Página 12 dos resultados de 35802 itens digitais encontrados em 0.011 segundos

‣ Sugar Prices, Labor Income, and Poverty in Brazil

Krivonos, Ekaterina; Olarreaga, Marcelo
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.483198%
This paper assesses the impact that a potential liberalization of sugar regimes in OECD countries could have on household labor income and poverty in Brazil. The authors first estimate the extent of price transmission from world markets to 11 Brazilian states to capture the fact that some local markets may be relatively more isolated from changes in world prices. They then simultaneously estimate the impact that changes in domestic sugar prices have on regional wages and employment depending on worker characteristics. Finally, they measure the impact on household income of a 10 percent increase in world sugar prices. Results suggest that workers in the sugar sector and in sugar-producing regions have better employment opportunities and experience larger wage increases. More interestingly, households at the top of the income distribution experience larger income gains due to higher wages, whereas households at the bottom of the distribution experience larger income gains due to movements out of unemployment.

‣ Household Income Generation Strategies

Covarrubias, Katia; Davis, Benjamin; Bakouan, Aminata; Di Giuseppe, Stefania
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.483198%
This document presents results of a descriptive analysis of income-generating activities of 19 countries based on the Rural Income Generating Activities (RIGA) database. The RIGA database uses the rural sample of these countries’ nationally representative living standards surveys, while the present study pools rural and urban households to illustrate the characteristics and dynamics of household income generating strategies at the national level. Total household income is measured following the RIGA project methodology, which constructs net annual aggregates of income following a standardized approach. Income is disaggregated intomain categories which include agricultural wages, non-agricultural wages, crop activities, livestock activities, self-employment (household nonfarm enterprises), transfers, and other non-labor sources. Overall, all countries tend to have high levels of participation in on-farm activities regardless of the GDP per capita level, though there is a slight negative trend with increasing per capita GDP (PCGDP). Involvement in nonfarm activities rises with increasing PCGDP, with wealthier countries demonstrating higher levels of participation in the nonfarm sector than poorer countries.

‣ Income Support for the Unemployed : Issues and Options

Vodopivec, Milan
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.483198%
With the aim to provide guidelines for countries wishing to introduce or improve income support systems for the unemployed, the book summarizes the evidence about the performance of five such systems: unemployment insurance, unemployment assistance, unemployment insurance savings accounts, severance pay, and public works. These systems are evaluated by two sets of criteria: (1) performance criteria, evaluating how well these systems work - how they protect incomes and what other, particularly efficiency related, effects they may have; and (2) design and implementation criteria, evaluating how these systems fit the country - how suitable are these programs given country-specific conditions, chief among them being labor market and other institutions, the capacity needed for administering income support programs, the size of the informal sector, and prevalence of private transfers. This report also offers summary evaluations of alternative systems by describing the strengths and weaknesses of each system and pointing out the country specific circumstances that are particularly conducive to performance.

‣ The Microeconomics of Income Distribution Dynamics in East Asia and Latin America

Bourguignon, Francois; Ferreira, Francisco H.G.; Lusting, Nora
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank and Oxford University Press Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank and Oxford University Press
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.483198%
This volume presents a collection of studies on the dynamics of income inequality based on micro data. Using a simple but powerful empirical methodology, the authors analyze the roles of prices, occupational choice, and educational choice in accounting for household income and its contribution to inequality. It casts doubt on the grand theories of growth and income inequality that have dominated discussions in development economics. It paves the way for a full-blown, micro-based general equilibrium theory of income determination and income inequality.

‣ Income and Energy Consumption in Mexican Households

Rodriguez-Oreggia, Eduardo; Yepez-Garcia, Rigoberto Ariel
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.483198%
The analysis of household energy consumption patterns is critical for evaluating public mechanisms, such as subsidies and social tariffs that aim to provide lower income earners with better access to energy sources. This paper focuses on Mexican households to analyze the relations between their levels of income, consumption of different forms of energy, and the role played by different household characteristics. Using microdata from the Mexican Income Expenditure Surveys, the paper first relate income and energy expenditure to determine the shape of this relation. It then applies OLS and Tobit models to determine how income levels affect energy consumption in relation to other covariates. The results show a positive relation for income deciles and energy consumption and some household characteristics -- pointing to differentiated mechanisms for improving energy use.

