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‣ Greening China’s Rural Energy : New Insights on the Potential of Smallholder Biogas

Christiaensen, Luc; Heltberg, Rasmus
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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Clean, safe energy for rural areas is an important component of green growth and sustainable development. Biogas could be an important contributor, if its record in reality lives up to its expected potential. This paper provides a preliminary assessment of biogas use by smallholder farmers in rural China, using data collected from 2,700 households in five provinces. The authors find that user satisfaction is high, and environmental and economic benefits appear tangible. There are strong indications of reduced use of wood and crop residues for fuel. Less time is spent on collecting fuel wood and cooking, which is especially beneficial to women. Adopters also save on fertilizers, because of the use of biogas residues. Moreover, problems with suspension of biogas use, whether due to technical or human factors, remained limited. However, few tangible benefits to respiratory health were detected. Overall, these findings are grounds for optimism about the potential for of smallholder biogas to contribute to more sustainable development...

‣ Promoting Energy Access Projects under the Clean Development Mechanism : Standardized Baselines and Suppressed Demand

Gadde, Harikumar; Platonova-Oquab, Alexandrina; Affouda, Leon Biaou; Godin, Julie; Oppermann, Klaus
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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New concepts under the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), namely standardized baselines and suppressed demand, should facilitate the implementation of CDM energy access projects, particularly in Least Developed Countries (LDCs), by reducing transaction costs and reflecting the real emission reductions achieved. Governments and authorities in LDCs can play a prominent role in making these new CDM opportunities available. The improvement of the regulatory framework can facilitate the development of innovative carbon-based financing schemes required for successful scaling-up of CDM energy access projects in LDCs. The main purpose of this paper is to outline how the new CDM concepts of standardized baselines and suppressed demand may be used to promote energy access projects under the CDM, in the context of new and expanded role of host country Designated National Authorities (DNAs). In the process, the paper also identifies challenges in the use of these concepts and opportunities for further simplification. By way of illustration...

‣ Transmitting Renewable Energy to the Grid

Madrigal, Marcelino; Jordan, Rhonda Lenai
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Many countries are scaling up their investments in renewable energy. In 2010, electricity production from renewable sources - wind, solar, biomass, biofuels, geothermal, hydropower, and ocean energy accounted for 18 percent of global electricity supply. By early 2011, renewables made up a quarter of all installed power capacity. One of the main obstacles to the scale-up of renewable energy is connecting generating sites to the grid in an efficient manner. Renewable energy places greater demands on the transmission network than do conventional energy sources. First, the richest sites for solar and wind energy is often spread across multiple locations far from consumption centers or existing transmission networks. Second, generation is subject to variability in climate conditions (such as wind speed and solar radiation). This note focuses on the transmission implications of the dispersion of renewable energy sources, rather than on the implications of variability. In some sub regions of the United States and countries in Europe that are pursuing renewable energy options, the requirements for investment in transmission already approved by regulators (or forecasted by transmission companies) are double or quadruple recent investment trends. In Brazil the investment needs for renewable energy in some regions surpass the asset value of the distribution utilities closest to the renewable sites.

‣ Designing Credit Lines for Energy Efficiency

Sarkar, Ashok; Sinton, Jonathan; de Wit, Joeri
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Many economically attractive opportunities to invest in energy efficiency are forgone because of various market barriers, notably the limited availability of commercial financing for energy efficiency projects. Once a government decides, as a matter of policy, to scale up energy efficiency, it typically must engage commercial banks to provide financing to the private end users who will carry out the energy efficiency projects needed to make the national policy a reality. Credit lines help banks establish an energy efficiency business line by mitigating the perceived high financial risk of energy efficiency projects and of the energy service companies that carry them out, and sometimes by building into the credit line a technical assistance component to improve understanding of the fundamentals of energy efficiency projects. Energy efficiency credit lines make funds available to participating financial institutions (including local banks). The success of a credit line depends to a great extent on the selection of competent and committed financial institutions. A technical assistance component built into the credit line helps lower the technical and financial risk of projects.

