Página 12 dos resultados de 95517 itens digitais encontrados em 0.174 segundos

‣ A brief review of infectious and parasitic diseases of wapiti, with emphasis on western Canada and the northwestern United States

Smits, Judit E.G.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /08/1991 Português
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In this paper I review diseases reported in both captive and free-ranging wapiti in western North America, with some reference to diseases in captive red deer in Great Britain, Europe, New Zealand, and eastern North America.

‣ Structure-Activity Relationships of Synthetic Coumarins as HIV-1 Inhibitors

Kostova, I.; Raleva, S.; Genova, P.; Argirova, R.
Fonte: Hindawi Publishing Corporation Publicador: Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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HIV/AIDS pandemics is a serious threat to health and development of mankind, and searching for effective anti-HIV agents remains actual. Considerable progress has been made in recent years in the field of drug development against HIV. A lot of structurally different coumarins were found to display potent anti-HIV activity. The current review demonstrates the variety of synthetic coumarins having unique mechanism of action referring to the different stages of HIV replication. Recent studies based on the account of various synthetic coumarins seem to indicate that some of them serve as potent non-nucleoside RT-inhibitors, another as inhibitors of HIV-integrase or HIV-protease. The merits of selecting potential anti-HIV agents to be used in rational combination drugs design and structure-activity relationships are discussed.The scientific community is looking actively for new drugs and combinations for treatment of HIV infection effective for first-line treatment, as well as against resistant mutants. The investigation on chemical anti-HIV agents gives hope and optimism about it. This review article describes recent progress in the discovery, structure modification, and structure-activity relationship studies of potent anti-HIV coumarin derivatives.

‣ Hepatic resection for the treatment of liver metastases in gastric carcinoma: review of the literature

Shirabe, Ken; Wakiyama, Shigeki; Gion, Tomonobu; Watanabe, Masayuki; Miyazaki, Mitsuhiro; Yoshinaga, Keishi; Tokunaga, Masanori; Nagaie, Takashi
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/04/2006 Português
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This article presents a review of the literature on hepatic resection for the treatment of liver metastases in gastric carcinoma, and discusses the indications, mortality rates, prognostic factors and long-term results. Reports on hepatectomy for liver metastases from gastric cancer are rare, the results are disappointing, and further studies are required.

‣ Peripartum Cardiomyopathy: Review of the Literature

Bhakta, Pradipta; Biswas, Binay K; Banerjee, Basudeb
Fonte: Yonsei University College of Medicine Publicador: Yonsei University College of Medicine
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM) is a rare but serious form of cardiac failure affecting women in the last months of pregnancy or early puerperium. Clinical presentation of PPCM is similar to that of systolic heart failure from any cause, and it can sometimes be complicated by a high incidence of thromboembolism. Prior to the availability of echocardiography, diagnosis was based only on clinical findings. Recently, inclusion of echocardiography has made diagnosis of PPCM easier and more accurate. Its etiopathogenesis is still poorly understood, but recent evidence supports inflammation, viral infection and autoimmunity as the leading causative hypotheses. Prompt recognition with institution of intensive treatment by a multidisciplinary team is a prerequisite for improved outcome. Conventional treatment consists of diuretics, β blockers, vasodilators, and sometimes digoxin and anticoagulants, usually in combination. In resistant cases, newer therapeutic modalities such as immunomodulation, immunoglobulin and immunosuppression may be considered. Cardiac transplantation may be necessary in patients not responding to conventional and newer therapeutic strategies. The role of the anesthesiologist is important in perioperative and intensive care management. Prognosis is highly related to reversal of ventricular dysfunction. Compared to historically higher mortality rates...

‣ Genetic contributions to pain: a review of findings in humans

Fillingim, RB; Wallace, MR; Herbstman, DM; Ribeiro-Dasilva, M; Staud, R
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /11/2008 Português
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Pain represents the major motivating factor for which individuals seek healthcare, and pain responses are characterized by substantial inter-individual differences. Increasing evidence suggests that genetic factors contribute significantly to individual differences in responses to both clinical and experimental pain. The purpose of this review article was to summarize the current literature regarding genetic contributions to pain, highlighting findings relevant to oral pain where available. A brief discussion of methodologic considerations is followed by a review of findings regarding genetic influences on clinical pain. Next, the literature examining genetic contributions to experimental pain responses is presented, emphasizing genetic associations that have been replicated in multiple cohorts. It is hoped that an enhanced understanding of genetic contributions to pain responses will ultimately improve diagnosis and treatment of clinical pain conditions.

