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‣ The many faces of epidemiology: evolutionary epidemiology; As muitas faces da epidemiologia: epidemiologia evolucionária

STRUCHINER, Claudio José; LUZ, Paula Mendes; CODEÇO, Claudia Torres; MASSAD, Eduardo
Fonte: Associação Brasileira de Pós-Graduação em Saúde Coletiva Publicador: Associação Brasileira de Pós-Graduação em Saúde Coletiva
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.098325%
We review important issues revealed by the application of the evolutionary theory to epidemiological problems. The scope is restricted to infectious diseases and the evolution of virulence as a consequence of public health strategies to control transmission. We focus on the discussion about the possibility of virulence management and explore current scenarios in which recent advances in molecular biology and genetics offer new tools to monitor and change diversity among pathogens, vertebrate and invertebrate hosts. We stress the need to integrate the analytical framework of epidemiology into population genetics and evolutionary theory. We anticipate as an outcome of this process the development of study designs and analytical tools to predict the evolutionary implications of control measures in the population and surveillance mechanisms to continuously monitor the changes in pathogen virulence patterns. Communication among modelers, epidemiologists and molecular biologists is essential in order to design model-driven field trials and to develop data-driven analytical tools leading to conclusive findings that can inform the public health oriented decision making process.; Apresentamos os principais conceitos relacionados à aplicação da teoria evolutiva a problemas epidemiológicos. Limitamo-nos às doenças infecciosas e à evolução da virulência como conseqüência das estratégias de controle da transmissão em saúde pública. Nosso foco é voltado à discussão sobre a possibilidade de controle da virulência e exploramos possíveis cenários atuais em que os avanços recentes em biologia molecular e genética oferecem novas ferramentas de controle e monitoramento de variações na diversidade em patógenos e hospedeiros. Chamamos a atenção para a necessidade de integrar a estrutura analítica da epidemiologia com a genética de populações e a teoria evolutiva. Seguindo a tradição epidemiológica...

‣ Change and Aging Senescence as an Adaptation

MARTINS, Andre C. R.
Fonte: PUBLIC LIBRARY SCIENCE Publicador: PUBLIC LIBRARY SCIENCE
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.098325%
Understanding why we age is a long-lived open problem in evolutionary biology. Aging is prejudicial to the individual, and evolutionary forces should prevent it, but many species show signs of senescence as individuals age. Here, I will propose a model for aging based on assumptions that are compatible with evolutionary theory: i) competition is between individuals; ii) there is some degree of locality, so quite often competition will be between parents and their progeny; iii) optimal conditions are not stationary, and mutation helps each species to keep competitive. When conditions change, a senescent species can drive immortal competitors to extinction. This counter-intuitive result arises from the pruning caused by the death of elder individuals. When there is change and mutation, each generation is slightly better adapted to the new conditions, but some older individuals survive by chance. Senescence can eliminate those from the genetic pool. Even though individual selection forces can sometimes win over group selection ones, it is not exactly the individual that is selected but its lineage. While senescence damages the individuals and has an evolutionary cost, it has a benefit of its own. It allows each lineage to adapt faster to changing conditions. We age because the world changes.; Fundacao de Amparo a Pesquisa do Estado de Sao Paulo (FAPESP)

‣ Evolutionary divergence between two closely related species: Drosophila madeirensis and D. subobscura : quantitative genetic differentiation, reproductive barriers and evolutionary potential

Rego, Carla, 1970-
Fonte: Universidade de Lisboa Publicador: Universidade de Lisboa
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2007 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.098325%
Tese de doutoramento em Biologia (Biologia Evolutiva), apresentada à Universidade de Lisboa através da Faculdade de Ciências, 2008; Speciation and species differentiation are very important issues in Evolutionary Biology. This thesis focuses several aspects related with the differentiation between two closely related species, Drosophila madeirensis and Drosophila subosbcura, namely the contribution of additive and non-additive genetic effects to that differentiation, the contribution of assortative mating to their reproductive isolation, the analysis of hybrid developmental problems expressed as higher fluctuating asymmetry and their underlying causes (developmental noise), and the implications of species differentiation in terms of adaptation to a novel, common environment. The results indicate that negative dominance and epistasis are both involved in the genetic differentiation between these species. Both species present assortative mating, conspecific matings being more likely. Furthermore, the two reciprocal cross directions apparently present different reproductive barriers. In the cross involving D. madeirensis females the barrier is mostly prezygotic, with mating being hard to observe, however, this cross direction yields a high number of hybrids with an even sex-ratio. On the other hand...

