Página 12 dos resultados de 1719 itens digitais encontrados em 0.039 segundos

‣ Bridge building : afterschool activities, youth social networks, and community development

Forman, Benjamin
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 110 p.; 5396716 bytes; 5396523 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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In recent years, U.S. cities have dramatically increased funding for afterschool activities. These afterschool programs may contribute to community development by expanding social networks, providing new channels for the flow of information and resources to low income neighborhoods. Drawing on research and literature from the fields of sociology, political science and adolescent development, I develop an argument for this hypothesis. The theory is tested using both qualitative data collected from interviews at three case study sites, and quantitative data from surveys distributed to afterschool youth programs in the Boston area. I find that afterschool programs build both bridging and bonding social capital by increasing local and extra-local connections between adolescents and adults, peers, and parents. Policy recommendations designed to increase the social network impact of afterschool programming are provided.; by Benjamin Forman.; Thesis (M.C.P.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Urban Studies and Planning, 2004.; "June 2004."; Includes bibliographical references (p. 97-105).

‣ Land reform and economic development : case study on Romania

Vidican Sgouridis, Georgeta.
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 87 leaves; 3482964 bytes; 3482771 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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Few social arrangements have affected so many people for so long in human history, as the laws and customs governing the ownership and use of land. Taking Romania as a case study, this thesis focuses on the institutional changes that accompany land reform (e.g., property rights, market services, rural financial services) and the role the state plays in the implementation process. The main hypothesis is that in developing countries, unsatisfactory forms of agrarian structure, and in particular the systems of land tenure, tend in a variety of ways to impede economic development. The results of this study illustrate that in Romania improper implementation of land reform had negative effects on development - further deterioration in the standard of living for the rural population, decline in real productivity, and lower production. Hence, one main conclusion is that the distribution of property rights in land is a necessary but not a sufficient condition for creating the basis for development. Redistribution of property rights in land has to be complemented with technical advice and more integrated cross-sector policies such as easy access to credit and agricultural inputs, production and social infrastructure. State involvement is crucial for supporting these services.; by Georgeta Vidican.; Thesis (M.C.P.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology...

‣ International real estate investments by US pension and endowment funds

Mullins, Michael J., 1975-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 56 leaves; 423947 bytes; 423759 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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The last decade has seen a renewed interest and resurgence in private IRE investments by US institutional investors. Pension Plan Sponsors and Endowment Funds have sought out foreign real estate to accomplish a variety of goals, such as increased diversification, higher returns, and the pursuit of unique investment opportunities. This thesis attempts to shed light on the current state of IRE investing by such investors. The paper begins with a review of published and unpublished literature on the subject, followed by analysis of an investor survey conducted by the author. A total of 14 Pension Fund Plan Sponsors, Endowment Fund managers, Pension Fund Consultants, Fund Managers, and Investment Managers participated in the study. The results of the survey describe what the current investment practices of US institutional investors are, what reasoning is behind those practices, and what their future investment plans are. The last portion consists of conclusions about these findings and a discussion of future trends in IRE investing may emerge as a result.; by Michael J. Mullins.; Thesis (S.M.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Urban Studies and Planning, 2004.; This electronic version was submitted by the student author. The certified thesis is available in the Institute Archives and Special Collections.; Includes bibliographical references (leaves 55-56).

‣ The low-rated CMBS market : mortgage REIT, financial innovation and policy lessons from the Asian and Russian financial crisis; Low-rated Commercial Mortgage-Backed Securities market

Su, Yi, 1975-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 54 leaves; 2375440 bytes; 2379912 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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As one of the most important financial innovations in 1990s, Commercial Mortgage-Backed Securities (CMBS) have provided significant amounts of financing for commercial real estate. However, when the Asian and Russian financial crisis hit in 1998, the low rated CMBS market almost dried up and one of the dominant investors Criimi Mae went to Chapter 11 for protection. This study investigates the events systematically from the perspectives of market structure and product development in the context of financial crisis. We found that the private and illiquid market structure and the short term marked-to-market repo financing together resulted in the disequilibrium of the low rated CMBS market during the financial crisis. Information efficiency and more resilient financing mechanism are needed to mitigate the conflicting interest between issuers/underwriters and investors of low rated CMBS.; by Yi Su.; Thesis (S.M. and M.C.P.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Urban Studies and Planning, 2004.; Includes bibliographical references (leaf 54).