‣ A review of lipidomic technologies applicable to sphingolipidomics and their relevant applications

Han, Xianlin; Jiang, Xuntian
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2009 Português
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Sphingolipidomics, a branch of lipidomics, focuses on the large-scale study of the cellular sphingolipidomes. In the current review, two main approaches for the analysis of cellular sphingolipidomes (i.e. LC-MS- or LC-MS/MS-based approach and shotgun lipidomics-based approach) are briefly discussed. Their advantages, some considerations of these methods, and recent applications of these approaches are summarized. It is the authors’ sincere hope that this review article will add to the readers understanding of the advantages and limitations of each developed method for the analysis of a cellular sphingolipidome.

‣ Perioperative Management of the Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficient Patient: A Review of Literature

Elyassi, Cpt Ali R; Rowshan, Maj Henry H
Fonte: The American Dental Society of Anesthesiology Publicador: The American Dental Society of Anesthesiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2009 Português
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Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is the most common enzymatic disorder of red blood cells in humans. It is estimated that about 400 million people are affected by this deficiency.1 The G6PD enzyme catalyzes the first step in the pentose phosphate pathway, leading to antioxidants that protect cells against oxidative damage.2 A G6PD-deficient patient, therefore, lacks the ability to protect red blood cells against oxidative stresses from certain drugs, metabolic conditions, infections, and ingestion of fava beans.3 The following is a literature review, including disease background, pathophysiology, and clinical implications, to help guide the clinician in management of the G6PD-deficient patient. A literature search was conducted in the following databases: PubMed, The Cochrane Library, Web of Science, OMIM, and Google; this was supplemented by a search for selected authors. Keywords used were glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency, anesthesia, analgesia, anxiolysis, management, favism, hemolytic anemia, benzodiazepines, codeine, codeine derivatives, ketamine, barbiturates, propofol, opioids, fentanyl, and inhalation anesthetics. Based on titles and abstracts, 23 papers and 1 website were identified. The highest prevalence of G6PD is reported in Africa...

‣ Invited Review Article: Review of centrifugal microfluidic and bio-optical disks

Nolte, David D.
Fonte: American Institute of Physics Publicador: American Institute of Physics
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Spinning biodisks have advantages that make them attractive for specialized biochip applications. The two main classes of spinning biodisks are microfluidic disks and bio-optical compact disks (BioCD). Microfluidic biodisks take advantage of noninertial pumping for lab-on-a-chip devices using noninertial valves and switches under centrifugal and Coriolis forces to distribute fluids about the disks. BioCDs use spinning-disk interferometry, under the condition of common-path phase quadrature, to perform interferometric label-free detection of molecular recognition and binding. The optical detection of bound molecules on a disk is facilitated by rapid spinning that enables high-speed repetitive sampling to eliminate 1∕f noise through common-mode rejection of intensity fluctuations and extensive signal averaging. Multiple quadrature classes have been developed, such as microdiffraction, in-line, phase contrast, and holographic adaptive optics. Thin molecular films are detected through the surface dipole density with a surface height sensitivity for the detection of protein spots that is approximately 1 pm. This sensitivity easily resolves a submonolayer of solid-support immobilized antibodies and their antigen targets. Fluorescence and light scattering provide additional optical detection techniques on spinning disks. Immunoassays have been applied to haptoglobin using protein A∕G immobilization of antibodies and to prostate specific antigen. Small protein spots enable scalability to many spots per disk for high-throughput and highly multiplexed immonoassays.

‣ Minor heavy metal: A review on occupational and environmental intoxication

Wiwanitkit, Viroj
Fonte: Medknow Publications Publicador: Medknow Publications
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /12/2008 Português
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Heavy metal is widely used in industries and presents as a problematic environmental pollution. Some heavy metals, especially lead and mercury, are well described for their occupational and environmental intoxication whereas the other minor heavy metals are less concerned. In this article, the author will present the details of occupational and environmental minor heavy metal intoxication. This review focuses mainly on aluminum, tin, copper, manganese, chromium, cadmium and nickel.