‣ Evolution and development: some insights from evolutionary theory

DAVID,JEAN R.
Fonte: Academia Brasileira de Ciências Publicador: Academia Brasileira de Ciências
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/09/2001 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.098325%
Developmental biology and evolutionary biology are both mature integrative disciplines which started in the 19th century and then followed parallel and independent scientific pathways. Recently, a genetical component has stepped into both disciplines (developmental genetics and evolutionary genetics) pointing out the need for future convergent maturation. Indeed, the Evo-Devo approach is becoming popular among developmental biologists, based on the facts that distant groups share a common ancestry, that precise phylogenies can be worked out and that homologous genes often play similar roles during the development of very different organisms. In this essay, I try to show that the real future of Evo-Devo thinking is still broader. The evolutionary theory is a set of diverse concepts which can and should be used in any biological field. Evolutionary thinking trains to ask « why » questions and to provide logical and plausible answers. It can shed some light on a diversity of general problems such as how to distinguish homologies from analogies, the costs and benefits of multicellularity, the origin of novel structures (e.g. the head), or the evolution of sexual reproduction. In the next decade, we may expect a progressive convergence between developmental genetics and quantitative genetics.

‣ The many faces of epidemiology: evolutionary epidemiology

Struchiner,Claudio José; Luz,Paula Mendes; Codeço,Claudia Torres; Massad,Eduardo
Fonte: ABRASCO - Associação Brasileira de Saúde Coletiva Publicador: ABRASCO - Associação Brasileira de Saúde Coletiva
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2008 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.098325%
We review important issues revealed by the application of the evolutionary theory to epidemiological problems. The scope is restricted to infectious diseases and the evolution of virulence as a consequence of public health strategies to control transmission. We focus on the discussion about the possibility of virulence management and explore current scenarios in which recent advances in molecular biology and genetics offer new tools to monitor and change diversity among pathogens, vertebrate and invertebrate hosts. We stress the need to integrate the analytical framework of epidemiology into population genetics and evolutionary theory. We anticipate as an outcome of this process the development of study designs and analytical tools to predict the evolutionary implications of control measures in the population and surveillance mechanisms to continuously monitor the changes in pathogen virulence patterns. Communication among modelers, epidemiologists and molecular biologists is essential in order to design model-driven field trials and to develop data-driven analytical tools leading to conclusive findings that can inform the public health oriented decision making process.

‣ Evolutionary Dynamics on Graphs: Efficient Method for Weak Selection

Fu, Feng; Wang, Long; Nowak, Martin A.; Hauert, Christoph
Fonte: American Physical Society Publicador: American Physical Society
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.098325%
Investigating the evolutionary dynamics of game theoretical interactions in populations where individuals are arranged on a graph can be challenging in terms of computation time. Here, we propose an efficient method to study any type of game on arbitrary graph structures for weak selection. In this limit, evolutionary game dynamics represents a first-order correction to neutral evolution. Spatial correlations can be empirically determined under neutral evolution and provide the basis for formulating the game dynamics as a discrete Markov process by incorporating a detailed description of the microscopic dynamics based on the neutral correlations. This framework is then applied to one of the most intriguing questions in evolutionary biology: the evolution of cooperation. We demonstrate that the degree heterogeneity of a graph impedes cooperation and that the success of tit for tat depends not only on the number of rounds but also on the degree of the graph. Moreover, considering the mutation-selection equilibrium shows that the symmetry of the stationary distribution of states under weak selection is skewed in favor of defectors for larger selection strengths. In particular, degree heterogeneity—a prominent feature of scale-free networks—generally results in a more pronounced increase in the critical benefit-to-cost ratio required for evolution to favor cooperation as compared to regular graphs. This conclusion is corroborated by an analysis of the effects of population structures on the fixation probabilities of strategies in general 2×2 games for different types of graphs. Computer simulations confirm the predictive power of our method and illustrate the improved accuracy as compared to previous studies.; Mathematics; Organismic and Evolutionary Biology

