might be caused by abnormal splicing), and 1 mutation with an insertion of 37 bp within exons 15 and 16 in cDNA. The insertion mutation and the five missense mutations (R304W being excluded) are new mutations described in the present paper. These are in addition to 14 mutations (9 missense mutations, 4 mutations associated with an absence of an exon in mRNA, and 1 splicing mutation) that we identified previously in mainly American patients with neonatal citrullinemia. Two of these 20 mutations, a deletion of exon 13 sequence and a 7-bp deletion in exon 16, were common to Japanese and American populations from different ethnic backgrounds; however, other mutations were unique to each population. Furthermore...

‣ Glucocerebrosidase mutations in Gaucher disease.

Beutler, E.; Demina, A.; Gelbart, T.
Fonte: The Feinstein Institute for Medical Research Publicador: The Feinstein Institute for Medical Research
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /11/1994 Português
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BACKGROUND: Thirty-six mutations that cause Gaucher disease, the most common glycolipid storage disorder, are known. Although both alleles of most patients with the disease contain one of these mutations, in a few patients one or both disease-producing alleles have remained unidentified. Identification of mutations in these patients is useful for genetic counseling. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The DNA from 23 Gaucher disease patients in whom at least one glucocerebrosidase allele did not contain any of the 36 previously described mutations has been examined by single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis, followed by sequencing of regions in which abnormalities were detected. RESULTS: Eight previously undescribed mutations were detected. In exon 3, a deletion of a cytosine at cDNA nt 203 was found. In exon 6, three missense mutations were identified: a C-->A transversion at cDNA nt 644 (Ala176-->Asp), a C-->A transversion at cDNA nt 661 that resulted in a (Pro182-->Thr), and a G-->A transition at cDNA nt 721 (Gly202-->Arg). Two missense mutations were found in exon 7: a G-->A transition at cDNA nt 887 (Arg257-->Gln) and a C-->T at cDNA nt 970 (Arg285-->Cys). Two missense mutations were found in exon 9: a T-->G at cDNA nt 1249 (Trp378-->Gly) and a G-->A at cDNA nt 1255 (Asp380-->Asn). In addition to these disease-producing mutations...

‣ Functional and Computational Assessment of Missense Variants in the Ataxia-Telangiectasia Mutated (ATM) Gene: Mutations with Increased Cancer Risk

Mitui, M; Nahas, SA; Du, LT; Yang, Z; Lai, CH; Nakamura, K; Arroyo, S; Scott, S; Purayidom, A; Concannon, P; Lavin, M; Gatti, RA
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /01/2009 Português
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The functional consequences of missense variants are often difficult to predict. This becomes especially relevant when DNA sequence changes are used to determine a diagnosis or prognosis. To analyze the consequences of twelve missense variants in patients with mild forms of ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T), we employed site-directed mutagenesis of ATM cDNA followed by stable transfections into a single A-T cell line to isolate the effects of each allele on the cellular phenotype. After induction of the transfected cells with CdCl2, we monitored for successful ATM transcription and subsequently assessed: 1) intracellular ATM protein levels, 2) ionizing radiation (IR)-induced ATM kinase activity, and 3) cellular radiosensitivity. We then calculated SIFT and PolyPhen scores for the missense changes. Nine variants produced little or no correction of the A-T cellular phenotype and were interpreted to be ATM mutations; SIFT/PolyPhen scores supported this. Three variants corrected the cellular phenotype, suggesting that they represented benign variants or polymorphisms. SIFT and PolyPhen scores supported the functional analyses for one of these variants (c.1709T>C); the other two were predicted to be “not tolerated” (c.6188G>A, and c.6325T>G) and were classified as “operationally neutral”. Genotype/phenotype relationships were compared: three deleterious missense variants were associated with an increased risk of cancer (c.6679C>T...