‣ Designing and Implementing Unemployment Benefit Systems in Middle and Low Income Countries : Key Choices between Insurance and Savings Accounts

Robalino, David A.; Weber, Michael
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.483198%
Several middle income countries are considering reforms of severance pay regulations to both increase flexibility for firms and better protect workers. Policy discussions then often revolve around whether to adopt an unemployment insurance (UI) scheme or unemployment individual savings accounts (UISAs). Proponents of the first emphasize its ability to pool risks and introduce an element of solidarity. Critics point to its potentially negative effects on labor supply as individuals can have fewer incentives to seek, take or keep jobs. In this paper, the authors show that UI and UISAs are, in fact, particular cases of a more general design and that the crucial policy choice is in terms of how redistribution - to cover benefits for those who cannot save enough is financed. The authors outline key features of this general design and discuss trade-offs and possible solutions. The authors discusses issues related to implementation and show how recent technological developments around biometric identification can facilitate the monitoring of conditionalities related to participation in job-search and training activities.

‣ Changing agricultural land practices and income volatility

Walker, Janet
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Relatório
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.483198%
The Australian government is investing a considerable amount in natural resource maintenance and restoration. It currently provides this under three major pillars - carbon, sustainability and biodiversity. The Carbon Farming component aims to assist farmers with carbon abatement strategies and to facilitate entry into the carbon trading market The Biodiversity Fund focuses on increasing carbon, and biodiversity. The third program, Caring for our Country, offers stewardship payments to some farmers and promotes sustainable farming. It is important that the funds from these programs are maximised by farmers, because the program outcomes are related to the aims of the National Drought Policy which are to help farmers become self reliant, maintain the resource base during drought and ensure timely, post drought recovery. This study reviews the adoption and adaptation literature to determine whether revenue volatility is a constraint to adopting new practices such as outlined by these programs. There are numerous barriers, some financial, such as capital and cashflow, or low income, but also many which are related to the individual characteristics of the farmer. Although farming revenue will always fluctuate, Australian farm businesses have relatively volatile output...

‣ Demand-income elasticity of leisure boats

Pérez Labajos, Carlos Ángel; Blanco Rojo, Beatriz
Fonte: Sociedad Española de Estudios Cientificos Marinos (SEECMAR) Publicador: Sociedad Española de Estudios Cientificos Marinos (SEECMAR)
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; publishedVersion
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.483198%
Demand-income models for recreational sailing can explain the evolution of the recreational fleet using the evolution of income for a specific country, region and period. These models are useful in that their logarithmic transformations allow the value of the demand-income elasticity to be obtained for recreational crafts in the region considered. Moreover, under the hypothesis of the maintenance of the value of this elasticity, the expected variation in the fleet can be determined from the expected income data. The aim of this work is to formalise a model for the recreational fleet of a country or region which will allow the evolution of the fleet to be determined with respect to the changes in income taking place in the region, both in absolute and in relative terms. Results are obtained for the demand-income elasticity of recreational crafts for the various recreational fleets of Spain grouped into seven geographic regions.

‣ Unemployment spells and income distribution dynamics

Castañeda, Ana; Díaz-Giménez, Javier; Ríos Rull, José Víctor
Fonte: Universidade Carlos III de Madrid Publicador: Universidade Carlos III de Madrid
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /03/1995 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.483198%
In the U.S., during the 1948-86 period, an approximation to the Gini Index based on the quintiles and on the top 5% of the income distribution yielded a value of 0.351. Further, during this same period, the income share earned by the first quintile was procyclical and 7% more volatile than aggregate yearly output. In this paper we quantify the role played by unemployment spells in determining these and other related issues. To this purpose, we use an extension of the general equilibrium stochastic growth model that includes an endogenous distribution of households indexed by wealth and employment status. Our main findings are the following: i) in a model economy where all households have the same endowments of skills and are subject to the same employment processes, uninsured unemployment spells alone account for a very small share of the concentration of income observed in the U.S., and of the income distribution dynamics -the approximated Gini Index in this model economy is 18% of the one observed in the U.S., and the income share earned by the first quintile is 58% more volatile, ii) this result is robust to including a technology that allows for cyclically moving factor shares, and iii) in a model economy where households are partitioned into different skills groups that are subject to different employment processes in accordance to U.S. data...