‣ The Replicator Equation on Graphs

Ohtsuki, Hisashi; Nowak, Martin A.
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.098325%
We study evolutionary games on graphs. Each player is represented by a vertex of the graph. The edges denote who meets whom. A player can use any one of n strategies. Players obtain a payoff from interaction with all their immediate neighbors. We consider three different update rules, called ‘birth-death’, ‘death-birth’ and ‘imitation’. A fourth update rule, ‘pairwise comparison’, is shown to be equivalent to birth-death updating in our model. We use pair-approximation to describe the evolutionary game dynamics on regular graphs of degree k. In the limit of weak selection, we can derive a differential equation which describes how the average frequency of each strategy on the graph changes over time. Remarkably, this equation is a replicator equation with a transformed payoff matrix. Therefore, moving a game from a well-mixed population (the complete graph) onto a regular graph simply results in a transformation of the payoff matrix. The new payoff matrix is the sum of the original payoff matrix plus another matrix, which describes the local competition of strategies. We discuss the application of our theory to four particular examples, the Prisoner’s Dilemma, the Snow-Drift game, a coordination game and the Rock-Scissors-Paper game.; Mathematics; Organismic and Evolutionary Biology

‣ Exploring the miRNA Regulatory Network Using Evolutionary Correlations

Obermayer, Benedikt; Levine, Erel
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.098325%
Post-transcriptional regulation by miRNAs is a widespread and highly conserved phenomenon in metazoans, with several hundreds to thousands of conserved binding sites for each miRNA, and up to two thirds of all genes under miRNA regulation. At the same time, the effect of miRNA regulation on mRNA and protein levels is usually quite modest and associated phenotypes are often weak or subtle. This has given rise to the notion that the highly interconnected miRNA regulatory network exerts its function less through any individual link and more via collective effects that lead to a functional interdependence of network links. We present a Bayesian framework to quantify conservation of miRNA target sites using vertebrate whole-genome alignments. The increased statistical power of our phylogenetic model allows detection of evolutionary correlation in the conservation patterns of site pairs. Such correlations could result from collective functions in the regulatory network. For instance, co-conservation of target site pairs supports a selective benefit of combinatorial regulation by multiple miRNAs. We find that some miRNA families are under pronounced co-targeting constraints, indicating a high connectivity in the regulatory network, while others appear to function in a more isolated way. By analyzing coordinated targeting of different curated gene sets...

‣ Graph-based modeling and evolutionary analysis of microbial metabolism

Zhou, Wanding
Fonte: Universidade Rice Publicador: Universidade Rice
Tipo: Thesis; Text Formato: application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.098325%
Microbial organisms are responsible for most of the metabolic innovations on Earth. Understanding microbial metabolism helps shed the light on questions that are central to biology, biomedicine, energy and the environment. Graph-based modeling is a powerful tool that has been used extensively for elucidating the organising principles of microbial metabolism and the underlying evolutionary forces that act upon it. Nevertheless, various graph-theoretic representations and techniques have been applied to metabolic networks, rendering the modeling aspect ad hoc and highlighting the conflicting conclusions based on the different representations. The contribution of this dissertation is two-fold. In the first half, I revisit the modeling aspect of metabolic networks, and present novel techniques for their representation and analysis. In particular, I explore the limitations of standard graphs representations, and the utility of the more appropriate model---hypergraphs---for capturing metabolic network properties. Further, I address the task of metabolic pathway inference and the necessity to account for chemical symmetries and alternative tracings in this crucial task. In the second part of the dissertation, I focus on two evolutionary questions. First...

‣ Inflated Impact Factors? The True Impact of Evolutionary Papers in Non-Evolutionary Journals

Postma, Erik
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 03/10/2007 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.0775%
Amongst the numerous problems associated with the use of impact factors as a measure of quality are the systematic differences in impact factors that exist among scientific fields. While in theory this can be circumvented by limiting comparisons to journals within the same field, for a diverse and multidisciplinary field like evolutionary biology, in which the majority of papers are published in journals that publish both evolutionary and non-evolutionary papers, this is impossible. However, a journal's overall impact factor may well be a poor predictor for the impact of its evolutionary papers. The extremely high impact factors of some multidisciplinary journals, for example, are by many believed to be driven mostly by publications from other fields. Despite plenty of speculation, however, we know as yet very little about the true impact of evolutionary papers in journals not specifically classified as evolutionary. Here I present, for a wide range of journals, an analysis of the number of evolutionary papers they publish and their average impact. I show that there are large differences in impact among evolutionary and non-evolutionary papers within journals; while the impact of evolutionary papers published in multidisciplinary journals is substantially overestimated by their overall impact factor...

