Página 12 dos resultados de 287434 itens digitais encontrados em 0.158 segundos

‣ Cultivating Constituencies: The Story of the East Harlem Nursing and Health Service, 1928–1941

D’Antonio, Patricia
Fonte: American Public Health Association Publicador: American Public Health Association
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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I examine the history of the East Harlem Nursing and Health Service in New York City from its beginnings as a demonstration project in 1922 to its closing in 1941. I explore the less tangible goals, needs, and ambitions of the many different constituents that paid for, delivered, and received health care services. I place these goals, needs, and ambitions as critically important drivers of ultimate success or failure. The East Harlem Nursing and Health Service gained international fame among public health leaders for its innovative and independent nursing practice and teaching. However, it ultimately failed because its commitment was to a particular disciplinary mission that did not meet the needs of the constituent communities it served. From 1928 to 1941, the service focused more on the educational advancement of public health nursing and less on addressing the real health care needs of those in East Harlem.

‣ Health information on the Internet : strategies for assessing consumer needs and improving consumer information retrieval

Plovnick, Robert M. (Robert Matthew), 1976-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 75 p.; 3575524 bytes; 3583265 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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Patients and their family members are increasingly turning to the Internet for health information. However, the search strategies consumers are using to obtain information are often unsuccessful. Since some patients are using the information they obtain to influence health decisions, it is increasingly important to identify strategies that aid consumer access to quality information to address their needs. Three different strategies to improve consumer health information retrieval are explored in this thesis, and suggestions for the application of these tactics and incorporation into healthcare delivery are discussed. Consumers have the option to choose between medically specific web sites and generic search engines with the whole Internet as their search space. For this project, a rigorous comparison of Internet searches in these two scopes was conducted to determine which search scope provides better returns. No statistical difference was found between the two different scopes, but several pros and cons of each were identified. Queries generated by consumers to initiate a free-text Internet search are often too short or too general to be effective. Additionally, consumers often employ vocabulary that does not match the terminology of health content. For this research...

‣ A Quantitative Study of Social Capital Components, Self-Reported Health Status and Social Determinants of Health

Cudmore, Karen
Fonte: Brock University Publicador: Brock University
Tipo: Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
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This quantitative descriptive co-relational study used telephone survey interviews and stratified random sampling to collect data related to Social Capital (SC) and its components (trust and safety, reciprocity, civic engagement and collective action) and selected determinants of health variables in Niagara Region, Canada. Among the four components of social capital, trust and safety levels were highest among all participants (m=5.42, SD=1.0), with community engagement yielding the lowest mean score for the sample (m=1.93, SD=.8). Reciprocity had the strongest association with all other components of SC (r=0.51). Those most likely to report low levels of SC and health were unattached and low-income females. Males were more likely to report higher trust and safety levels and higher levels of self-rated health. In this study, a linear relationship between self-reported health status and SC was not found. Marital and employment status were associated with differences in mean scores of SC and self-reported health.

‣ The effects of access to health care on infant mortality in Indonesia

Frankenberg, Elizabeth
Fonte: Health Transition Centre, National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health, the Australian national University Publicador: Health Transition Centre, National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health, the Australian national University
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 68993 bytes; application/pdf
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This paper examines the impact of access to health facilities and personnel on infant and child mortality in Indonesia. Demographic and Health Survey data are combined with village-level censuses of infrastructure collected by the Central Bureau of Statistics. Because the village-level data are available from two points in time, it is possible to analyse the effects on mortality risks within the village of changes in access to health care. Factors about villages that might affect both access to health care and mortality risks are held constant. Adding a maternity clinic to a village decreases the odds of infant mortality by almost 15 per cent, in comparison to the risk before the clinic was added. An additional doctor reduces the odds by about 1.7 per cent.; yes

‣ Forum: Can health transition research improve health?