‣ The measurement of structural and exchange income mobility

Ruiz-Castillo, Javier
Fonte: Universidade Carlos III de Madrid Publicador: Universidade Carlos III de Madrid
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /09/2000 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.483198%
Chakravarty, Dutta and Weymark (1985) present axioms for an ethical index of relative income mobility in a two-period world. This paper suggests a decomposition of this index into i) an index of structural mobility, which captures the welfare effect of differences in the inequality of the cross-section income distributions; and ii) an index of exchange mobility, which captures the welfare impact of permutations or rank reversals between the first-and the secon-period income distributions. We propose a second decomposition in order to isolate the effect on mobility of mean incomes changes. The properties of all the income mobility concepts introduced in the paper do not require any new value judgements beyond the traditional ones.

‣ Labor Income Risk and the Reluctance of Households to Invest in Risky Financial Assets: A Panel Data Analysis

Becker, Gideon; Dimpfl, Thomas
Fonte: Universität Tübingen Publicador: Universität Tübingen
Tipo: Aufsatz; info:eu-repo/semantics/article
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.483198%
We investigate the determinants of a household's decision on whether to invest in risky financial assets. Financial theory suggests that with increasing labor income risk, the reluctance of households to hold stocks increases. We propose to measure income risk as the observed variation of household income over a five year period. We find that indeed higher income risk reduces the propensity to invest in stocks. However, when controlling for household heterogeneity as well as subjective measures of a household's financial situation (income satisfaction, worries about financial situation), the impact of observed labor income variation vanishes.

‣ Second Ethiopia Economic Update : Laying the Foundation for Achieving Middle Income Status

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Economic Updates and Modeling; Economic & Sector Work
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.483198%
Over the past decade, Ethiopia has achieved high economic growth, averaging 10.7 percent per year. In 2012, Ethiopia was the 12th fastest growing economy in the World. If the country can continue its historically impressive growth performance, it could potentially reach middle income status by 2025. This, in turn, may require an adjustment in economic policy to phase in the private sector as an additional engine of growth. Moreover, Ethiopia needs to make progress on two related important fronts: enhancing domestic savings, and, resolving the bottlenecks of the trade logistics system. This Second Ethiopia economic update, prepared in collaboration with the Government of Ethiopia, offers policy guidance on how to move forward. Chapter one discusses Ethiopia's growth strategy, which emphasizes a strong expansion of public investment. This model has delivered impressive results, although the underlying macro policy mix highlights important challenges going forward suggesting that an adjustment to strategy may be warranted. One policy challenge relates to raising sufficient domestic savings to finance one of the highest public investment rates in the world...

‣ International Redistribution of Income; World Development

Bourguignon, Francois; Levin, Victoria; Rosenblatt, David
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Journal Article; Journal Article
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.483198%
How do international policies on aid, trade, and factor movements affect the international distribution of income? We calculate the impact by world decile of the actual level of aid flows and the effect on income of merchandise trade restrictions by high-income countries. We find that aid's distributional impact is equality enhancing, extremely small in terms of changes in inequality measures, but of some importance for the lowest decile of the distribution. We also find that some of this impact is counteracted by lost potential income in the lower deciles from merchandise trade barriers imposed by high-income countries.

‣ Good Practices in Health Financing : Lessons from Reforms in Low and Middle-Income Countries

Gottret, Pablo; Schieber, George J.; Waters, Hugh R.
Fonte: Washington, DC : World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC : World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.483198%
This volume focuses on nine countries that have completed, or are well along in the process of carrying out, major health financing reforms. These countries have significantly expanded their people's health care coverage or maintained such coverage after prolonged political or economic shocks. In doing so, this report seeks to expand the evidence base on good performance in health financing reforms in low- and middle-income countries. The countries chosen for the study were Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Estonia, the Kyrgyz Republic, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Tunisia, and Vietnam. With health at the center of global development policy on humanitarian as well as economic and health security grounds, the international community and developing countries are closely focused on scaling up health systems to meet the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), improving financial protection, and ensuring long-term financing to sustain these gains. With the scaling up of aid, both donors and countries have come to realize that money alone cannot buy health gains or prevent impoverishment due to catastrophic medical bills. This realization has sent policy makers looking for reliable evidence about what works and what does not...

‣ Le revenu de citoyenneté : entre émancipation et assujettissement. L'exemple du Basic Income Grant en Namibie.