‣ Strategies and policies deteriorate occupational health situation in India: A review based on social determinant framework

Mandal, Asish Kumar
Fonte: Medknow Publications Publicador: Medknow Publications
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /12/2009 Português
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Overwhelming evidence shows that hazardous work, working conditions, and environment fail to maintain homeostasis results in death or severe disability. Up to the 1980s, governments did not pay major attention to occupational health in developing countries, including India. The Bhopal Gas Tragedy, in 1984, was the turning point in the history of health and safety in India. It was time for the government to think deeply and review the existing legislative measures, for the upliftment of the occupational health situation in India. However, all the services remain grossly underutilized because of inadequate strategies, policies, and the lack of a proper monitoring mechanism, for occupational workers. The present study reviews the fact that Inaction or Destruction of Demands, Use of Power, Appeal to the existing bias of the system, and Exportation and Flexibility of the workers are some of the main reasons for the alarming situation of the Occupational Health Policy (OHP) in India. The existing and traditional condition of the laborers before and after independence is also highlighted in this article. Finally the threats are identified and options are provided to improve the health conditions of the workers.

‣ Alveolar Osteitis: A Comprehensive Review of Concepts and Controversies

Kolokythas, Antonia; Olech, Eliza; Miloro, Michael
Fonte: Hindawi Publishing Corporation Publicador: Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Alveolar osteitis, “dry socket”, remains amongst the most commonly encountered complications following extraction of teeth by general dentists and specialists. A great body of literature is devoted to alveolar osteitis addressing the etiology and pathophysiology of this condition. In addition numerous studies are available discussing methods and techniques to prevent this condition. To this date though great controversy still exists regarding the appropriate terminology used for this condition as well as the actual etiology, pathophysiology, and best methods of prevention and treatment. This article is a comprehensive critical review of the available literature addressing the concepts and controversies surrounding alveolar osteitis. We aim to assist the dental health care professional with patient preparation and management of this commonly encountered postoperative condition should be encountered.

‣ Advances in Cellular Therapy for the Treatment of Thyroid Cancer

Papewalis, Claudia; Ehlers, Margret; Schott, Matthias
Fonte: Hindawi Publishing Corporation Publicador: Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Up to now, there are no curative therapies available for the subset of metastasized undifferentiated/anaplastic thyroid carcinomas. This review describes the possible use of immunocompetent cells which may help to restore the antitumor immune recognition for treating an existing tumor or preventing its recurrence. The most prominent experimental strategy is the use of dendritic cells (DCs) which are highly potent in presenting tumor antigens. Activated DCs subsequently migrate to draining lymph nodes where they present antigens to naïve lymphocytes and induce cytotoxic T cells (CTL). Alternatively to DC therapy, adoptive cell transfer may be performed by either using natural killer cells or ex vivo maturated CTLs. Within this review article we will focus on recent advances in the understanding of anti-tumor immune responses, for example, in thyroid carcinomas including the advances which have been made for the identification of potential tumor antigens in thyroid malignancies.

‣ Differentiation therapy of leukemia: 3 decades of development

Nowak, Daniel; Stewart, Daphne; Koeffler, H. Phillip
Fonte: American Society of Hematology Publicador: American Society of Hematology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 16/04/2009 Português
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A characteristic feature of leukemia cells is a blockade of differentiation at a distinct stage in cellular maturation. In the 1970s and 1980s, studies demonstrating the capabilities of certain chemicals to induce differentiation of hematopoietic cell lines fostered the concept of treating leukemia by forcing malignant cells to undergo terminal differentiation instead of killing them through cytotoxicity. The first promising reports on this notion prompted a review article on this subject by us 25 years ago. In this review, we revisit this interesting field of study and report the progress achieved in the course of nearly 3 decades. The best proof of principle for differentiation therapy has been the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia with all-trans retinoic acid. Attempts to emulate this success with other nuclear hormone ligands such as vitamin D compounds and PPARγ agonists or different classes of substances such as hematopoietic cytokines or compounds affecting the epigenetic landscape have not been successful on a broad scale. However, a multitude of studies demonstrating partial progress and improvements and, finally, the new powerful possibilities of forward and reverse engineering of differentiation pathways by manipulation of transcription factors support the continued enthusiasm for differentiation therapy of leukemia in the future.