‣ Mixed lineage kinase 3 gene mutations in mismatch repair deficient gastrointestinal tumours

Velho, Sérgia; Oliveira, Carla; Paredes, Joana; Sousa, Sónia; Leite, Marina; Matos, Paulo; Milanezi, Fernanda; Ribeiro, Ana Sofia; Mendes, Nuno; Licastro, Danilo; Karhu, Auli; Oliveira, Maria José; Ligtenberg, Marjolijn; Hamelin, Richard; Carneiro, Fá
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Mixed lineage kinase 3 (MLK3) is a serine/threonine kinase, regulating MAPkinase signalling, in which cancer-associated mutations have never been reported. In this study, 174 primary gastrointestinal cancers (48 hereditary and 126 sporadic forms) and 7 colorectal cancer cell lines were screened for MLK3 mutations. MLK3 mutations were significantly associated with MSI phenotype in primary tumours (P = 0.0005), occurring in 21% of the MSI carcinomas. Most MLK3 somatic mutations identified were of the missense type (62.5%) and more than 80% of them affected evolutionarily conserved residues. A predictive 3D model points to the functional relevance of MLK3 missense mutations, which cluster in the kinase domain. Further, the model shows that most of the altered residues in the kinase domain probably affect MLK3 scaffold properties, instead of its kinase activity. MLK3 missense mutations showed transforming capacity in vitro and cells expressing the mutant gene were able to develop locally invasive tumours, when subcutaneously injected in nude mice. Interestingly, in primary tumours, MLK3 mutations occurred in KRAS and/or BRAF wild-type carcinomas, although not being mutually exclusive genetic events. In conclusion, we have demonstrated for the first time the presence of MLK3 mutations in cancer and its association to mismatch repair deficiency. Further...

‣ Germline Missense Changes in the APC Gene and Their Relationship to Disease

Scott, Rodney J; Crooks, Renee; Rose, Lindy; Attia, John; Thakkinstian, Ammarin; Thomas, Lesley; Spigelman, Allan D; Meldrum, Cliff J
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 15/05/2004 Português
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Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is characterized by the presence of hundreds to thousands of adenomas that carpet the entire colon and rectum. Nonsense and frameshift mutations in the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene account for the majority of mutations identified to date and predispose primarily to the typical disease phenotype. Some APC mutations are associated with a milder form of the disease known as attenuated FAP. Virtually all mutations that have been described in the APC gene result in the formation of a premature stop codon and very little is known about missense mutations apart from a common Ashkenazi Jewish mutation (1307 K) and a British E1317Q missense change. The incidence of missense mutations in the APC gene has been underreported since the APC gene lends itself to analysis using an artificial transcription and translation assay known as the Protein Truncation Test (PTT) or the In Vitro Synthetic Protein assay (IVSP).

‣ Jagged1 Mutations in Patients with Tetralogy of Fallot or Pulmonic Stenosis

Bauer, Robert C.; Laney, Ayanna O.; Smith, Rosemarie; Gerfen, Jennifer; Morrissette, Jennifer J.D.; Woyciechowski, Stacy; Garbarini, Jennifer; Loomes, Kathleen M.; Krantz, Ian D.; Urban, Zsolt; Gelb, Bruce D.; Goldmuntz, Elizabeth; Spinner, Nancy B.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /05/2010 Português
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Mutations in the Notch pathway ligand Jagged1 (JAG1) cause Alagille syndrome (AGS), as well as cardiac defects in seemingly non-syndromic, individuals. To estimate the frequency of JAG1 mutations in cases with right-sided cardiac defects not otherwise diagnosed with AGS, we screened 94 cases with tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) and 50 with pulmonic stenosis/peripheral pulmonary stenosis (PS/PPS) or pulmonary valve atresia with intact ventricular septum (PA) for mutations. Sequence changes were identified in three TOF and three PS/PPS/PA patients,that were not present in 100 controls. We identified one frameshift and two missense mutations in the TOF cases, and one frameshift and two missense mutations in cases with PS/PPS/PA. The four missense mutations were assayed for their effect on protein localization, post-translational modification and ability to activate Notch signaling. The missense mutants displayed heterogeneous behavior in these assays, some with complete haploinsufficiency, suggesting that there are additional modifiers leading to organ specific features. We identified functionally significant mutations in 3% (2/94) of TOF patients and 4% (2/50) of PS/PPS/PA patients. Patients with right-sided cardiac defects should be carefully screened for features of AGS or a family history of cardiac defects that might suggest the presence of a JAG1 mutation.

