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‣ Potential of Energy Integration in Mashreq and Neighboring Countries

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
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The objective of this study is to carry out a country-by-country analysis of the power and gas sector demand and supply picture in order to assess opportunities for regional energy integration in the Mashreq and neighboring countries, and to identify specific interconnection projects that may require support from the World Bank and other international financiers. The study is conducted in the context of the World Bank Arab World Initiative. Although the present study focuses on Mashreq countries, issues of regional integration are intertwined among various Middle East and North Africa (MENA) sub-regions, and Turkey with eventual integration with Europe, so Mashreq is not considered in isolation. There are two other parallel efforts to examine the energy integration potential in the Maghreb and the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries. In addition, the World Bank and its partners are implementing a major solar power initiative with support from the Clean Technology Fund (CTF) to assist the MENA countries with development of large scale concentrated solar power (CSP) electricity generation capabilities for their own use or for export to other countries. Large scale development of solar power is expected to support and facilitate regional integration among MENA countries and with Europe as well.

‣ Energy Efficient Lighting Options for Afghanistan

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
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This study examines the potential options for implementing an energy efficient lighting program in Afghanistan. It analyzes the range of energy efficient options available in the region and identifies the best choices for specific market segments in off-grid and grid connected areas. Based on this analysis, it is recommended that in rural areas, where grid (local or from main network) is neither available nor likely to be available soon, lead emitting diode (LED) lights coupled with solar (photovoltaic) PV panels offer the least cost solution for expansion of energy access. In grid-connected areas, compact and tube fluorescent lamps are recommended for existing household connections, as well as community and street lighting. The analysis also shows there are numerous barriers and potential problems with implementing an energy efficiency program in Afghanistan. Therefore a phased implementation program is suggested, with careful oversight of the quality of products entering the market.

‣ Multidimensional Auctions for Public Energy Efficiency Projects : Evidence from the Japanese ESCO Market

Iimi, Atsushi
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
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Competitive bidding is an important policy tool to procure goods and services from the market at the lowest possible cost. Under traditional public procurement systems, however, it may be difficult to purchase highly customized objects, such as energy efficiency services. This is because not only prices but also other nonmonetary aspects need to be taken into account. Multidimensional auctions are often used to evaluate multidimensional bids. This paper examines the bidding strategy in multidimensional auctions, using data from public energy service company projects in Japan. It shows that multidimensional auctions work well, as theory predicts. The competition effect is significant. In addition, strategic information disclosure, including walk-through and preannouncement of reserve prices, can also promote energy savings and investment. Risk sharing arrangements are critical in the energy service company market. In particular, the public sector should take regulatory risk.

‣ Household Energy Use in Developing Countries : A Multicountry Study

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
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This report builds upon a large body of work on household energy carried out by World Bank and other researchers during the 1980s and 1990s. Much of that earlier research was based on specialized energy surveys (see Barnes and others (2002) for a summary of many of the earlier findings). The earlier research has helped formulate many of the issues and hypotheses addressed in this report. The major novel contributions of this report stem from its systematic and comparable use of energy-related household survey data. The report presents an explorative overview of what can be achieved in terms of household energy analysis with LSMS and Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) data. The analysis helps confirm a number of stylized facts regarding household energy-for example LPG is mostly used by the urban better-off, the urban poor use cash wood, firewood is universally used in rural areas, and so on-and it contributes ideas and data sources for a proposed comprehensive global database on household energy access. The report also presents regression analysis of the fuel uptake decision...

‣ Renewable Energy Toolkit Needs Assessment

Cabraal, R. Anil; Wang, Xiaodong; Heffner, Grayson; Zhang, Yabei
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
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There is now a strong foundation of good practice emerging from past and ongoing renewable energy (RE) projects, whether supported by the WBG or others, making it possible to develop and implement future projects faster, at lower costs, and with greater confidence in their overall sustainability. To further this process, the World Bank plans to develop an "Operational Guide to Design and Implement Renewable Energy," which will provide the necessary tools to assist Bank staff and member country personnel in improving the design and implementation of RE projects. This operational guide will help to significantly reduce project preparation cost and preparation time and increase project success. Developing the RE toolkit consists of two phases: phase I, a scoping study and need assessments, and phase II, developing the RE toolkit. This report summarizes the findings from phase I. It consists of the following four sections, which are the major activities undertaken under phase I : a) need assessment with the World Bank Group task managers; b) need assessment with RE industries and financial institutions; c) inventory research of previous work on toolkits related to rural energy and renewable energy; and d) development of a conceptual framework and a proposal for phase II.