‣ Tracking Progress Toward Providing Sustainable Energy for All in East Asia and the Pacific

Portale, Elisa; de Wit, Joeri
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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To sustain momentum for the achievement of the sustainable energy for all (SE4ALL) objectives, a means of charting global progress to 2030 is needed. The World Bank and the International Energy Agency led a consortium of 15 international agencies to establish the SE4ALL global tracking framework (GTF), which provides a system for regular global reporting, based on rigorous yet practical, given available databases - technical measures. This note is based on that framework. This note uses GTF data to provide a regional and country perspective on the three SE4ALL goals in East Asia and the Pacific (EAP). The first section considers energy access. The report looks at the renewable energy and energy efficiency goals.

‣ Scaling Up Access to Electricity : Pay-as-You-Go Plans in Off-Grid Energy Services

Moreno, Alejandro; Bareisaite, Asta
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Although the payment models offered by off-grid energy companies are less flexible than those implemented with great success by mobile telephone companies, they may still have an important role to play in scaling up off-grid energy services for billions of people who lack access to electricity. More research is needed to assess the importance of flexible payments in attracting reliable low-income customers.

‣ Promoting Renewable Energy through Auctions

Elizondo Azuela, Gabriela; Barroso, Luiz
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Journal Article; Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
Português
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This knowledge note singles out auctions as an important mechanism that has been implemented in a growing number of countries in recent decades. It features case studies of auctions designed to promote the generation of electricity from renewable sources in Brazil, China, and India. Auctions in various forms are being used to promote the generation of electricity from renewable sources. Properly structured auctions can avoid the disadvantages of feed-in tariffs and renewable purchase obligations. Moreover, they offer the best of both of these early mechanisms, providing stable revenue guarantees for investors while also avoiding the risk of overbuilding. They do this by determining both price and quantity in advance. Promoting renewable energy through auctions is important, because experience with the use of auctions can guide future efforts. Among the examples of the benefits to be obtained from generating electricity from renewable sources are (i) increasing countries' energy security by reducing their dependency on fossil fuel imports...

‣ Opportunities for Mitigating the Environmental Impact of Energy Use in the Middle East and North Africa Region

Zhang, Yabei
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: ESMAP Paper; Publications & Research
Português
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The main motivation for Middle East and North Africa Region (MENA) governments to improve energy efficiency is to address pressing domestic concerns, such as urban air pollution, energy security, economic competitiveness, the fiscal cost of energy subsidies and the balance of payments. However, improved energy efficiency is also seen as the most promising route for reducing the region's green house gas (GHG) emissions. Therefore, as part of the study on energy efficiency in MENA, this report aims to describe and quantify the links between energy efficiency and GHG emissions as well as urban air pollution in MENA. More specifically, the objectives of the report is: (i) to create scenarios of emissions of GHG and selected urban air pollutants (specifically, particulate matter (PM)) under different assumptions of energy efficiency improvements; (ii) to identify the country/sectors where energy efficiency improvements are likely to have the greatest impact upon GHG and PM emissions; and (iii) to benchmark MENA against other regions in terms of energy intensity and GHG emissions.

‣ The Greening of Macedonia's Public Buildings : Financing Options for the National Program for Energy Efficiency in Public Buildings in the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, 2012-18

Limaye, Dilip; Meyer, Anke
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Energy Study
Português
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The Government of Macedonia (GOM) plans to launch a National Program for Energy Efficiency in Public Buildings (NPEEPB, or "the program") to achieve energy efficiency (EE) improvements in the buildings sector and meet the strategic targets outlined in the energy development strategy of the Republic of Macedonia until 2030, the EE strategy until 2020, and the national EE action plan in 2010-18. The NPEEPB, coordinated by the Ministry of Economy (MOE), aims to retrofit existing public buildings and to lead by example in the implementation of EE measures. Its targets are public buildings that are used for administrative and other activities of public interest and that are fully owned by government institutions or municipalities. This report focuses on the financing mechanisms that are considered the best fit with the institutional environment to achieve the goals of the NPEEPB, and describes in detail the implementation of the proposed financing mechanisms: a full-service EE fund, a dedicated EE credit line...