‣ Profound, prelingual nonsyndromic deafness maps to chromosome 10q21 and is caused by a novel missense mutation in the Usher syndrome type IF gene PCDH15

Doucette, Lance; Merner, Nancy D; Cooke, Sandra; Ives, Elizabeth; Galutira, Dante; Walsh, Vanessa; Walsh, Tom; MacLaren, Linda; Cater, Tracey; Fernandez, Bridget; Green, Jane S; Wilcox, Edward R; Shotland, Larry; Li, X C; Lee, Ming; King, Mary-Claire; You
Fonte: Nature Publishing Group Publicador: Nature Publishing Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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We studied a consanguineous family (Family A) from the island of Newfoundland with an autosomal recessive form of prelingual, profound, nonsyndromic sensorineural hearing loss. A genome-wide scan mapped the deafness trait to 10q21-22 (max LOD score of 4.0; D10S196) and fine mapping revealed a 16 Mb ancestral haplotype in deaf relatives. The PCDH15 gene was mapped within the critical region and was an interesting candidate because truncating mutations cause Usher syndrome type IF (USH1F) and two missense mutations have been previously associated with isolated deafness (DFNB23). Sequencing of the PCDH15 gene revealed 33 sequencing variants. Three of these variants were homozygous exclusively in deaf siblings but only one of them was not seen in ethnically matched controls. This novel c.1583 T>A transversion predicts an amino-acid substitution of a valine with an aspartic acid at codon 528 (V528D). Like the two DFNB23 mutations, the V528D mutation in Family A occurs in a highly conserved extracellular cadherin (EC) domain of PCDH15 and is predicted to be more deleterious than the previously identified DFNB23 missense mutations (R134G and G262D). Physical assessment, vestibular and visual function testing in deaf adults ruled out syndromic deafness because of Usher syndrome. This study validates the DFNB23 designation and supports the hypothesis that missense mutations in conserved motifs of PCDH15 cause nonsyndromic hearing loss. This emerging genotype–phenotype correlation in USH1F is similar to that in several other USH1 genes and cautions against a prognosis of a dual sensory loss in deaf children found to be homozygous for hypomorphic mutations at the USH1F locus.

‣ Restoring expression of wild-type p53 suppresses tumor growth but does not cause tumor regression in mice with a p53 missense mutation

Wang, Yongxing; Suh, Young-Ah; Fuller, Maren Y.; Jackson, James G.; Xiong, Shunbin; Terzian, Tamara; Quintás-Cardama, Alfonso; Bankson, James A.; El-Naggar, Adel K.; Lozano, Guillermina
Fonte: American Society for Clinical Investigation Publicador: American Society for Clinical Investigation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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The transcription factor p53 is a tumor suppressor. As such, the P53 gene is frequently altered in human cancers. However, over 80% of the P53 mutations found in human cancers are missense mutations that lead to expression of mutant proteins that not only lack p53 transcriptional activity but exhibit new functions as well. Recent studies show that restoration of p53 expression leads to tumor regression in mice carrying p53 deletions. However, the therapeutic efficacy of restoring p53 expression in tumors containing p53 missense mutations has not been evaluated. Here we demonstrate that restoring wild-type p53 expression halted tumor growth in mice inheriting a p53R172H missense mutation that is equivalent to a P53 missense mutation detected in approximately 6% of human cancers. However, it did not lead to tumor regression, as was observed in mice lacking p53. We further showed that the dominant-negative effect of the mutant p53 encoded by p53R172H dampened the activity of the restored wild-type p53. We therefore conclude that in a mutant p53 background, p53 restoration has the therapeutic potential to suppress tumor progression. Our findings support using p53 restoration as a strategy to treat human cancers with P53 missense mutations and provide direction for optimizing p53 restoration in cancer therapy.

