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‣ Comparison of serum hepatitis B virus replication markers in patients with chronic hepatitis B: studies on HBeAg/Anti-HBe system, viral dna polymerase and HBV-DNA

Pinho,João Renato Rebello; Fonseca,Luís Edmundo Pinto da; Song,Yu; Miyamoto,Yuriko; Carrilho,Flair José; Granato,Celso Francisco Hernandes; Silva,Luiz Caetano da
Fonte: Instituto de Medicina Tropical Publicador: Instituto de Medicina Tropical
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/10/1989 Português
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The detection of HBV-DNA in serum by molecular hybridization is the most sensitive and specific marker of replication and infectivity of hepatitis B virus and currently is proposed as a routine diagnostic technique in the follow-up of HBV - related diseases. Comparing different techniques already described, we found that direct spotting of serum samples on nitrocellulose membranes under vacuum filtration, followed by denaturing and neutralizing washes is more practical, simple, sensible and reproducible. DNA polymerase assay using phosphonoformic acid as specific viral inhibitor has shown 86.8% of concordance with HBV-DNA detection, and so, it is an useful alternative in the follow-up of hepatitis B chronic patients. We found 19.2% HBeAg positive samples with no other markers of viral replication and no anti-HBe positive sample had detectable HBV-DNA. Discordance between the 2 systems have been extensively described, and we confirm this for the first time in our country. Molecular biological techniques are essential to determine the replication status of chronic hepatitis B patients.

‣ Relationship between the prevalence of antibodies to hepatitis B core antigen and arbovirus in fishermen from the Ribeira Valley, Brazil

Iversson,Lygia Busch; Granato,Celso F. Hernandes; Travassos da Rosa,Amélia; Pannuti,Cláudio Sérgio
Fonte: Instituto de Medicina Tropical Publicador: Instituto de Medicina Tropical
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/1990 Português
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Sera from 299 fishermen 16 to 80 years old, residents in Cananeia and Iguape counties, southern cost of São Paulo State, Brazil, were studied in order to identify a possible association between the prevalence of specific antibodies to the hepatitis B virus (HBV) and exposure to haematophagus mosquitoes evaluated by the prevalence of arbovirus antibodies. This professional group presented the highest prevalence of arbovirus antibodies (54.1%) in past investigations carried out in this heavily forested region. Detection of antibody to hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc) in the sera was done by enzyme immunoassay (Roche). Prevalence of anti-HBc antibodies in this group was 31.4% (94/299) which is very high compared with 7.2% to 15.0% for different groups of healthy adults in State of São Paulo. No significant difference is observed between the prevalences of HBV antibodies in Iguape and Cananeia. Prevalence of anti-HBc and anti-arbovirus antibodies increases with age. There is a concordance in the distribution according to age groups of the frequency of anti-HBc and anti-arbovirus positive sera. Ag HBs was detected in 4% of the studied sera. These results support the hypothesis that the transmission of the hepatitis B virus and the arboviruses may be due to the same factor...

‣ Hepatitis G virus / GB virus C in Brazil. Preliminary report

Pinho,J.R.R.; Capacci,M.L.; Silva,L.C. da; Carrilho,F.J.; Santos,C.A.; Pugliese,V; Guz,B; Levi,J.E.; Ballarati,C.A.F.; Bernardini,A.P.
Fonte: Instituto de Medicina Tropical Publicador: Instituto de Medicina Tropical
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/1996 Português
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Hepatitis G virus/ GB virus C is a novel flavivirus recently detected in hepatitis non A-E cases. In this study, the presence of this virus in chronic non-B, non-C hepatitis patients was evaluated using GBV-C specific PCR and this virus was detected in one out of thirteen patients. This patient has presented a severe liver failure, has lived for a long time in the Western Amazon basin and no other cause for this clinical picture was reported. The impact of the discovery of this new agent is still under evaluation throughout the world. The study of the prevalence of this virus among chronic hepatitis patients and healthy individuals (as blood donors) will furnish subside to evaluate its real pathogenicity.