‣ Systematic Review of Integrative Health Care Research: Randomized Control Trials, Clinical Controlled Trials, and Meta-Analysis

Khorsan, Raheleh; Coulter, Ian D.; Crawford, Cindy; Hsiao, An-Fu
Fonte: Hindawi Publishing Corporation Publicador: Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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A systematic review was conducted to assess the level of evidence for integrative health care research. We searched PubMed, Allied and Complementary Medicine (AMED), BIOSIS Previews, EMBASE, the entire Cochrane Library, MANTIS, Social SciSearch, SciSearch Cited Ref Sci, PsychInfo, CINAHL, and NCCAM grantee publications listings, from database inception to May 2009, as well as searches of the “gray literature.” Available studies published in English language were included. Three independent reviewers rated each article and assessed the methodological quality of studies using the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN 50). Our search yielded 11,891 total citations but 6 clinical studies, including 4 randomized, met our inclusion criteria. There are no available systematic reviews/meta-analyses published that met our inclusion criteria. The methodological quality of the included studies was assessed independently using quality checklists of the SIGN 50. Only a small number of RCTs and CCTs with a limited number of patients and lack of adequate control groups assessing integrative health care research are available. These studies provide limited evidence of effective integrative health care on some modalities. However, integrative health care regimen appears to be generally safe.

‣ Discal cysts of the lumbar spine: report of five cases and review of the literature

Aydin, Sabri; Abuzayed, Bashar; Yildirim, Hakan; Bozkus, Hakan; Vural, Metin
Fonte: Springer-Verlag Publicador: Springer-Verlag
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Discal cysts are rare causes of low back pain and radiculopathy. Only few reports in the literature describe these pathologies. In this article, the authors report five cases (3 males and 2 females) of lumbar discal cysts treated surgically by microdiscectomy. These patients were admitted with a history of back pain and/or sciatalgia. Magnetic resonance imaging of the lumbar spine of all patients revealed lumbar discal cysts, causing compression to the spinal dura and roots. All patients were treated by partial hemilaminectomy and microscopic cyst resection. Postoperatively, the complaints showed improvement, and the patients were discharged with no complications. The cases of lumbar discal cysts are described in the literature as individual case reports, therefore; the authors performed a wide systemic review of all these cases published in PubMed and MedLine, including the patients in the present report. The data of all patients were analyzed to obtain statistically based estimated information about the incidence, the epidemiology, the natural history and the optimum management of these lesions.

‣ Psychosocial Issues in Palliative Care: A Review of Five Cases

Onyeka, Tonia C
Fonte: Medknow Publications Publicador: Medknow Publications
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2010 Português
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Palliative care is not just vital in controlling symptoms of the patient’s disease condition, but also aims to extend the patient’s life, giving it a better quality. However, several times in the course of management, the psychosocial impact of cancer, HIV/AIDS, and other life-limiting disease conditions may not be noticed and dealt with during the admission period, thereby giving rise to a more complex situation than the disease condition itself. This article aims to review some psychosocial issues and measures that can be taken to address them. It highlights the various roles and the importance of the clinician, nurse, social worker, and other members of the multidisciplinary team in tackling these issues and will help healthcare professionals in this field achieve better practice in the future.

‣ Interplay of transcription factors in T-cell differentiation and function: the role of Runx

Wong, Won Fen; Kohu, Kazuyoshi; Chiba, Tomoki; Sato, Takehito; Satake, Masanobu
Fonte: Blackwell Science Inc Publicador: Blackwell Science Inc
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /02/2011 Português
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Over the past years, increasing numbers of distinct subsets have been discovered and identified for a T lymphocytes’ entity. Differentiation and function of each T cell subset are controlled by a specific master transcription factor. Importantly, Runt-related transcription factors, particularly Runx1 and Runx3, interplay with these master regulators in various aspects of T cells’ immunity. In this review article, we first explain roles of Th-Pok and Runx3 in differentiation of CD4 versus CD8 single positive cells, and later focus on cross-regulation of Th-Pok and Runx3 and their relationship with other factors such as TCR strength. Next, we provide evidences for the direct interplay of Runx1/3 with T-bet and GATA3 during Th1 versus Th2 commitment to activate or silence transcription of signature cytokine genes, IFNγ and IL4. Lastly, we explain feed-forward relationship between Runx1 and Foxp3 and discuss roles of Runx1 in regulatory T cells’ suppressive activity. This review highlights an essential importance of Runx molecules in controlling various T cell subsets’ differentiation and functions through molecular interplay with the master transcription factors in terms of protein-protein interaction as well as regulation of gene expression.