Legge, David; Johansson, Sheila Ryan; HIll, Alan; Kunitz, Stephen J; Levy, Jerrold E; Findley, Sally; Laugharn, Peter; Gueye, Mohamadou; Orubuloye, I. O; Pieris, Indrani; Reddy, P. R; Caldwell, John C; Caldwell, Pat
Fonte: Health Transition Centre, National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health, The Australian National University Publicador: Health Transition Centre, National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health, The Australian National University
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 107639 bytes; application/pdf
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The nine papers which constitute this forum examine what is understood when the term "health" is used. They contend that an understanding of what health is, must be a necessary prerequisite of any discussion about whether it can be improved. Cooperation between all the players including governments, planners, researchers, health care workers, educators and individuals seeking or needing health care is addressed.; no

‣ Health expenditure and household budgets in rural Liberia

David, Soniia
Fonte: Health Transition Centre, National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health, The Australian National University Publicador: Health Transition Centre, National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health, The Australian National University
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 59835 bytes; application/pdf
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Fieldwork conducted in a Kpelle village in north-central Liberia revealed that health-care expenses constitute a major part of domestic spending. The actual transactions for major healthcare expenditures are handled by men, typically using income that jointly belongs to the couple in addition to the husband’s personal income. Women are likely to spend their personal incomes on minor health expenses for themselves and their children. Women’s health expenditure, as well as their income handling arrangements, seem to differ according to the type of conjugal union they are in. Although Kpelle wives have input in most financial decisions, they tend to defer to men on issues which are associated with the Western world, namely Western health care, educational and tax expenditures.; no

‣ Health-seeking behaviour of STD patients in an urban area of Southwest Nigeria: an exploratory study

Akinnawo, Ebenezer Olutope; Oguntimehin, F
Fonte: Health Transition Centre, National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health, The Australian National University Publicador: Health Transition Centre, National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health, The Australian National University
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 29273 bytes; application/pdf
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Sexually transmitted disease patients of health institutions in Ado-Ekiti responded to questionnaires on the quality of STDs treatment; four-fifths of the institutions are privately owned. Gonorrhoea and syphilis are the major STDs reported by the respondents and treated by the health-care providers. Other types are candida, dysuria, lymphogranuloma venereum, chancroid, trichomoniasis and STD-related problems. The symptoms noticed by the respondents are pain, burning sensation, discharges, itching and open sores. Most sought treatment within seven days of noticing the symptoms. Most sought treatment from other health providers before coming to the health institutions where they were interviewed. Respondents were attended by modern doctors during their search for a cure, but in most cases, only by physical examination because laboratory facilities were non-existent or inadequate. Treatment was mainly chemotherapy, involving antibiotics and analgesics. In addition to chemotherapy, the health providers counselled the patients. Most respondents reported that they were satisfied with the quality of treatment. Results are discussed and recommendations are made.; no

‣ Age bias, but no gender bias, in the intra-household resource allocation for health care in rural Burkina Faso

Sauerborn, R; Berman, Peter; Nougtara, A
Fonte: Health Transition Centre, National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health, The Australian National University Publicador: Health Transition Centre, National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health, The Australian National University
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 54975 bytes; application/pdf
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Household survey data , time allocation data, and qualitative interviews were used to examine whether households allocate their resources for health care differently between age and gender groups. Households allocated significantly fewer resources to the health care of sick children compared to that of sick adults. In contrast there were no such differences with regard to gender. The underlying household rationale is to concentrate its resources spent for health care on productive members rather than to spread them equitably among all its sick members. While children are not productive, women were shown to contribute as much to household production as men, hence their health is valued equally with that of men. Unless we understand intra-household biases in resource allocation, policies will be undermined. Further research is needed to test the hypothesis for the households’ preference of production maintenance over health maximization.; no

‣ Maternal schooling and child health: preliminary analysis of the intervening mechanisms in rural Nepal

Joshi, Arun R
Fonte: Health Transition Centre, National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health, The Australian National University Publicador: Health Transition Centre, National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health, The Australian National University
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 91784 bytes; application/pdf
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This article provides evidence from a community-level study in rural Nepal of the mechanisms by which schooling affects maternal behaviour and infant and child health. Two hypotheses concerning the mechanisms are identified and tested. It was found that schooling equips women with specific skills and dispositions or identity which significantly predict two principal domains of health-care behaviour: use of medical services; and changes in household health behaviour. It was also found that women with schooling had healthier children using height-for-age as an indicator of health.; no

‣ Is there a difference in health estimates between people with listed and unlisted telephone numbers?