‣ Actors, coalitions and the framework convention on climate change

Sewell, Granville C
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 225 p.; 21976235 bytes; 21985858 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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This study examines the political processes through which the Framework Convention on Climate Change was negotiated and the initial efforts of the United States, the Netherlands, and Japan to adopt national policies and measures to implement it. Using the Advocacy Coalition Framework (ACF) as a theoretical lens, it looks in particular at coalition behavior in the policy processes at the international, national, and sub-national levels, and the nature of cooperation and coordination both within and between these levels. In doing so, it attempts to shed additional light on the capacity and propensity of national governments to implement international environmental agreements.; by Granville Clark Sewell.; Thesis (Ph. D.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Urban Studies and Planning, 2005.; Includes bibliographical references.

‣ We know what the CMBS did last summer and why; We know what the Commercial Mortgage-Backed Securities Market did last summer and why

Cavallo, Malik, 1971-; Kinyua, Josphat K
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 92 leaves; 3681172 bytes; 3680968 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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Much has been written about the financial crisis that engulfed the financial markets in the summer and fall of 1998. Little has been written about the effect of this crisis on the fledgling Commercial Mortgage-Backed Securities Market (CMBS). By comparing and contrasting the CMBS market with other comparative fixed-income securities, this thesis establishes that there were specific characteristics of the CMBS market that made it more vulnerable to the market turmoil than other fixed-income securities. First, the thesis seeks to clarify the series of events that culminated in the meltdown of CMBS. We also address CRIIMI MAE, at the time the largest buyer of subordinate CMBS and an emerging player in CMBS issuance, in a case study to assess structural vulnerability in the CMBS market. Finally, we explore the hedging potential of CMBS by regressing a range of domestic and international financial asset prices and various rated CMBS prices during three carefully chosen time periods within the summer and fall crisis period.; by Malik Cavallo and Josphat K. Kinyua.; Thesis (S.M.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Urban Studies and Planning, 1999.; Written by two authors. Cavallo received his degree, Sept. 1999. As of June 2004...

‣ Technology and public participation in environmental decisions

Yao, Basilia Wang
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 109 p.
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Since 1970, the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) has served as the main instrument for analyzing the environmental impacts of federal agency decisions and providing the public with opportunities to participate in the decision making process. For over 35 years, NEPA has defined the process by which agencies assess environmental impacts and disclose those assessments to the public. During this period however, NEPA has come under increasing scrutiny due to the considerable conflict surrounding environmental policies, eroding credibility of science-based policy information, and lack of meaningful public participation opportunities in practice. Experience has shown that collaborative decision making reduces conflict among participants, increases the credibility of science-based information underlying environmental decisions and improves the overall legitimacy of the participation process. The federal government has embraced web-based technology as a means of improving upon the traditional NEPA public participation process. Electronic participation has generated considerable interest among policymakers and scholars due to its potential to facilitate more efficient and more deliberative interaction between citizens and government.; (cont.) This paper analyzes a pilot program by the Bureau of Land Management to integrate electronic participation into its decision making process. I evaluate four cases involved in the ePlanning pilot to understand the extent to which recent electronic participation efforts build upon established best practices in traditional...

‣ The 1,000 dollar home : a scalable business model to build disaster relief dwellings and upgrade slums; One thousand dollar home : a scalable business model to build disaster relief dwellings and upgrade slums

Cañzio, Luis (Del Cañzio)
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 62 leaves
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This thesis proposes a new model for the private markets to build disaster relief dwellings or to upgrade degraded neighborhoods of very low income communities. The study offers a way to empower the dwellers of very poor communities or the victims of natural disasters not only by providing them with financial support, but equally important by also providing them with a construction method that allows for a progressive build up of their dwellings. In doing so, the author argues that the residents of poor, informal settlements could act as developers of good quality housing and successfully improve their communities. The analysis leading to the proposed new model is based on the following: 1. A review of other private sector precedents to empower the communities of impoverished settlements or victims of natural disasters. Such precedents have had varying degrees of success, and illustrate the difficulties in implementing a method that can be scaled up universally to meet the overwhelming need for low cost housing. 2. A specific technical solution to build low cost houses by relying on the use of stabilized earth compacted and packaged into polypropylene skin, forming a continuous durable brick, as the main construction material and a self-build approach that can guarantee the affordability while also providing for a safe and good quality dwelling unit.; (cont.) 3. A valid economic model that can be adopted by private entities...