‣ Enhanced self-attraction of proteins and its evolutionary implications

Lyjatsky, D. B.; Shakhnovich, E. I.
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 16/03/2006 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.098325%
Statistical analysis of protein-protein interactions shows anomalously high frequency of homodimers [Ispolatov, I., et al. (2005) Nucleic Acids Res 33, 3629-35]. Furthermore, recent findings [Wright, C.F., et al. (2005) Nature 438, 878-81] demonstrate that maintaining low sequence identity is a key evolutionary mechanism that inhibits protein aggregation. Here, we study statistical properties of interacting protein-like surfaces and predict the effect of universal, enhanced self-attraction of proteins. The effect originates in the fact that a pattern self-match between two identical, even randomly organized interacting protein surfaces is always stronger compared to the pattern match between two different, promiscuous protein surfaces. This finding implies an increased probability of homodimer selection in the course of early evolution. Our simple model of early evolutionary selection of interacting proteins accurately reproduces the experimental data on homodimer interface aminoacid compositions. In addition, we predict that heterodimers evolved from homodimers with the negative design evolutionary pressure applied against promiscuous homodimer formation. We predict that the anti-homodimer negative design evolutionary signal is conveyed through the enrichment of heterodimeric interfaces in polar residues...

‣ Universality of weak selection

Wu, Bin; Altrock, Philipp M.; Wang, Long; Traulsen, Arne
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 11/10/2010 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.098325%
Weak selection, which means a phenotype is slightly advantageous over another, is an important limiting case in evolutionary biology. Recently it has been introduced into evolutionary game theory. In evolutionary game dynamics, the probability to be imitated or to reproduce depends on the performance in a game. The influence of the game on the stochastic dynamics in finite populations is governed by the intensity of selection. In many models of both unstructured and structured populations, a key assumption allowing analytical calculations is weak selection, which means that all individuals perform approximately equally well. In the weak selection limit many different microscopic evolutionary models have the same or similar properties. How universal is weak selection for those microscopic evolutionary processes? We answer this question by investigating the fixation probability and the average fixation time not only up to linear, but also up to higher orders in selection intensity. We find universal higher order expansions, which allow a rescaling of the selection intensity. With this, we can identify specific models which violate (linear) weak selection results, such as the one--third rule of coordination games in finite but large populations.; Comment: 12 pages...

‣ Protein folding and binding can emerge as evolutionary spandrels through structural coupling

Manhart, Michael; Morozov, Alexandre V.
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 16/08/2014 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.098325%
Binding interactions between proteins and other molecules mediate numerous cellular processes, including metabolism, signaling, and regulation of gene expression. These interactions evolve in response to changes in the protein's chemical or physical environment (such as the addition of an antibiotic), or when genes duplicate and diverge. Several recent studies have shown the importance of folding stability in constraining protein evolution. Here we investigate how structural coupling between protein folding and binding -- the fact that most proteins can only bind their targets when folded -- gives rise to evolutionary coupling between the traits of folding stability and binding strength. Using biophysical and evolutionary modeling, we show how these protein traits can emerge as evolutionary "spandrels" even if they do not confer an intrinsic fitness advantage. In particular, proteins can evolve strong binding interactions that have no functional role but merely serve to stabilize the protein if misfolding is deleterious. Furthermore, such proteins may have divergent fates, evolving to bind or not bind their targets depending on random mutation events. These observations may explain the abundance of apparently nonfunctional interactions among proteins observed in high-throughput assays. In contrast...

