A comparative study of the original and market samples of the KUNDUR (Oleo-Gum-Resin of Boswellia serrata Roxb.) with special reference to its chemical standardization and the qualitative and quantitative studies have been discussed here.
The Ethanolic extract of whole plant of Euphorbia hirta was screened for burn wound healing activity in rats as 2% W/W cream. The study was carried out based on the assessment of percentage reduction in original wound. It showed significant burn wound healing activity.
The findings of the Nadi Vijnana of 53 asymptotic adult males were compared with the results of the radial pulse pressure wave analysis by Fourier analysis and 1st differentiation of the original waves. There are significant differences of height and latency of peaks among some pulse diagnosis findings. The possibility to calculate the Dosa balance and the conditions of Subdosa Dhatu of the body with the analysis of radial pulse waves by machine was suspected.
This present study describes 11 species under 11 generate and 10 families of rare Homoeopathic Medicinal Plants introduced and cultivated in the Nilgiri district, Tamil Nadu, South India. The original citation, description, distribution and their medicinal uses are given.
Vasoconstrictive prostaglandins (PGs), such as PGF2α, F2-isoprostanes, and systemic inflammation may be involved in the physiological regulation of blood pressure (BP) and the pathophysiology leading to hypertension. However, studies evaluating these parameters and BP in human populations are sparse. We analysed the cross-sectional associations between 24-hour ambulatory BP and urinary 15-keto-dihydro-PGF2α (indicator of PG-mediated vasoconstriction and inflammation), plasma interleukin-6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein (CRP), serum amyloid A (SAA) and urinary F2-isoprostanes (indicator of vasoconstriction and oxidative stress) in 619 men in a Swedish older population (Uppsala Longitudinal Study of Adult Men, age 78 years). Both systolic and diastolic 24-hour BP correlated inversely with concentrations of 15-keto-dihydro-PGF2α (P<0.01) and F2-isoprostanes (P<0.01) independent on other cardiovascular risk factors. Additionally, diastolic 24-hour BP inversely correlated with plasma IL-6 (P<0.05) and 24-hour pulse pressure showed a positive linear correlation with IL-6, CRP and SAA. In conclusion, high BP is associated with decreased formation of vasoconstrictive PGF2α and F2-isoprostanes in this population of older men. These findings...
Computer-aided Diagnosis (CAD) systems can assist radiologists in several diagnostic tasks. Lung segmentation is one of the mandatory steps for initial detection of lung cancer in Posterior-Anterior chest radiographs. On the other hand, many CAD schemes in projection chest radiography may benefit from the suppression of the bony structures that overlay the lung fields, e.g. ribs. The original images are enhanced by an adaptive contrast equalization and non-linear filtering. Then an initial estimation of lung area is obtained based on morphological operations and then it is improved by growing this region to find the accurate final contour, then for rib suppression, we use oriented spatial Gabor filter. The proposed method was tested on a publicly available database of 247 chest radiographs. Results show that this method outperformed greatly with accuracy of 96.25% for lung segmentation, also we will show improving the conspicuity of lung nodules by rib suppression with local nodule contrast measures. Because there is no additional radiation exposure or specialized equipment required, it could also be applied to bedside portable chest x-rays. In addition to simplicity of these fully automatic methods, lung segmentation and rib suppression algorithms are performed accurately with low computation time and robustness to noise because of the suitable enhancement procedure.
A number of antibodies that efficiently neutralize microbial targets contain long heavy chain complementarity determining region 3 (HCDR3) loops. For HIV, several of the most broad and potently neutralizing antibodies have exceptionally long HCDR3s. Two broad potently neutralizing HIV-specific antibodies, PG9 and PG16, exhibit secondary structure. Two other long HCDR3 antibodies, 2F5 and 4E10, protect against mucosal challenge with SHIV. Induction of such long HCDR3 antibodies may be critical to the design of an effective vaccine strategy for HIV and other pathogens, however it is unclear at present how to induce such antibodies. Here, we present genetic evidence that human peripheral blood antibodies containing long HCDR3s are not primarily generated by insertions introduced during the somatic hypermutation process. Instead, they are typically formed by processes occurring as part of the original recombination event. Thus, the response of B cells encoding antibodies with long HCDR3s results from selection of unusual clones from the naïve repertoire rather than through accumulation of insertions. These antibodies typically use a small subset of D and J gene segments that are particularly suited to encoding long HCDR3s, resulting in the incorporation of highly conserved genetic elements in the majority of antibody sequences encoding long HCDR3s.