‣ Regional catalytic economic impacts and noise-damage costs of aviation growth

Tam, Ryan Aung Min, 1973-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 272 p.
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There is growing recognition that transportation or infrastructure improvements can have longer-term catalytic impacts economic productivity, which are in addition to the direct, indirect, or induced household spending impacts. These economic catalytic effects are fundamentally different from traditional measures of the impacts from spending in the air transport sector. In contrast to the generally positive regional economic benefits of aviation, however, aircraft noise has emerged as a major negative externality of the air transportation system and continues to be a controversial issue in communities around airports. In this analysis, I develop a methodology to highlight interrelationships between airport flight operations and noise impacts on surrounding communities, and between air transport industry and regional economic growth. I calculate the noise-damage costs under different airport growth scenarios at London Heathrow and the East Midlands airport, and then apply an econometric input-output model to estimate the regional catalytic economic impacts associated with the growth of the air transport industry under these same scenarios. I find that the local airport noise damages are very small compared to the regional economic impacts from aviation. Furthermore...

‣ NGOs & climate change campaigns : understanding variations in motivations and activities of environmental and development organizations; Understanding variations in motivations and activities of environmental and development organizations

Reeve, Kara E
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 78 p.
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The unequal distribution of climate change impacts exploits the existing vulnerabilities of developing nations. This inequity, coupled with an inadequate, climate mitigation-focused response, has prompted a growing movement of global civil society actors demanding climate justice. In particular, transnational, non-governmental organizations (NGOs) have now developed climate change campaigns that focus on both climate change mitigation and adaptation. However, little study has been conducted about the nature of these campaigns. For example, what drives these organizations to work on climate change; how these campaigns are tailored to the needs of vulnerable populations, and how organizational structure affects campaigns and problem identification, are questions that have not been addressed. In order to gain a better understanding of these climate campaigns, I conducted a survey of the climate activities of two transnational NGOs: Friends of the Earth International and Oxfam-Great Britain. In particular, I looked at why these NGOs have engaged in climate change activities in the countries where they are working and why they have oriented their campaigns in the way that they have. The findings suggest that NGO climate change campaigns in industrialized countries focus on mitigation...

‣ Analytical input-output and supply chain study of China's coke and steel sectors; Analytical I/O and supply chain study of China's coke and steel sectors

Li, Yu, 1976-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 123 leaves; 7661751 bytes; 7677000 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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I design an input-output model to investigate the energy supply chain of coal-coke-steel in China. To study the demand, supply, and energy-intensity issues for coal and coke from a macroeconomic perspective, I apply the model to test two hypotheses: (1) coal and coke intensities in individual economic sectors decline as China's overall energy efficiency improves, and (2) the supply of coal and coke will satisfy the demand in China in the future three years given a business-as-usual assumption. The results support the first hypothesis but do not support the second. I summarize the policy implications in four areas: (1) energy, (2) environment, (3) trade, and (4) investment.; by Yu Li.; Thesis (S.M.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Urban Studies and Planning, 2004.; Includes bibliographical references (leaves 122-123).

‣ Building a state or saving lives? : the processes, motives and politics behind the reconstruction of Afghanistan's health system

Tulier, Melody Esther, 1980-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 79 leaves; 4906454 bytes; 4915824 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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Startlingly poor health statistics in Afghanistan clearly indicate that, in order to enhance the socio-economic status and overall stability of the state, a complete overhaul of its health care system is imperative. However, providing health is not simply a technical endeavor involving the construction of clinics, the training of doctors, and adequate medical supplies, for instance. In the stage of policy formulation for the reconstruction of Afghanistan's health system, there was in fact a dynamic, political process. The specific form of health reconstruction being implemented in Afghanistan was a result of a global consensus regarding the importance of health and general best-practice methods for health reform, external pressure to act quickly, power dynamics, and differing priorities of participating actors. The decisions and the resulting nuances of the plan conceived during this period also have broader implications regarding how and if long-term goals of development for Afghanistan, such as state building, could be reinforced or neglected. Development aid that overtly includes long-term state building goals seems like a plausible and possibly even more appealing solution than the current plan that concentrates on quick, high-impact health results. However...