‣ Tracking Progress Toward Sustainable Energy for All in South Asia

Portale, Elisa; de Wit, Joeri
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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In declaring 2012 the International Year of Sustainable Energy for All, the UN General Assembly established three global objectives to be accomplished by 2030: to ensure universal access to modern energy services,1 to double the 2010 share of renewable energy in the global energy mix, and to double the global rate of improvement in energy efficiency relative to the period 1990 2010 (SE4ALL 2012). To sustain momentum for the achievement of the SE4ALL objectives, a means of charting global progress to 2030 is needed. The World Bank and the International Energy Agency led a consor¬tium of 15 international agencies to establish the SE4ALL Global Tracking Framework (GTF), which provides a system for regular global reporting, based on rigorous, yet practical, given available databases, technical measures. This note is based on that frame¬work (World Bank 2014). SE4ALL will publish an updated version of the GTF in 2015.

‣ Tracking Progress Toward Sustainable Energy for All in Latin America and the Caribbean

Portale, Elisa; de Wit, Joeri
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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To sustain momentum for the achievement of the sustainable energy for all (SE4ALL) objectives, a means of charting global progress to 2030 is needed. The World Bank and the International Energy Agency led a consortium of 15 international agencies to establish the SE4ALL global tracking framework (GTF), which provides a system for regular global reporting, based on rigorous yet practical, given available databases - technical measures. This note is based on that framework. This note uses data from the GTF to provide a regional and country perspective on the three pillars of SE4ALL for Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC). The first section considers energy access. This note looks at the renewable energy and energy efficiency goals.

‣ Tracking Progress Toward Providing Sustainable Energy for All in Eastern Europe and Central Asia

Portale, Elisa; de Wit, Joeri
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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To sustain momentum for the achievement of the sustainable energy for all (SE4ALL) objectives, a means of charting global progress to 2030 is needed. The World Bank and the International Energy Agency led a consortium of 15 international agencies to establish the SE4ALL global tracking framework (GTF), which provides a system for regular global reporting, based on rigorous yet practical, given available databases - technical measures. This note is based on that framework. The primary indicators and data sources that the GTF uses to track progress toward the three SE4ALL goals are summarized in this note. This note uses data from the GTF to provide a regional and country perspective on the three pillars of SE4ALL for Eastern Europe and Central Asia (ECA). The first section considers energy access. The note looks at the renewable energy and energy efficiency goals.

‣ Integrating Variable Renewable Energy into Power System Operations

Nikolakakis, Thomas; Chatopadhyay, Debabrata
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Wind and solar energy is a fast-growing share of the global energy mix. But integrating them into power-system operations requires significant adaptations to compensate for their variability. Solutions include increasing the amount of flexible generation within the system, combining, and dispersing variable resources to smooth aggregate output, expanding the transmission network, using smart technology to control supply and demand, and storing electricity.

‣ Thirsty Energy : Understanding the Linkages between Energy and Water

Delgado, Anna; Rodriguez, Diego J.; Sohns, Antonia A.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Population growth and economic development, aggravated by climate change, will increase pressure on energy and water resources. Integrated planning can make the most of these two essential and scarce resources. Thirsty Energy, a World Bank initiative, helps countries address these issues and ensure sustainable development of both resources. This note focuses on the water needs of the power sector and particularly answers the following questions: Why is this issue important? Do power plants need all that much water? What about other types of plants? What are the challenges? and, What are our options?

‣ Oral and small intestinal sensitivity to fats in lean and obese humans : implications for energy intake regulation in obesity.

Seimon, Radhika
Fonte: Universidade de Adelaide Publicador: Universidade de Adelaide
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2012 Português
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The research presented in this thesis focuses on the complex and interrelated oral and gastrointestinal mechanisms involved in the regulation of appetite and energy intake in lean and obese individuals. The three broad areas of research that have been investigated in the thesis include: i) the gastrointestinal motor and hormonal functions involved in the regulation of energy intake in healthy individuals; ii) the effects of oral and intraduodenal nutrients on gastrointestinal motility and hormone release, appetite and energy intake in obese compared with lean individuals; and iii) the effects of acute and prolonged energy restriction on gastrointestinal function, appetite and energy intake. Following ingestion of a meal, the interaction of nutrients with receptors in the small intestinal lumen modulates gastro-pyloroduodenal motility, stimulates the release of gastrointestinal hormones, and suppresses appetite and energy intake. It appears that modulation of gastrointestinal functions, that is, gastrointestinal motility and hormone release/suppression, mediate the regulation of appetite and acute energy intake in humans, at least in part. Changes in motility and hormone secretion occur concurrently with changes in appetite; however...