DalGrande, E.; Taylor, A.; Wilson, D.
Fonte: Public Health Assoc Australia Inc Publicador: Public Health Assoc Australia Inc
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2005 Português
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OBJECTIVE: To examine the characteristics of people with a silent telephone by demographic and health-related issues and to assess the potential bias in telephone surveys that use the White Pages as the sampling frame. METHOD: A representative annual population health survey of South Australians aged 15 years and over conducted in 1994, 1998, 1999 and 2002. Self-reported information on telephone connection and listings in the White Pages was provided by participants. Questions were included in the 1998 survey on reasons why telephone number was not listed. RESULTS: The rate of unlisted telephone numbers significantly increased (17.3% to 20.2%) in South Australia between 1994 and 2002. People with an unlisted number are more likely to be living in the metropolitan area, single adult households, current smokers, and in the younger age groups. In the multivariate analyses the only health and risk factor variable that was consistently significant over the years was smoking status. The main reason for having an unlisted number was to avoid market research or telemarketing calls (33%). CONCLUSION: Telephone surveys using White Pages samples are suitable to collect information for prevalence on most commonly collected self-reported health conditions and health-related issues. The exception is smoking status. IMPLICATIONS: The use of Whites Pages telephone samples is a suitable method for obtaining population health information because it is efficient when there is limited time and funds.

‣ Evaluating a program of psychological interventions in primary health care: Consumer distress disability and service usage

Winefield, H.; Turnbull, D.; Seiboth, C.; Taplin, J.
Fonte: Public Health Assoc Australia Inc Publicador: Public Health Assoc Australia Inc
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2007 Português
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Objective: To evaluate a Better Outcomes of Mental Health Care Access to Allied Psychological Services Program for general practice patients referred for high-prevalence mental disorders. Methods: Participants were South Australian general practitioners (GPs; n=26) and their patients referred for treatment of high-prevalence psychological disorders, of whom 229 provided baseline measures, 106 provided post-treatment measures, and 85 provided follow-up data three months after termination of treatment. Interventions were Focused Psychological Strategies supplied by mental health specialists; outcome variables included GP satisfaction, patient satisfaction, psychological distress, life impairment, and health service usage. Results: Satisfaction with the treatment program was high for both the GPs and the referred patients. Patients who attended three or more treatment sessions showed reduced distress and disability, and gains were maintained three months later. Health service usage declined with acceptance of referral regardless of treatment experience. Conclusions: Lack of controls and missing data were methodological weaknesses. Results support the effectiveness of integrated primary mental health care to reduce psychological distress and disability...

‣ Monitoring inequities in self-rated health over the life course in population surveillance systems

Chittleborough, C.; Taylor, A.; Baum, F.; Hiller, J.
Fonte: Amer Public Health Assoc Inc Publicador: Amer Public Health Assoc Inc
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2009 Português
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Objectives. To investigate the effect of social mobility and to assess the use of socioeconomic indicators in monitoring health inequities over time, we examined the association of self-rated health with socioeconomic position over the life course. Methods. Data came from a cross-sectional telephone survey (n = 2999) that included life-course socioeconomic indicators and from a chronic disease and risk factor surveillance system (n = 26 400). Social mobility variables, each with 4 possible intergenerational trajectories, were constructed from family financial situation and housing tenure during childhood and adulthood. Results. Low socioeconomic position during both childhood and adulthood and improved financial situation in adulthood were associated with a reduced prevalence of excellent or very good health. Trends over time indicated that socioeconomic disadvantage in adulthood was associated with poorer self-rated health. Conclusions. Our results support policies aiming to improve family financial situation during childhood and housing tenure across the life course. Inclusion of life-course socioeconomic measures in surveillance systems would enable monitoring of health inequities trends among socially mobile groups.; Catherine R. Chittleborough...