‣ Redevelopment and smart growth at Assembly Square

Savage, Alice (Alice Augusta)
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 41 leaves
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The story of Assembly Square is not yet finished. To tell the complete story of Assembly Square would require much more time to write than I had, and more time to read than the reader would likely care to devote. An earlier work by class of 1984 M.C.P. student Steven Landau covers the development of the mall at Assembly Square, and begins to look at its subsequent demise. My thesis picks up almost where this earlier work leaves off, but focuses on the time where there is the greatest uncertainty surrounding the site's immediate future. This period roughly coincides with Dorothy Kelly Gay's term as Somerville mayor, and ends when a new mall is opened and re-tenanted. During this time, public opinion and political will at the local level moved first against and then towards developers' vision of the site. My thesis follows this shift and attempts to explain why a smart growth advocacy group found itself in the bizarre position of fighting one of the cornerstone's of Governor Mitt Romney's smart growth plan for Massachusetts, and why public opinion was first with then against this group. I conclude that the rhetoric of Smart Growth is inconsistent with its practice.; by Alice Savage.; Thesis (M.C.P.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology...

‣ Rethinking the bottom line : how externalities of private development impact the value proposition and negotiation process

O'Connor, Caitlin (Caitlin A.)
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 105 leaves; 753207 bytes; 753014 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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In assessing feasibility of a project, developers typically use a classic financial model Discounted Cash Flow (DCF) to forecast the private benefit that accrues to the developer and financial partners. DCF is a rational method to approximate the value of a deal, but the method neglects to recognize that developments are both private assets and also possess some qualities of a public good. Buildings in historic districts, along cultural trails or art corridors are clear examples, but most developments share similar attributes that many individuals, beyond the building's users, enjoy. Most developers already understand this concept intuitively, but one of the goals of this thesis is to create tangible tools to be used in the development/redevelopment process to capitalize on undervalued projects or elements of a project and in a timeframe that is socially optimal. Making these "intangible impacts" explicit will not only help developers identify undervalued projects, but may prove a powerful argument in negotiations with city officials and with capital partners. One of the contributions of this work is to bring disparate bodies of literature together and relate them to the larger questions of total property value and the optimal allocation of scarce resources in real estate.; by Caitlin O'Connor.; Thesis (S.M. and M.C.P.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology...

‣ Opportunities and challenges of investing in emerging markets : a case study of Panama

Ganster, Marianne (Marianne Theresa)
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 71 leaves
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Many Real Estate investment firms are looking to the world's emerging economies in their real estate investment strategies to seek optimal returns in opaque or inefficient markets. Although these investments carry increased political, regulatory and currency risk, cross-border real estate investment has been on the rise. This thesis will broadly explore the nature of investment in emerging markets and survey risks associated with deploying capital in these markets, from the perspective of a foreign investor In order to assess explicit real estate opportunities and address the issues relevant to investors pursuing them, the scope of research was narrowed to focus on one Latin American country that has compelling opportunity for real estate investment: Panama. In recent years, this emerging market has seen extraordinary growth and expansion of its real estate sector, driven by domestic and international consumption related to trade, tourism, and the upcoming expansion of the Panama Canal. This paper will explore the real estate markets driven by these trends, analyze the specific risks associated with investment in these markets, and offer practical considerations for how the real estate "game" is played in Panama.; by Marianne Ganster.; Thesis (S.M. in Real Estate Development)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology...

‣ A successive effort on performance comparison between public and private real estate equity investment

Tsai, Jengbin Patrick
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 54 leaves
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The research has a two-fold objective. Initially, the author compares the performance between public and private real estate equity investment represented by NAREIT Equity REIT Index and NCREIF Property Index from 1987 to 2005. Before comparison, the two return series are restated to eliminate their discrepancies in leverage, property-sector mix, and asset management fees. In addition to the 2.66% difference in mean returns between public and private markets over the 19-year research timeframe, the results indicate that the return restatement is able to reconcile the performance of the indices both by property sector (i.e. retail, apartment, office, and industrial) and at the aggregate level. Subsequently, the author compares MIT CRE's Transactions-Based Index (TBI) with NCREIF Property Index in order to confirm the advantage of transaction- over appraisal-based indices under some circumstances. After TBI goes through a similar restatement process, TBI and NCREIF Property Index are respectively benchmarked with NAREIT Equity REIT Index from 1995 to 2005. Although some conflicting results are found in the retail and apartment sectors, the research basically identifies TBI's relative proximity to the public market benchmark, which further supports the argument that transaction-based indices are better data sources for the analyses in which responsive reflections on private market conditions are necessary.; by Jengbin Patrick Tsai.; Thesis (S.M. in Real Estate Development)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology...