‣ Options for the Development of Liberia's Energy Sector

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Energy Study; Economic & Sector Work
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Liberia suffered successive armed conflicts from 1989 to 2003 that devastated its economy, infrastructure, human capital, and institutions, including those of the energy sector. The Accra peace agreement of August 2003 marked a transition toward national reconciliation and stabilization that allowed the country to hold elections in 2005. The newly elected Government endorsed programs and policies aimed at improving governance, building capacity, and managing post conflict recovery through stabilizing the economy and supporting economic reconstruction. The purpose of this paper is to present stakeholders in the Liberian energy sector-and the Liberian citizen in general-with options that might expand access and modernize energy services. The four pillars of the National Energy Policy (NEP) are: 1) universal energy access, including the development of an energy master plan; 2) least-cost production of energy and protection of the most vulnerable households; 3) the adoption of international best practices in the electricity sector; and 4) the acceleration of public and private partnership in the sector. The electricity demand estimate for Liberia has been based on available data...

‣ West Bank and Gaza Energy Sector Review

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Policy Note; Economic & Sector Work
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This report examines the energy sector in the West Bank and Gaza. It finds that from the perspective of its energy sector, West Bank and Gaza is in an unusual position in at least three respects: 1) Because of political and logistical factors, nearly all of these supplies at present come from Israel; 2) A second unusual challenge faced by West Bank and Gaza is its fragmentation into two distinct geographical zones with divergent economic characteristics and 3) A third unusual challenge is the constraints imposed by Israeli policies and actions on the ability of the Palestinian Authority (PA) to operate and develop its energy systems. This Review addresses the question of how the energy sector can make an effective contribution to the economic recovery and long-term growth of West Bank and Gaza in this situation. It does so by examining the broad regional and strategic dimensions relating to the sector that form the basis of a sustainable investment and institutional development program. This Review is structured in three parts. The first part is this Executive Summary that presents the recommendations of the Review...

‣ Brazil : How Do the Peri-urban Poor Meet their Energy Needs - A Case Study of Caju Shantytown, Rio de Janeiro

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: ESMAP Paper; Publications & Research
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The phenomenon of poverty has traditionally been measured based on the individual's income. However, more recently, the debate over poverty has evolved beyond income or lack of it. The condition in which people have access to basic civil rights, such as an adequate energy supply, is nowadays considered an important marker of poverty. This study proposes to analyze energy poverty in the shantytowns of Rio de Janeiro. The authors aim is to suggest public policies that can, with support from electric utilities, contribute to improving the living conditions of the shantytown inhabitants. The study was carried out using both quantitative and qualitative data.

‣ Strengthening Energy Security in Uruguay

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: ESMAP Paper; Publications & Research
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The Uruguayan energy sector is at the crossroads. As in the case of many other countries, high oil prices in the international market are taking their toll on an economy which imports all of its oil and oil products. Uruguay has also depended, to a large extent, on import of electricity from Argentina to complement its supplies. Trade in electricity and natural gas collapsed during the economic recession of 2001-02 and Argentina's crisis in the same period, which, together with the rise of oil prices, have brought to the fore questions of energy security (that is, ensuring sufficient, reliable and cost-effective supply of national energy demand) and the cost/risk trade-offs involved in depending on foreign suppliers. The Uruguayan government has rightly perceived this to be a fundamental economic issue and sought to put together a strategy for addressing it.

‣ Potential and Prospects for Regional Energy Trade in the South Asia Region

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: ESMAP Paper; Publications & Research
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South Asian region is enjoying unprecedented economic growth. The growth, however, is becoming constrained by significant shortages in energy supply, and unless corrective steps are urgently initiated and implemented, it may be difficult to sustain the achieved growth rates. The region's political leaders and its business community are increasingly recognizing the need to foster cross-border energy investments and promote regional energy trade in order to take full advantage of the energy resources available within the region. This study describes the potential and identifies the main opportunities for development of regional trade in electricity and gas. The study also identifies the policies that the governments should pursue to promote cross-border energy trade and describes the supporting role of the international financing institutions. The author hope that the study will stimulate further interest and contribute to development of energy trade within South Asia Region and between the region and its neighbors.