‣ Cognitive effects of high-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation: a systematic review

Guse, Birgit; Falkai, Peter; Wobrock, Thomas
Fonte: Springer Vienna Publicador: Springer Vienna
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was introduced as a non-invasive tool for the investigation of the motor cortex. The repetitive application (rTMS), causing longer lasting effects, was used to study the influence on a variety of cerebral functions. High-frequency (>1 Hz) rTMS is known to depolarize neurons under the stimulating coil and to indirectly affect areas being connected and related to emotion and behavior. Researchers found selective cognitive improvement after high-frequency (HF) stimulation specifically over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). This article provides a systematic review of HF-rTMS studies (1999–2009) stimulating over the prefrontal cortex of patients suffering from psychiatric/neurological diseases or healthy volunteers, where the effects on cognitive functions were measured. The cognitive effect was analyzed with regard to the impact of clinical status (patients/healthy volunteers) and stimulation type (verum/sham). RTMS at 10, 15 or 20 Hz, applied over the left DLPFC, within a range of 10–15 successive sessions and an individual motor threshold of 80–110%, is most likely to cause significant cognitive improvement. In comparison, patients tend to reach a greater improvement than healthy participants. Limitations concern the absence of healthy groups in clinical studies and partly the absence of sham groups. Thus...

‣ Genetic and Epigenetic Signatures in Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma: A Systematic Review

Nishida, Naoshi; Goel, Ajay
Fonte: Bentham Science Publishers Ltd Publicador: Bentham Science Publishers Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /04/2011 Português
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Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the third most common cause of cancer deaths worldwide, and the incidence of this fatal disease is still on rise. The majority of HCCs emerge in the background of a chronic liver disease, such as chronic hepatitis and liver cirrhosis. The current understanding is that majority of HCCs evolve as a consequence of chronic inflammation and due to the presence of infection with hepatitis viruses. These underlying pathogenic stimuli subsequently induce a spectrum of genetic and epigenetic alterations in several cancer-related genes, which are involved in cell-cycle regulation, cell growth and adhesion. Such widespread genomic alterations cause disruption of normal cellular signaling and finally lead to the acquisition of a malignant phenotype in HCC. In general, the type of gene alterations, such as point mutations, deletion of chromosomal regions and abnormal methylation of gene promoters differ according to the individual targeted gene. In HCC, incidence of genetic alterations is relatively rare and is limited to a subset of few cancer-specific genes, such as the tumor suppressor p53, RB genes and oncogenes such as the CTNNB1. In contrast, epigenetic changes that involve aberrant methylation of genes and other post-transcriptional histone modifications occur far more frequently...

‣ Gene Expression in Mammalian Cells and its Applications

Khan, Kishwar Hayat
Fonte: Tabriz University of Medical Sciences Publicador: Tabriz University of Medical Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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The production of proteins in appropriate quantity and quality is an essential requirement of the present time. There appears to be a progressive increase in the application of mammalian cells for proteins production. Expression systems utilizing mammalian cells for recombinant proteins are able to introduce proper protein folding, post-translational modifications, and product assembly, which are important for complete biological activity. This review article is totally based on literature survey. In this article much emphasis has been done on the mammalian expression system. The author focused on different mammalian cell lines that express the gene. The different vector systems that transfer the gene into mammalian cells like plasmid based expression vectors, adenovirus vectors, vaccinia vectors, retroviral vector and baculovirus as vectors were explored. The processes for the transfer of gene into mammalian cells were also reviewed. Application and limitations of mammalian expression system were also focused. The purpose of research in writing this article is to create awareness in researchers, starting their career in gene expression related to mammalian cells. The principal result and major conclusion of this article is to make available the molecular technologies...