‣ Sustaining Health Care Practice Change: The Experience of Best Practice Spotlight Organizations Implementing and Sustaining RNAO Best Practice Guidelines

Schenck, Tracey
Fonte: Brock University Publicador: Brock University
Tipo: Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
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Sustainability of change for improvement initiatives has been widely reported as a global challenge both within and outside health care settings. The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which factors related to staff training and involvement, staff behaviour, and clinical leaders’ and senior leaders’ engagement and support impact the long term sustainability of practice changes for BPSO health care organizations who have implemented Registered Nursing Association of Ontario’s (RNAO) Best Practice Guidelines. Semi structured interviews with eleven organizational leaders’ from ten health care organizations were conducted to explore the unique experiences, views and perspectives on factors related to staff, clinical leaders and senior leaders and their involvement and impact on the long term sustainability of clinical practice changes within organizations who had implemented Registered Nursing Association of Ontario’s (RNAO) Best Practice Guidelines (BPGs). The interviews were coded and analyzed using thematic content analysis. Further analysis identified patterns and themes in relation to: 1. The National Health Service (NHS) Sustainability Model which was used as the theoretical framework for this research; and 2. Organizations found to have sustained practice changes longer term verses organizations that did not. Six organizations were found to have sustained practice changes while the remaining four were found to have been unsuccessful in their efforts to sustain the changes. Five major findings in relation to sustainability emerged from this study. First is the importance of early and sustained engagement and frontline staff...

‣ Pregnant women's use of information and communications technologies to access pregnancy-related health information in South Australia

Rodger, D.; Skuse, A.; Wilmore, M.; Humphreys, S.; Dalton, J.; Flabouris, M.; Clifton, V.
Fonte: Australian Journal Primary Health, Australian Institute Primary Care & School Public Health Publicador: Australian Journal Primary Health, Australian Institute Primary Care & School Public Health
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2013 Português
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This paper examines how pregnant women living in South Australia use information and communication technologies (ICTs), principally Internet and mobile phones, to access pregnancy-related information. It draws on 35 semistructured interviews conducted as part of the ‘Health-e Baby’ project, a qualitative study designed to assess the information needs and ICT preferences of pregnant women cared for at a South Australian metropolitan teaching hospital. Our research shows that although ICTs offer exciting possibilities for health promotion and the potential for new forms of communication, networking and connection, we cannot assume the effectiveness of communicating through such channels, despite near universal levels of ICT access. In turn, this highlights that if e-mediated health promotion is to be effective, health promoters and practitioners need to better understand ICT access, usage and content preferences of their clients.; D. Rodger, A. Skuse, M. Wilmore, S. Humphreys, J. Dalton, M. Flabouris and V. L. Clifton

‣ Gender and health in Sri Lanka

Pieris, Indrani; Caldwell, Bruce
Fonte: Health Transition Centre, National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health, The Australian National University Publicador: Health Transition Centre, National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health, The Australian National University
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 52677 bytes; application/pdf
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Sri Lanka has today easily the longest life-expectancy of any nation in South Asia. The country's achievements have been particularly impressive in the health of women and girls who have substantially lower mortality levels than males; this is unexceptional in the developed world where it is the norm but striking in South Asia where it is not. It has been suggested that low female mortality may reflect a high involvement of Sri Lankan women in decision-making over health care and feeding practices which has benefited their health and that of their children, especially their daughters. Yet census data indicate that until recent decades overall mortality levels were little lower than in other South Asian countries and female age-specific mortality rates were higher than male rates. The paper explores the issues involved concluding that the autonomy of women has contributed to the decline of overall mortality, once modern health services developed. However, women's autonomy has not in itself overcome the sex differential in care, given the economic dependence of women and their families on males: husbands while the women are raising children and ultimately sons for old-age support.; no

‣ The Common Ground Preparedness Framework: A Comprehensive Description of Public Health Emergency Preparedness