‣ Identification and characterisation of mutations associated with von Willebrand disease in a Turkish patient cohort

Hampshire, Daniel J.; Abuzenadah, Adel M.; Cartwright, Ashley; Al-Shammari, Nawal S.; Coyle, Rachael E.; Eckert, Michaela; Al-Buhairan, Ahlam M.; Messenger, Sarah L.; Budde, Ulrich; Gürsel, Türkiz; Ingerslev, Jørgen; Peake, Ian R.; Goodeve, Anne C.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Several cohort studies have investigated the molecular basis of von Willebrand disease (VWD); however these have mostly focused on European and North American populations. This study aimed to investigate mutation spectrum in 26 index cases (IC) from Turkey diagnosed with all three VWD types, the majority (73%) with parents who were knowingly related. IC were screened for mutations using multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification and analysis of all von Willebrand factor gene (VWF) exons and exon/intron boundaries. Selected missense mutations were expressed in vitro. Candidate VWF mutations were identified in 25 of 26 IC and included propeptide missense mutations in four IC (two resulting in type 1 and two in recessive 2A), all influencing VWF expression in vitro. Four missense mutations, a nonsense mutation and a small in-frame insertion resulting in type 2A were also identified. Of 15 type 3 VWD IC, 13 were homozygous and two compound heterozygous for 14 candidate mutations predicted to result in lack of expression and two propeptide missense changes. Identification of intronic breakpoints of an exon 17–18 deletion suggested that the mutation resulted from non-homologous end joining. This study provides further insight into the pathogenesis of VWD in a population with a high degree of consanguineous partnerships.

‣ Dravet syndrome or genetic (generalized) epilepsy with febrile seizures plus?

Scheffer, I.; Zhang, Y.H.; Jansen, F.; Dibbens, L.
Fonte: Elsevier Science BV Publicador: Elsevier Science BV
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2009 Português
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Dravet syndrome and genetic epilepsy with febrile seizures plus (GEFS+) can both arise due to mutations of SCN1A, the gene encoding the alpha 1 pore-forming subunit of the sodium channel. GEFS+ refers to a familial epilepsy syndrome where at least two family members have phenotypes that fit within the GEFS+ spectrum. The GEFS+ spectrum comprises a range of mild to severe phenotypes varying from classical febrile seizures to Dravet syndrome. Dravet syndrome is a severe infantile onset epilepsy syndrome with multiple seizure types, developmental slowing and poor outcome. More than 70% of patients with Dravet syndrome have mutations of SCN1A; these include both truncation and missense mutations. In contrast, only 10% of GEFS+ families have SCN1A mutations and these comprise missense mutations. GEFS+ has also been associated with mutations of genes encoding the sodium channel beta 1 subunit, SCN1B, and the GABA(A) receptor gamma 2 subunit, GABRG2. The phenotypic heterogeneity that is characteristic of GEFS+ families is likely to be due to modifier genes. Interpretation of the significance of a SCN1A missense mutation requires a thorough understanding of the phenotypes in the GEFS+ spectrum whereas a de novo truncation mutation is likely to be associated with a severe phenotype. Early recognition of Dravet syndrome is important as aggressive control of seizures may improve developmental outcome.; http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journaldescription.cws_home/524172/description#description; Ingrid E. Scheffer...

‣ Mixed lineage kinase 3 gene mutations in mismatch repair deficient gastrointestinal tumours.

Velho, Sérgia; Oliveira, Carla; Paredes, Joana; Sousa, Sónia; Leite, Marina; Matos, Paulo; Milanezi, Fernanda; Ribeiro, Ana Sofia; Mendes, Nuno; Licastro, Danilo; Karhu, Auli; Oliveira, Maria José; Ligtenberg, Marjolijn; Hamelin, Richard; Carneiro, Fá
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 15/02/2010 Português
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Mixed lineage kinase 3 (MLK3) is a serine/threonine kinase, regulating MAPkinase signalling, in which cancer-associated mutations have never been reported. In this study, 174 primary gastrointestinal cancers (48 hereditary and 126 sporadic forms) and 7 colorectal cancer cell lines were screened for MLK3 mutations. MLK3 mutations were significantly associated with MSI phenotype in primary tumours (P = 0.0005), occurring in 21% of the MSI carcinomas. Most MLK3 somatic mutations identified were of the missense type (62.5%) and more than 80% of them affected evolutionarily conserved residues. A predictive 3D model points to the functional relevance of MLK3 missense mutations, which cluster in the kinase domain. Further, the model shows that most of the altered residues in the kinase domain probably affect MLK3 scaffold properties, instead of its kinase activity. MLK3 missense mutations showed transforming capacity in vitro and cells expressing the mutant gene were able to develop locally invasive tumours, when subcutaneously injected in nude mice. Interestingly, in primary tumours, MLK3 mutations occurred in KRAS and/or BRAF wild-type carcinomas, although not being mutually exclusive genetic events. In conclusion, we have demonstrated for the first time the presence of MLK3 mutations in cancer and its association to mismatch repair deficiency. Further...