The main objective of this research is to develop, by adaptive evolution, mutant strains of Enterobacter aerogenes ATCC 13048 that are capable of withstanding high glycerol concentration as well as resisting ethanol-inhibition. The mutant will be used for high ethanol fermentation from glycerol feedstock. Ethanol production from pure (P-) and recovered (R-) glycerol using the stock was evaluated. A six-tube-subculture-generations method was used for developing the mutant. This involved subculturing the organism six consecutive times in tubes containing the same glycerol and ethanol concentrations at the same culture conditions. Then, the glycerol and/or ethanol concentration was increased and the six subculture generations were repeated. A strain capable of growing in 200 g/L glycerol and 30 g/L ethanol was obtained. The ability of this mutant, vis-à-vis the original strain, in utilizing glycerol in a high glycerol containing medium, with the concomitant ethanol yield, was assessed. Tryptic soy broth without dextrose (TSB) was used as the fermentation medium. Fermentation products were analyzed using HPLC.
Gastric cancer is the fourth most common cancer worldwide, with a high rate of death and low 5-year survival rate. To date, there is a lack of efficient therapeutic protocols for gastric cancer. Recent studies suggest that cancer stem cells (CSCs) are responsible for tumor initiation, invasion, metastasis, and resistance to anticancer therapies. Thus, therapies that target gastric CSCs are attractive. However, CSCs in human gastric adenocarcinoma (GAC) have not been described. Here, we identify CSCs in tumor tissues and peripheral blood from GAC patients. CSCs of human GAC (GCSCs) that are isolated from tumor tissues and peripheral blood of patients carried CD44 and CD54 surface markers, generated tumors that highly resemble the original human tumors when injected into immunodeficient mice, differentiated into gastric epithelial cells in vitro, and self-renewed in vivo and in vitro. Our findings suggest that effective therapeutic protocols must target GCSCs. The capture of GCSCs from the circulation of GAC patients also shows great potential for identification of a critical cell population potentially responsible for tumor metastasis, and provides an effective protocol for early diagnosis and longitudinal monitoring of gastric cancer.
Ulmus pumila is considered an invasive tree in 41 of the United States. In this study, we examined the extent of hybridization in naturalized populations of U. pumila, its impact on genetic diversity and genetic structure and its potential role in explaining the invasion process of U. pumila. Genetic analyses indicated widespread hybridization with native Ulmus rubra in naturalized U. pumila populations. Hybridization increased the genetic diversity of U. pumila populations and affected their genetic structure. The level of genetic diversity in ‘mature’ accessions, many of which may represent original plantings throughout the USA, was high and similar to the diversity of East Asian accessions. Hybridization with the native red elm may play an important role in the success of Siberian elm as an invader in temperate regions of the USA.
DNA methylation plays an integral role in development and aging through epigenetic regulation of genome function. DNA methyltransferase 1 (Dnmt1) is the most prevalent DNA methyltransferase that maintains genomic methylation stability. To further elucidate the function of Dnmt1 in aging and age-related diseases, we exploited the Dnmt1+/− mouse model to investigate how Dnmt1 haploinsufficiency impacts the aging process by assessing the changes of several major aging phenotypes. We confirmed that Dnmt1 haploinsufficiency indeed decreases DNA methylation as a result of reduced Dnmt1 expression. To assess the effect of Dnmt1 haploinsufficiency on general body composition, we performed dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry analysis and showed that reduced Dnmt1 activity decreased bone mineral density and body weight, but with no significant impact on mortality or body fat content. Using behavioral tests, we demonstrated that Dnmt1 haploinsufficiency impairs learning and memory functions in an age-dependent manner. Taken together, our findings point to the interesting likelihood that reduced genomic methylation activity adversely affects the healthy aging process without altering survival and mortality. Our studies demonstrated that cognitive functions of the central nervous system are modulated by Dnmt1 activity and genomic methylation...