Chalifour, Julie
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.483198%
De la capacité d’une société à repenser ses liens sociaux, dépend son développement à la fois politique, social et économique. L’État peut, pour contribuer de manière déterminante à la production de sens, développer des outils, entre autres des mécanismes de redistribution, susceptibles d’assurer la solidarité et la cohésion sociale. L’enjeu est d’importance pour certains pays comme la Namibie, dont l'histoire est marquée par le colonialisme et l'apartheid ─desquels il s'est libéré il y a à peine plus de vingt ans─ et qui sont construits sur une logique de séparation inégalitaire des droits et des ressources. À partir de l'exemple du Basic Income Grant (BIG), projet-pilote de revenu citoyen garanti mis en place dans un village de la Namibie entre 2007 et 2009, ce mémoire propose d'explorer l'apport du concept d'empowerment dans ce projet en tant qu'outil de déconstruction de ces structures inégalitaires. Après avoir exposé différentes conceptions des notions de pauvreté, de richesse et de développement, nous aborderons la question du revenu citoyen garanti et de la place qu'il peut prendre dans différents systèmes de protection sociale. Puis, nous tenterons de mieux cerner le concept d'empowerment pour finalement arriver à répondre à notre principal questionnement: le projet BIG permet-il effectivement l'émancipation ou au contraire...

‣ Politica de transferencia de renda e cidadania no Brasil : implicações politico-sociais dos Programas Municipais de Renda Minima a partir do Estudo comparativo dos casos de Campinas, Jundiai, Santo Andre e Santos (1995-2006); Income transfering Policies and Citizenship in Brazil : Social-Political implications of Minimum Income Programs implemented at Local Level based on the Comparative Study about the Cases of Campinas, Jundiai, Santo Andre and Santos (1995-2006)

Carolina Raquel Duarte de Mello Justo
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 20/03/2007 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.483198%
Esta tese procura mostrar que, a despeito de sua crescente expansão no Brasil, os programas de transferência de renda - aqui genericamente denominados programas de renda mínima - não apresentam um único modelo consolidado no país. A análise comparativa realizada a partir dos estudos de caso dos programas municipais de Campinas, Jundiaí, Santo André e Santos mostrou que os programas são diferentes não apenas em termos de seus desenhos institucionais, mas de maneira mais significativa em termos das idéias, concepções e valores segundo os quais eles vieram se constituindo. Com base nisso, foi possível identificar diferentes noções de cidadania subjacentes aos programas, a partir de uma dupla abordagem: liberal e fortemente assentada no trabalho - em Jundiaí e Santos -, ou democrático-participativa, potencialmente prescindindo do trabalho como seu substrato - em Campinas e Santo André. Percebeu-se, assim - dos discursos dos gestores públicos aos das beneficiárias -, que as implicações dos programas de renda mínima vão muito além da dotação financeira: elas não só incidem sobre distintas concepções de cidadania, mas também sobre formas diferenciadas de enxergar e pensar a sociedade, bem como de agir sobre ela. Isso significa que estes programas - com base nos distintos projetos políticos sobre os quais se apóiam e dos quais fazem parte...

‣ Desigualdade de rendimentos entre os empregados na agricultura brasileira, 1992-2008; Income inequality between the employees in Brazilian agriculture, 1992-2008

Regis Borges de Oliveira
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 24/02/2010 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.483198%
Utilizando os dados da PNAD, o trabalho analisa a distribuição de rendimentos entre os empregados temporários e permanentes e com e sem carteira de trabalho na agricultura brasileira, de 1992 a 2008. Primeiramente são discutidos os principais condicionantes dos rendimentos dos empregados agrícolas, com atenção especial para a política de valorização do salário mínimo real. Além de chamar a atenção para os determinantes clássicos da desigualdade da distribuição dos rendimentos, foi encontrado que o salário mínimo afeta de maneira distinta os rendimentos das diferentes categorias de empregados agrícolas, tendo efeitos mais positivos sobre os rendimentos dos trabalhadores do segmento mais estruturado do mercado de trabalho (permanentes e com carteira). Por meio da decomposição das medidas de desigualdade utilizadas no trabalho, foi mensurada a contribuição da situação do empregado (permanente ou temporário e com ou sem carteira de trabalho) para a desigualdade total entre estes. Os resultados obtidos revelaram a importância da carteira de trabalho na conformação dos rendimentos dos empregados agrícolas, verificando-se que a diferença de remuneração associada à posse da carteira de trabalho é maior do que a diferença entre trabalhadores permanentes e temporários. Por fim...