‣ Hepatitis B vaccine in infants: a randomized controlled trial comparing gluteal versus anterolateral thigh muscle administration

ALVES,Andrea Santos Rafael; NASCIMENTO,Cristiane M.R.; GRANATO,Celso H.; SATO,Helena Keiko; MORGATO,Marina F.; PANNUTI,Claudio S.
Fonte: Instituto de Medicina Tropical Publicador: Instituto de Medicina Tropical
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2001 Português
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A significantly diminished antibody response to hepatitis B vaccine has been demonstrated in adults when the buttock is used as the injection site. However, in Brazil, the buttock continues to be recommended as site of injection for intramuscular administration of vaccines in infants. In this age group, there are no controlled studies evaluating the immunogenicity of the hepatitis B vaccine when administered at this site. In the present study, 258 infants were randomized to receive the hepatitis B vaccine either in the buttock (n = 123) or in the anterolateral thigh muscle (n = 135). The immunization schedule consisted of three doses of hepatitis B vaccine (Engerix Bâ, 10 mug) at 2, 4 and 9 months of age. There were no significant differences in the proportion of seroconversion (99.3% x 99.2%), or in the geometric mean titer of ELISA anti-HBs (1,862.1 x 1,229.0 mIU/mL) between the two groups. This study demonstrates that a satisfactory serological response can be obtained when the hepatitis B vaccine is administered intramuscularly into the buttock.

‣ Liver histology in co-infection of hepatitis C virus (HCV) and Hepatitis G virus (HGV)

STRAUSS,Edna; GAYOTTO,Luiz Carlos da Costa; FAY,Fabian; FAY,Oscar; FERNANDES,Helena Sabino; CHAMONE,Dalton de Alencar Fischer
Fonte: Instituto de Medicina Tropical Publicador: Instituto de Medicina Tropical
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/04/2002 Português
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As little is known about liver histology in the co-infection of hepatitis C virus (HCV) and hepatitis G virus (HGV), HGV RNA was investigated in 46 blood donors with hepatitis C, 22 of them with liver biopsy: co-infection HCV / HGV (n = 6) and HCV isolated infection (n = 16). Besides staging and grading of inflammation at portal, peri-portal and lobular areas (Brazilian Consensus), the fibrosis progression index was also calculated. All patients had no symptoms or signs of liver disease and prevalence of HGV / HCV co-infection was 15.2%. Most patients had mild liver disease and fibrosis progression index, calculated only in patients with known duration of infection, was 0.110 for co-infection and 0.130 for isolated HCV infection, characterizing these patients as "slow fibrosers". No statistical differences could be found between the groups, although a lesser degree of inflammation was always present in co-infection. In conclusion co-infection HCV / HGV does not induce a more aggressive liver disease, supporting the hypothesis that HGV is not pathogenic.

‣ Acute pancreatitis associated with acute viral hepatitis: case report and review of literature

Moleta,Danilo Bora; Kakitani,Fábio Toshio; Lima,Adma Silva de; França,João César Beenke; Raboni,Sonia Mara
Fonte: Instituto de Medicina Tropical Publicador: Instituto de Medicina Tropical
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2009 Português
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This case report, along with the review presented, describes a patient diagnosed with acute viral hepatitis, who developed a framework of intense abdominal pain and laboratorial alterations compatible with acute pancreatitis. The association of acute pancreatitis complicating fulminant and non-fulminant acute hepatitis virus (AHV) has been reported and several mechanisms have been proposed for this complication, but so far none is clearly involved. As acute hepatitis is a common disease, it is important to stimulate the development of other studies in order to determine local incidence and profile of patients presenting this association in our environment.

‣ HEPATITIS B VACCINATION COVERAGE AND POSTVACCINATION SEROLOGIC TESTING AMONG MEDICAL STUDENTS AT A PUBLIC UNIVERSITY IN BRAZIL

Souza,Eduardo Pernambuco de; Teixeira,Marcelo de Souza
Fonte: Instituto de Medicina Tropical Publicador: Instituto de Medicina Tropical
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/08/2014 Português
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The aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine the hepatitis B vaccination coverage among medical students at a public university in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and their compliance with the postvaccination serologic testing recommendations. Of the total of 858 students, 675 (78.7%) participated in the study. Among the participants, 48.9% (95% CI: 45.1% to 52.7%) were vaccinated against hepatitis B (received ≥ 3 doses of the vaccine), 31.6% were not (received 0, 1 or 2 doses), and 19.6% did not know their vaccination status. Hepatitis B vaccination coverage increased from 26.0% among first-year students to 70.6% among sixth-year students while the prevalence of unknown vaccination status decreased from 39.7% among first-year students to 2.4% among sixth-year students. The frequency of unvaccinated students ranged from 23.7% among fifth-year students to 34.4% among first-year students. Only 34.8% of the vaccinated students performed the anti-HBs testing after vaccination. Among these medical students, we found a low adherence to the hepatitis B vaccination and to the postvaccination serologic testing. A comprehensive hepatitis B immunization program should be offered to students at this medical school.