Many biological traits are discretely distributed in phenotype but continuously distributed in genetics because they are controlled by multiple genes and environmental variants. Due to the quantitative nature of the genetic background, these multiple genes are called quantitative trait loci (QTL). When the QTL effects are treated as random, they can be estimated in a single generalized linear mixed model (GLMM), even if the number of QTL may be larger than the sample size. The GLMM in its original form cannot be applied to QTL mapping for discrete traits if there are missing genotypes. We examined two alternative missing genotype-handling methods: the expectation method and the overdispersion method. Simulation studies show that the two methods are efficient for multiple QTL mapping (MQM) under the GLMM framework. The overdispersion method showed slight advantages over the expectation method in terms of smaller mean-squared errors of the estimated QTL effects. The two methods of GLMM were applied to MQM for the female fertility trait of wheat. Multiple QTL were detected to control the variation of the number of seeded spikelets.
Accurate genome annotations in databases are a critical resource available to the scientific community for analysis and research. Inaccurate and inconsistent annotations exist as a result of errors generated from mass automated annotation, and currently act as a barrier to the application of bioinformatics. The purpose of this effort was to improve the SEED by improving the connection of functional roles to literature references. Direct literature references (DLits), found through searches of PubMed and other online databases such as SwissProt, were attached to protein sequences within the PubSEED to provide literature support for the roughly 2,500 distinct functional roles used to construct metabolic models within the Model SEED. Only DLits in which a researcher asserted the function of a protein were attached to sequences. Starting from a list of 1,072 functional roles that did not previously have DLit support, we were able to connect sequences to literature for 655 functional roles, at least 484 of which were in the original list of unsupported roles. When added to the existing set of sequences having DLits, the resulting set of DLit-sequence pairs (the foundation set) now connects approximately 4,300 DLits to approximately 5,600 distinct protein sequences obtained from approximately 16...
When the intervertebral disc is removed to relieve chronic pain, subsequent segment stabilization should restore the functional mechanics of the native disc. Because of partially constrained motions and the lack of intrinsic rotational stiffness ball-on-socket implants present many disadvantages. Composite disc substitutes mimicking healthy disc structures should be able to assume the role expected for a disc substitute with fewer restrictions than ball-on-socket implants. A biomimetic composite disc prototype including artificial nucleus fibre-reinforced annulus and endplates was modelled as an L4–L5 disc substitute within a L3–L5 lumbar spine finite element model. Different device updates, i.e. changes of material properties fibre distributions and volume fractions and nucleus placements were proposed. Load- and displacement-controlled rotations were simulated with and without body weight applied. The original prototype reduced greatly the flexibility of the treated segment with significant adjacent level effects under displacement-controlled or hybrid rotations. Device updates allowed restoring large part of the global axial and sagittal rotational flexibility predicted with the intact model. Material properties played a major role...
It has been 5 years since our team reported the first successful model of orthotopic single lung transplantation in the mouse. There has been great demand for this technique due to the obvious experimental advantages the mouse offers over other large and small animal models of lung transplantation. These include the availability of mouse-specific reagents as well as knockout and transgenic technology. Our laboratory has utilized this mouse model to study both immunological and non-immunological mechanisms of lung transplant physiology while others have focused on models of chronic rejection. It is surprising that despite our initial publication in 2007 only few other laboratories have published data using this model. This is likely due to the technical complexity of the surgical technique and perioperative complications, which can limit recipient survival. As two of the authors (XL and WL) have a combined experience of over 2500 left and right single lung transplants, this review will summarize their experience and delineate tips and tricks necessary for successful transplantation. We will also describe technical advances made since the original description of the model.