‣ Evolutionary and Ecological Trees and Networks

Hernandez-Garcia, E.; Herrada, E. A.; Rozenfeld, A. F.; Tessone, C. J.; Eguiluz, V. M.; Duarte, C. M.; Arnaud-Haond, S.; Serrao, E.
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 30/03/2007 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.098325%
Evolutionary relationships between species are usually represented in phylogenies, i.e. evolutionary trees, which are a type of networks. The terminal nodes of these trees represent species, which are made of individuals and populations among which gene flow occurs. This flow can also be represented as a network. In this paper we briefly show some properties of these complex networks of evolutionary and ecological relationships. First, we characterize large scale evolutionary relationships in the Tree of Life by a degree distribution. Second, we represent genetic relationships between individuals of a Mediterranean marine plant, Posidonia oceanica, in terms of a Minimum Spanning Tree. Finally, relationships among plant shoots inside populations are represented as networks of genetic similarity.; Comment: 6 pages, 5 figures. To appear in Proceedings of the Medyfinol06 Conference

‣ Extraction of Deep Phylogenetic Signal and Improved Resolution of Evolutionary Events within the recA/RAD51 Phylogeny

Chintapalli, Sree V.; Bhardwaj, Gaurav; Babu, Jagadish; Hadjiyianni, Loukia; Hong, Yoojin; Zhang, Zhenhai; Zhou, Xiaofan; Ma, Hong; Anishkin, Andriy; van Rossum, Damian B.; Patterson, Randen L.
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 14/06/2012 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.136118%
The recA/RAD51 gene family encodes a diverse set of recombinase proteins that effect homologous recombination, DNA-repair, and genome stability. The recA gene family is expressed in almost all species of Eubacteria, Archaea, and Eukaryotes, and even in some viruses. To date, efforts to resolve the deep evolutionary origins of this ancient protein family have been hindered, in part, by the high sequence divergence between families (i.e. ~30% identity between paralogous groups). Through (i) large taxon sampling, (ii) the use of a phylogenetic algorithm designed for measuring highly divergent paralogs, and (iii) novel Evolutionary Spatial Dynamics simulation and analytical tools, we obtained a robust, parsimonious and more refined phylogenetic history of the recA/RAD51 superfamily. Taken together, our model for the evolution of recA/RAD51 family provides a better understanding of ancient origin of recA proteins and multiple events leading to the diversification of recA homologs in eukaryotes, including the discovery of additional RAD51 sub-families.; Comment: 21 pages, 11 figures, 1 table

‣ An evolutionary model with Turing machines

Feverati, Giovanni; Musso, Fabio
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 22/11/2007 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.098325%
The development of a large non-coding fraction in eukaryotic DNA and the phenomenon of the code-bloat in the field of evolutionary computations show a striking similarity. This seems to suggest that (in the presence of mechanisms of code growth) the evolution of a complex code can't be attained without maintaining a large inactive fraction. To test this hypothesis we performed computer simulations of an evolutionary toy model for Turing machines, studying the relations among fitness and coding/non-coding ratio while varying mutation and code growth rates. The results suggest that, in our model, having a large reservoir of non-coding states constitutes a great (long term) evolutionary advantage.; Comment: 16 pages, 7 figures

‣ Species richness, interaction networks, and diversification in bird communities a synthetic ecological and evolutionary perspective/

Carnicer i Cols, Jofre
Fonte: Bellaterra: Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Publicador: Bellaterra: Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona,
Tipo: Tesis i dissertacions electròniques; info:eu-repo/semantics/doctoralThesis Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2008 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.113032%
Consultable des del TDX; Títol obtingut de la portada digitalitzada; Aquesta tesi examina els mecanismes ecològics i evolutius que mantenen els gradients de riquesa específica en ocells. S'examinen en primer lloc el patrons de diversitat de l'avifauna de Nord Amèrica. (capitol 1). Tot seguit es testen mecanismes a escala regional, tot estudiant el cas de l'avifauna de Catalunya (capitols 2 i 3). Finalment, es testen diferents mecanismes que regulen la diversitat a escala local en una comunitat d'ocells frugívors al Parc nacional de Doñana. El capitol 6 integra tots els anteriors i els relaciona tot fent una revisió bibliogràfica en profunditat.; Species richness gradients have been analyzed during many decades and they have progressively emerged as a central topic in community ecology (Darwin 1859, Wallace 1878, Willis 1922, Dobzhansky 1950, Fisher 1960, Hillebrand 2004, Riclkefs 2004, Mittelbach et al. 2007, among others). Historically, species richness gradients have been analyzed from two main points of view: the ecological and the evolutionary perspective (Ricklefs 2004, 2006b). The ecological perspective assumes that populations are evolutionarily fixed and studies species richness gradients as the result of regional colonization and extinction processes...