‣ BCR-ABL1 compound mutations in tyrosine kinase inhibitor–resistant CML: frequency and clonal relationships

Khorashad, Jamshid S.; Kelley, Todd W.; Szankasi, Philippe; Mason, Clinton C.; Soverini, Simona; Adrian, Lauren T.; Eide, Christopher A.; Zabriskie, Matthew S.; Lange, Thoralf; Estrada, Johanna C.; Pomicter, Anthony D.; Eiring, Anna M.; Kraft, Ira L.; And
Fonte: American Society of Hematology Publicador: American Society of Hematology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 17/01/2013 Português
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BCR-ABL1 compound mutations can confer high-level resistance to imatinib and other ABL1 tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). The third-generation ABL1 TKI ponatinib is effective against BCR-ABL1 point mutants individually, but remains vulnerable to certain BCR-ABL1 compound mutants. To determine the frequency of compound mutations among chronic myeloid leukemia patients on ABL1 TKI therapy, in the present study, we examined a collection of patient samples (N = 47) with clear evidence of 2 BCR-ABL1 kinase domain mutations by direct sequencing. Using a cloning and sequencing method, we found that 70% (33/47) of double mutations detected by direct sequencing were compound mutations. Sequential, branching, and parallel routes to compound mutations were common. In addition, our approach revealed individual and compound mutations not detectable by direct sequencing. The frequency of clones harboring compound mutations with more than 2 missense mutations was low (10%), whereas the likelihood of silent mutations increased disproportionately with the total number of mutations per clone, suggesting a limited tolerance for BCR-ABL1 kinase domain missense mutations. We conclude that compound mutations are common in patients with sequencing evidence for 2 BCR-ABL1 mutations and frequently reflect a highly complex clonal network...

‣ Ubiquitin Ligases of the N-End Rule Pathway: Assessment of Mutations in UBR1 That Cause the Johanson-Blizzard Syndrome

Hwang, Cheol-Sang; Sukalo, Maja; Batygin, Olga; Addor, Marie-Claude; Brunner, Han; Perez Aytes, Antonio; Mayerle, Julia; Song, Hyun Kyu; Varshavsky, Alexander; Zenker, Martin
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Article; PeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 13/09/2011 Português
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Background: Johanson-Blizzard syndrome (JBS; OMIM 243800) is an autosomal recessive disorder that includes congenital exocrine pancreatic insufficiency, facial dysmorphism with the characteristic nasal wing hypoplasia, multiple malformations, and frequent mental retardation. Our previous work has shown that JBS is caused by mutations in human UBR1, which encodes one of the E3 ubiquitin ligases of the N-end rule pathway. The N-end rule relates the regulation of the in vivo half-life of a protein to the identity of its N-terminal residue. One class of degradation signals (degrons) recognized by UBR1 are destabilizing N-terminal residues of protein substrates. Methodology/Principal Findings: Most JBS-causing alterations of UBR1 are nonsense, frameshift or splice-site mutations that abolish UBR1 activity. We report here missense mutations of human UBR1 in patients with milder variants of JBS. These single-residue changes, including a previously reported missense mutation, involve positions in the RING-H2 and UBR domains of UBR1 that are conserved among eukaryotes. Taking advantage of this conservation, we constructed alleles of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae UBR1 that were counterparts of missense JBS-UBR1 alleles. Among these yeast Ubr1 mutants...