‣ The impact of climate change on ski resort operations and development : opportunities and threats

McGill, Daniel D. D. (Daniel Dulany deButts)
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 58 leaves
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This thesis serves as a pedagogical guide to the ski resort industry, and presents a broad overview of the unique issues that accompany climate change. The paper also provides recommendations to resort developers as to which regions of North America will likely become desirable destination for skiers in light of such changes. The ski resort industry is on the cutting edge with respect to sustainable building techniques and adoption of innovative "green" principles in day-to-day operations. But while these efforts are admirable and set an important precedent, in the global context they do little to stem the tide of global warming which penalizes indiscriminately. It is therefore necessary for stakeholders within the ski industry to not only embrace adoption strategies, but also to consider what preemptive actions can be taken to capitalize on global warming. Using historical annual total snowfall records and "skier visit" data, this study intends to quantify the extent to which climate change has impacted resort operations in different regions of the United States over the last several decades. In addition, the paper provides an overview of current and future effects of climate change on North America's ski resort industry and provides recommendations as to how these operators can adapt to ever changing conditions over the next 30 - 50 years. This is followed by a review of climate adaptation practices currently employed by resort operators and stakeholders. With few exceptions...

‣ Displacement, politics and governance : access to low-income housing in a Beirut suburb

Bou Akar, Hiba
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 113 p.; 8944330 bytes; 8951000 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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Lebanon witnessed large-scale phases of internal displacement during and after its civil war (1975-1990). This study analyzes access to low-income housing for a Lebanese Shiites group which has already experienced two phases of internal displacement: from South Lebanon to Beirut during the civil war, and from Beirut to the suburbs after postwar reconstruction started in 1992. This research is a case study of Sahra Choueifat, one of Beirut's southern suburbs. It presents a comprehensive analysis of the factors that have affected the displacement and relocation processes in the second phase of displacement. The study focuses on three main issues: (i) the post-war monetary compensation to war-displaced squatters; (ii) the intervention of Shiite political parties in the housing market, and (iii) the conflict over territory in Sahra Choueifat between the incoming Shiite group and the original Druze residents. The study presents three main findings: First, the post-war monetary compensation that the evicted war-displaced squatters received was adequate to allow them to acquire legal housing in Beirut; yet the uncertainty that characterized its implementation led the families to tie-up their capital in vacant apartments before they could move. Second...

‣ Multiple asset class investing : equilibrium asset pricing evaluation of real estate risk and return across four quadrants; Equilibrium asset pricing evaluation of real estate risk and return across four quadrants

Li, Nan, 1972-; Price, Steven McKay
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 68 leaves; 338455 bytes; 338262 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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The major objective of this study is to test equilibrium asset pricing models with respect to how well they price risk across multiple asset classes; including the four quadrants of real estate. While using the Geltner (1999) paper as a springboard for our approach, this thesis both updates Professor Geltner's earlier work and extends its scope through the testing of additional models and asset classes. Using historical data to derive beta estimates, we empirically test several variations of the Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM). These variations include the traditional, single-beta, Sharpe-Lintner CAPM, as well as the multi-beta, Fama-French CAPM. For the single-factor formula we explore the use of two different market portfolio proxies, the S&P 500 Index and the National Wealth Portfolio (NWP). We also apply the single-factor formula to a non-wealth based, consumption oriented approach. Test results show the NWP based CAPM to be the strongest model, being both robust and statistically significant in its pricing of asset volatility. When using the traditional S&P 500 index as the market proxy, the basic CAPM performs surprisingly well, though not as well as the NWP version. The multi-beta Fama-French model explains a large amount of price variation...

‣ Energy prices and energy intensity in China : a structural decomposition analysis and econometric study

Shi, Xiaoyu, M.C.P. Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 115 p.; 5995651 bytes; 6000435 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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Since the start of its economic reforms in 1978, China's energy prices relative to other prices have increased. At the same time, its energy intensity, i.e., physical energy consumption per unit of Gross Domestic Product (GDP), has declined dramatically, by about 70%, in spite of increases in energy consumption. Is this just a coincidence? Or does a systematic relationship exist between energy prices and energy intensity? In this study, I examine whether and how China's energy price changes affect its energy intensity trend during 1980-2002 at a macro level. I conduct the research using two complementary economic models (the input-output-based structural decomposition analysis and econometric regression models) and a decomposition method of own-price elasticity of energy intensity. Findings include a negative own-price elasticity of energy intensity, a price-inducement effect on energy-efficiency improvement, and a greater sensitivity, in terms of the reaction of energy intensity towards changes in energy prices, of the industry sector, compared to the overall economy. Analysts can use these results as a starting point for China's energy use and carbon emission forecasts, which they traditionally conduct in China without accounting for energy intensity and energy prices.; (cont.) In addition...