‣ Quantum Genetics and Quantum Automata Models of Quantum-Molecular Evolution Involved in the Evolution of Organisms and Species

I. C. Baianu
Fonte: Nature Preceedings Publicador: Nature Preceedings
Tipo: Manuscript
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.136118%
Previous theoretical or general approaches to the problems of Quantum Genetics and Molecular Evolution are considered in this article from the point of view of Quantum Automata Theory first published by the author in 1971 and further developed in several recent articles. The representation of genomes and Interactome networks in categories of many-valued logic LMn –algebras that are naturally transformed during biological evolution, or evolve through interactions with the environment provide a new insight into the mechanisms of molecular evolution, as well as organismal evolution, in terms of sequences of quantum automata. Phenotypic changes are expressed only when certain environmentally-induced quantum-molecular changes are coupled with an internal re-structuring of major submodules of the genome and Interactome networks related to cell cycling and cell growth. Contrary to the commonly held view of `standard’ Darwinist models of evolution, the evolution of organisms and species occurs through coupled multi-molecular transformations induced not only by the environment but actually realized through internal re-organizations of genome and interactome networks. The biological, evolutionary processes involve certain epigenetic transformations that are responsible for phenotypic expression of the genome and Interactome transformations initiated at the quantum-molecular level. It can thus be said that only quantum genetics can provide correct explanations of evolutionary processes that are initiated at the quantum--multi-molecular levels and propagate to the higher levels of organismal and species evolution. Biological evolution should be therefore regarded as a multi-scale process which is initiated by underlying quantum (coupled) multi-molecular transformations of the genomic and interactomic networks...

‣ Quantum Genetics and Quantum Automata Models of Quantum-Molecular Evolution Involved in the Evolution of Organisms and Species

I. C. Baianu
Fonte: Nature Preceedings Publicador: Nature Preceedings
Tipo: Manuscript
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.136118%
Previous theoretical or general approaches to the problems of Quantum Genetics and Molecular Evolution are considered in this article from the point of view of Quantum Automata Theory first published by the author in 1971 and further developed in several recent articles. The representation of genomes and Interactome networks in categories of many-valued logic LMn –algebras that are naturally transformed during biological evolution, or evolve through interactions with the environment provide a new insight into the mechanisms of molecular evolution, as well as organismal evolution, in terms of sequences of quantum automata. Phenotypic changes are expressed only when certain environmentally-induced quantum-molecular changes are coupled with an internal re-structuring of major submodules of the genome and Interactome networks related to cell cycling and cell growth. Contrary to the commonly held view of 'standard’ Darwinist models of evolution, the evolution of organisms and species occurs through coupled multi-molecular transformations induced not only by the environment but actually realized through internal re-organizations of genome and interactome networks. The biological, evolutionary processes involve certain epigenetic transformations that are responsible for phenotypic expression of the genome and Interactome transformations initiated at the quantum-molecular level. It can thus be said that only quantum genetics can provide correct explanations of evolutionary processes that are initiated at the quantum--multi-molecular levels and propagate to the higher levels of organismal and species evolution. Biological evolution should be therefore regarded as a multi-scale process which is initiated by underlying quantum (coupled) multi-molecular transformations of the genomic and interactomic networks...

‣ The many faces of epidemiology: evolutionary epidemiology

Struchiner,Claudio José; Luz,Paula Mendes; Codeço,Claudia Torres; Massad,Eduardo
Fonte: ABRASCO - Associação Brasileira de Saúde Coletiva Publicador: ABRASCO - Associação Brasileira de Saúde Coletiva
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2008 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.098325%
We review important issues revealed by the application of the evolutionary theory to epidemiological problems. The scope is restricted to infectious diseases and the evolution of virulence as a consequence of public health strategies to control transmission. We focus on the discussion about the possibility of virulence management and explore current scenarios in which recent advances in molecular biology and genetics offer new tools to monitor and change diversity among pathogens, vertebrate and invertebrate hosts. We stress the need to integrate the analytical framework of epidemiology into population genetics and evolutionary theory. We anticipate as an outcome of this process the development of study designs and analytical tools to predict the evolutionary implications of control measures in the population and surveillance mechanisms to continuously monitor the changes in pathogen virulence patterns. Communication among modelers, epidemiologists and molecular biologists is essential in order to design model-driven field trials and to develop data-driven analytical tools leading to conclusive findings that can inform the public health oriented decision making process.