25/27 Base duplex RNAs that are substrates for Dicer have been demonstrated to enhance
RNA interference (RNAi) potency and efficacy. Since the target sites are not always
equally susceptible to suppression by small interfering RNA (siRNA), not all 27-mer
duplexes that are processed into the corresponding conventional siRNAs show increased
potency. Thus random designing of Dicer-substrate siRNAs (DsiRNAs) may generate siRNAs
with poor RNAi due to unpredictable Dicer processing. Previous studies have demonstrated
that the 3′-overhang affects dicing cleavage site and the orientation of
Dicer entry. Moreover, an asymmetric 27-mer duplex having a 3′ two-nucleotide
overhang and 3′-DNA residues on the blunt end has been rationally designed to
obtain greater efficacy. This asymmetric structure directs dicing to predictably yield a
single primary cleavage product. In the present study, we analyzed the in vitro
and intracellular dicing patterns of chemically synthesized duplex RNAs with different
3′-overhangs. Consistent with previous studies, we observed that Dicer
preferentially processes these RNAs at a site 21–22 nucleotide (nt) from the
two-base 3′-overhangs. We also observed that the direction and ability of
human Dicer to generate siRNAs can be partially or completely blocked by DNA residues at
the 3′-termimi. To examine the effects of various 3′-end
modifications on Dicer processing in cells...
A lot of Indian research is replicative in nature. This is because originality is at a premium here and mediocrity is in great demand. But replication has its merit as well because it helps in corroboration. And that is the bedrock on which many a fancied scientific hypothesis or theory stands, or falls. However, to go from replicative to original research will involve a massive effort to restructure the Indian psyche and an all round effort from numerous quarters.
Restrained molecular dynamics simulations are a robust, though perhaps underused, tool for the end-stage refinement of biomolecular structures. We demonstrate their utility—using modern simulation protocols, optimized force fields, and inclusion of explicit solvent and mobile counterions—by re-investigating the solution structures of two RNA hairpins that had previously been refined using conventional techniques. The structures, both domain 5 group II intron ribozymes from yeast ai5γ and Pylaiella littoralis, share a nearly identical primary sequence yet the published 3D structures appear quite different. Relatively long restrained MD simulations using the original NMR restraint data identified the presence of a small set of violated distance restraints in one structure and a possibly incorrect trapped bulge nucleotide conformation in the other structure. The removal of problematic distance restraints and the addition of a heating step yielded representative ensembles with very similar 3D structures and much lower pairwise RMSD values. Analysis of ion density during the restrained simulations helped to explain chemical shift perturbation data published previously. These results suggest that restrained MD simulations, with proper caution...
In the Visible Korean project, 642 three-dimensional (3D) surface models have been built from the sectioned images of a male cadaver. It was recently discovered that popular PDF file enables users to approach the numerous surface models conveniently on Adobe Reader. Purpose of this study was to present a PDF file including systematized surface models of human body as the beneficial contents. To achieve the purpose, fitting software packages were employed in accordance with the procedures. Two-dimensional (2D) surface models including the original sectioned images were embedded into the 3D surface models. The surface models were categorized into systems and then groups. The adjusted surface models were inserted to a PDF file, where relevant multimedia data were added. The finalized PDF file containing comprehensive data of a whole body could be explored in varying manners. The PDF file, downloadable freely from the homepage (http://anatomy.co.kr), is expected to be used as a satisfactory self-learning tool of anatomy. Raw data of the surface models can be extracted from the PDF file and employed for various simulations for clinical practice. The technique to organize the surface models will be applied to manufacture of other PDF files containing various multimedia contents.
Low quality clinical trials have a possibility to have errors in the process of deriving the results and therefore distort the study. Quality assessment of clinical trial is necessary in order to prevent any clinical application erroneous results is important. Randomized controlled trial (RCT) is a design for evaluate the effectiveness of medical procedure. This study was conducted by extracting the RCTs from the original articles published in the Journal of Korean Medical Science (JKMS) from 1986 to 2011 and conducting a qualitative analysis using three types of analysis tools: Jadad scale, van Tulder scale and Cochrane Collaboration risk of bias Tool. To compare the quality of articles of JKMS, quality analysis of the RCTs published in Yonsei Medical Journal (YMJ) and Korean Journal of Internal Medicine was also conducted. In the JKMS, YMJ and Korean Journal of Internal Medicine, the quantitative increase of RCT presented over time was observed but no qualitative improvement of RCT was observed over time. From the results of this study, it is required for the researchers to plan for and perform higher quality studies.