Gibson, P. Joseph; Theadore, Fred; Jellison, James B.
Fonte: American Public Health Association Publicador: American Public Health Association
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Currently, public health emergency preparedness (PHEP) is not well defined. Discussions about public health preparedness often make little progress, for lack of a shared understanding of the topic. We present a concise yet comprehensive framework describing PHEP activities. The framework, which was refined for 3 years by state and local health departments, uses terms easily recognized by the public health workforce within an information flow consistent with the National Incident Management System. To assess the framework's completeness, strengths, and weaknesses, we compare it to 4 other frameworks: the RAND Corporation's PREPARE Pandemic Influenza Quality Improvement Toolkit, the National Response Framework's Public Health and Medical Services Functional Areas, the National Health Security Strategy Capabilities List, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's PHEP Capabilities.

‣ The Boston Health Care for the Homeless Program: A Public Health Framework

O'Connell, James J.; Oppenheimer, Sarah C.; Judge, Christine M.; Taube, Robert L.; Blanchfield, Bonnie B.; Swain, Stacy E.; Koh, Howard K.
Fonte: American Public Health Association Publicador: American Public Health Association
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /08/2010 Português
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During the past 25 years, the Boston Health Care for the Homeless Program has evolved into a service model embodying the core functions and essential services of public health. Each year the program provides integrated medical, behavioral, and oral health care, as well as preventive services, to more than 11 000 homeless people. Services are delivered in clinics located in 2 teaching hospitals, 80 shelters and soup kitchens, and an innovative 104-bed medical respite unit. We explain the program's principles of care, describe the public health framework that undergirds the program, and offer lessons for the elimination of health disparities suffered by this vulnerable population.

‣ Measuring Physical and Mental Health using the SF-12 : Implications for community surveys of mental health

Windsor, Timothy; Rodgers, Bryan; Butterworth, Peter; Anstey, Kaarin; Jorm, Anthony F
Fonte: Public Health Association of Australia Publicador: Public Health Association of Australia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Objective: The effects of using different approaches to scoring the SF-12 summary scales of physical and mental health were examined with a view to informing the design and interpretation of community-based survey research. Method: Data from a population-

‣ Public health in Austria: an analysis of the status of public health

Fonte: World Health Organization Publicador: World Health Organization
Tipo: Book; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2011 Português
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This book explores the key challenges facing Austria’s public health system. Set firmly in the context of the history, scope, functions and responsibilities of public health in developed countries, it examines how the Austrian system has developed and adapted over the last 50 years to the benefit of the population. It also looks at the challenges presented by life in the 21st century. The book draws on both national research and expert interviews to present a fully-rounded picture. This shows that the public health system in Austria is struggling to maintain essential services and develop policies for improvement, and the study proposes strategies and policies to tackle these developments, looking in particular at change within the fields of education, research and training. This book is essential reading for policy-makers, advisers and analysts interested in developing a public health strategy and competence in both developed and developing countries, as well as researchers interested in the Austrian health system.

‣ Assessment of the English literacy level of patients in primary health care services in Tshwane, Gauteng province: Part 2

Wasserman,Zelda; Maja,Todd M.; Wright,Susanna C.D.
Fonte: Health SA Gesondheid (Online) Publicador: Health SA Gesondheid (Online)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2010 Português
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Low literacy can be described as the inability to read, write or use numbers effectively. The limited ability to read and understand health care instructions directly translates into poor health outcomes. The aim of this study was to assess the English literacy levels of primary health care patients using the Learning Ability Battery (LAB) and the adapted Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy, Revised (REALM-R) and to determine how the results of the adapted REALM-R correlate with those of the LAB. Data were collected by means of a self-report whereby the participants had to answer the questions that were posed in the LAB and read the words out loud for the adapted REALM-R. The data analysis was performed by means of descriptive and inferential statistics, including the chi-square test and Spearman's rho. The result of the study indicated that in South Africa, school grades achieved and the reading levels of primary health care patients differ with four grades. In terms of the correlation between the results of the adapted REALM-R and those of the LAB, a correlation of r = 0.43 (p < 0.001) could be established. Depending on the cut-off point used for the adapted REALM-R, 67% of the participants had low literacy levels. The study provides evidence of the importance of a validated...