‣ Rapid Assessment Framework : An Innovative Decision Support Tool for Evaluating Energy Efficiency Opportunities in Cities

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: ESMAP Paper; Publications & Research
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The Rapid Assessment Framework (RAF) is a central component of the Energy Efficient Cities Initiative (EECI), launched by the Energy Sector Management Assistance Program (ESMAP) in collaboration with the urban Anchor in 2008. The World Bank's key objective for the RAF is to create: 'a practical tool for conducting rapid assessment in cities to identify and prioritize sectors and suggest specific energy efficiency interventions.' Thus, the RAF will be used to help identify areas of energy use for further focus, develop an outline energy efficiency strategy, and guide potential future investment by ESMAP. The principal aim of the RAF is to provide a practical analytical framework for conducting rapid assessment of a developing country city's energy profile and performance for different activities across different sectors. This information is then used to identify sectors where the most improvements can be made, and provide a range of energy efficiency recommendation options for each sector, along with a list of possible actions. An outline energy efficiency strategy should ultimately be generated from this information to guide potential policy and investment options...

‣ Malawi : Rural Energy and Institutional Development

Girdis, Dean; Hoskote, Mangesh
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: ESMAP Paper; Publications & Research
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This study reviews Malawi's policies in the biomass, rural electrification, and non-biomass renewable energy sub-sectors to identify problems and constraints to progress and to propose policies, initiatives, and institutional structures to overcome those problems and constraints. The main recommendations of this report to the Government of Malawi are as follows: 1) reform the present legislative and regulatory framework to permit and encourage local management of woodlands on a commercially viable and environmentally sustainable basis, 2) devolve the exclusive authority and responsibility for the exploitation and management of forest cover other than that pertaining to the gazetted forests (that is, forests that are assigned or marked out by the government) to the local rural population. 3) Provide real incentives (including penalties, where applicable) for private sector tree planting, in particular on the tobacco estates. 4) apply a stumpage fee system to achieve environmental (sustainable management) and energy policy (efficient conversion and end use) objectives. 5) create a regulatory and institutional framework within which private sector initiatives and large-scale rural electrification can proceed in a financially viable manner. 6) establish a mechanism for the provision of technical assistance...

‣ Performance of Renewable Energy Auctions : Experience in Brazil, China and India

Elizondo Azuela, Gabriela; Barroso, Luiz; Khanna, Ashish; Wang, Xiaodong; Wu, Yun; Cunha, Gabriel
Fonte: World Bank Group, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
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This paper considers the design and performance of auction mechanisms used to deploy renewable energy in three emerging economies: Brazil, China, and India. The analysis focuses on the countries' experience in various dimensions, including price reductions, bidding dynamics, coordination with transmission planning, risk allocation strategies, and the issue of domestic content. Several countries have turned to public competitive bidding as a mechanism for developing the renewable generation sector in recent years, with the number of countries implementing some sort of auction procedure rising from nine in 2009 to 36 by the end of 2011 and about 43 in 2013. In general, the use of auctions makes sense when the contracting authority expects a large volume of potentially suitable bids, so that the gains from competition can offset the costs of implementation. A study of the successes and failures of the particular auction design schemes described in this paper can be instrumental in informing future policy making.

‣ A Primer on Energy Efficiency for Municipal Water and Wastewater Utilities

Liu, Feng; Ouedraogo, Alain; Manghee, Seema; Danilenko, Alexander
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research; Publications & Research :: ESMAP Paper
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This primer is concerned with energy use and efficiency of network-based water supply and wastewater treatment in urban areas. It focuses on the supply side of the municipal water cycle, including the extraction, treatment, and distribution of water, and collection and treatment of wastewater-activities which are directly managed by Water and Wastewater Utilities (WWUs). The main challenges to scaling up Energy Efficiency (EE) in municipal water and wastewater services stem from sector governance issues, knowledge gaps, and financing hurdles. Utility governance affects the overall performance of individual WWUs and influences decision making, incentives and actions for energy management. This is likely the most significant barrier to WWU EE in many developing countries. Addressing knowledge gaps requires efforts to systematize data collection, training, and capacity building at utilities, supported by local and national governments. Financing hurdles can be reduced by introducing dedicated EE funds to address large but disaggregated investment needs and by promoting third-party financing through energy/water savings performance contracts. This primer is part of Energy Efficient Cities Initiative's (EECI's) knowledge clearinghouse function to inform World Bank (WB) staff working in urban water supply and wastewater management...