‣ Da renda mínima à renda básica de cidadania; From minimun income to basic income

Fabio Luiz Lopes Cardoso
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 2013/06/7 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.483198%
Esta dissertação trata sobre a trajetória dos programas de transferência direta de renda no Brasil, suas diferenças e especificidades. Buscou-se analisar não apenas suas alterações estruturais, mas também políticas e teóricas. Para iniciar, estabelecemos foco no senador Eduardo Matarazzo Suplicy quanto à elaboração das suas propostas, o que permite perpassar toda a trajetória nacional nessa temática em particular. O senador Eduardo Suplicy é uma figura importante no desenvolvimento da política social no país. São de sua autoria, entre outros projetos, o Programa de Renda Mínima e a Lei da Renda Básica de Cidadania, o primeiro foi apresentado em 1991 e a segunda sancionada em 2004. Ambos versam sobre a mesma área de atuação, sendo a Renda Mínima base para a promoção de políticas públicas nos anos 90 e a Renda Básica que, aprovada de forma pioneira, colocou o Brasil na vanguarda dessas políticas em âmbito mundial. A implantação e impacto desta última ainda é uma incógnita, mas o desenvolvimento da primeira culminou nos principais programas hoje em vigência. Deste modo, estudar a atuação de Suplicy na luta pela efetivação de suas propostas e os fatores que o levaram a substituir uma pela outra...

‣ Renda básica : entre comunismo e justiça social; Basic income : from communism to social justice

Karina Vales Cappelli
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 10/12/2013 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.483198%
Esta dissertação trata das mudanças no conceito de renda básica ao longo dos vinte anos de existência da organização não governamental BIEN (Basic Income Earth Network). Baseia-se em dois momentos decisivos, marcados pela publicação de dois textos representativos da formulação da alocação universal: "A Capitalist Road to Communism", na revista Theory and Society, em 1986, e "A Capitalist Road to Global Justice", em 2006, no primeiro número da revista Basic Income Studies. Os dois textos foram escritos em conjunto por dois dos fundadores da BIEN, Philippe Van Parijs e Robert van der Veen. Tendo os dois textos como ponto de partida, o objetivo é entender o debate em torno da proposição de renda básica nesse período, em especial a mudança de concepção traduzida na substituição da noção de comunismo pela noção de justiça global.; The main objective of this dissertation is to perceive the changes in the basic income concept through the twenty years of existence of the non-governmental organization BIEN (Basic Income Earth Network). It's based in two decisive moments, which are influenced by two articles that represent the very formulation of universal allocation: "A Capitalist Road to Communism", in the journal Theory and Society in 1986...

‣ Does investment in schooling raise national income? Evidence from cross-country studies

Breton, Theodore R.
Fonte: Escola de Administração, Finanças e Tecnologia Publicador: Escola de Administração, Finanças e Tecnologia
Tipo: workingPaper; Documento de trabajo de investigación; draf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.483198%
The economics literature identifies three effects of schooling on national income; the direct effect on the earnings of the workers who receive the schooling and the external effects on workers’ earnings and on physical capital due to schooling’s spillover effect on the productivity of these other factors of production. This paper reviews the estimates of the income elasticity of these three effects in the literature and finds that the evidence supports an elasticity of 0.34. The associated marginal rates of return on national investment in schooling in 2000 are found to average about 12 percent in countries with high levels of schooling and about 25 percent in countries with low levels of schooling.; The economics literature identifies three effects of schooling on national income; the direct effect on the earnings of the workers who receive the schooling and the external effects on workers’ earnings and on physical capital due to schooling’s spillover effect on the productivity of these other factors of production. This paper reviews the estimates of the income elasticity of these three effects in the literature and finds that the evidence supports an elasticity of 0.34. The associated marginal rates of return on national investment in schooling in 2000 are found to average about 12 percent in countries with high levels of schooling and about 25 percent in countries with low levels of schooling.; The economics literature identifies three effects of schooling on national income; the direct effect on the earnings of the workers who receive the schooling and the external effects on workers’ earnings and on physical capital due to schooling’s spillover effect on the productivity of these other factors of production. This paper reviews the estimates of the income elasticity of these three effects in the literature and finds that the evidence supports an elasticity of 0.34. The associated marginal rates of return on national investment in schooling in 2000 are found to average about 12 percent in countries with high levels of schooling and about 25 percent in countries with low levels of schooling.