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‣ Psychometric Evaluation of the Medical Outcome Study (MOS) Social Support Survey Among Malay Postpartum Women in Kedah, North West of Peninsular Malaysia

Mahmud, Wan Mohd Rushidi Wan; Awang, Amir; Mohamed, Mahmood Nazar
Fonte: Penerbit Universiti Sains Malaysia Publicador: Penerbit Universiti Sains Malaysia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /07/2004 Português
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The Malay version of the Medical Outcome Study (MOS) Social Support Survey was validated among a sample of postpartum Malay women attending selected health centers in Kedah, North West of Peninsular Malaysia. 215 women between 4 to 12 weeks postpartum were recruited for the validation study. They were given questionnaires on socio-demography, the Malay-versions of the MOS Social Support Survey, Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and the 21-items Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II). 30 of the women, who were bilingual, were also given the original English version of the instrument. A week later, these women were again given the Malay version of the MOS Social Support Survey. The scale displayed good internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.93), parallel form reliability (0.98) and test-retest reliability (0.97) (Spearman’s rho; p<0.01). The negative correlations of the overall support index (total social support measure) with the Malay versions of EPDS and BDI-II confirmed its validity. Extraction method of the 19 items (item 2 to item 20) from the MOS Social Support Survey using principle axis factoring with direct oblimin rotation converged into 3 dimensions of functional social support (informational, affectionate / positive social interaction and instrumental support) with reliability coefficients of 0.91...

‣ Lentiviral Vectors Displaying Modified Measles Virus gp Overcome Pre-existing Immunity in In Vivo-like Transduction of Human T and B Cells

Lévy, Camille; Amirache, Fouzia; Costa, Caroline; Frecha, Cecilia; Muller, Claude P; Kweder, Hasan; Buckland, Robin; Cosset, François-Loïc; Verhoeyen, Els
Fonte: Nature Publishing Group Publicador: Nature Publishing Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Gene transfer into quiescent T and B cells is important for gene therapy and immunotherapy approaches. Previously, we generated lentiviral vectors (LVs) pseudotyped with Edmonston (Ed) measles virus (MV) hemagglutinin (H) and fusion (F) glycoproteins (H/F-LVs), which allowed efficient transduction of quiescent human T and B cells. However, a major obstacle in the use of H/F-LVs in vivo is that most of the human population is vaccinated against measles. As the MV humoral immune response is exclusively directed against the H protein of MV, we mutated the two dominant epitopes in H, Noose, and NE. LVs pseudotyped with these mutant H-glycoproteins escaped inactivation by monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) but were still neutralized by human serum. Consequently, we took advantage of newly emerged MV-D genotypes that were less sensitive to MV vaccination due to a different glycosylation pattern. The mutation responsible was introduced into the H/F-LVs, already mutated for Noose and NE epitopes. We found that these mutant H/F-LVs could efficiently transduce quiescent lymphocytes in the presence of high concentrations of MV antibody-positive human serum. Finally, upon incubation with total blood, mimicking the in vivo situation, the mutant H/F-LVs escaped MV antibody neutralization...

‣ Reacquisition of Nef-mediated tetherin antagonism in a single in vivo passage of HIV-1 through its original chimpanzee host

Götz, Nicola; Sauter, Daniel; Usmani, Shariq M.; Fritz, Joëlle V.; Goffinet, Christine; Heigele, Anke; Geyer, Matthias; Bibollet-Ruche, Frederic; Learn, Gerald H.; Fackler, Oliver T.; Hahn, Beatrice H.; Kirchhoff, Frank
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 13/09/2012 Português
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The interferon-induced host restriction factor tetherin poses a barrier for SIV transmission from primates to humans. Following cross-species transmission, the chimpanzee precursor of pandemic HIV-1 switched from the accessory protein Nef to Vpu to effectively counteract human tetherin. As we report here, the experimental reintroduction of HIV-1 into its original chimpanzee host resulted in a virus that can use both Vpu and Nef to antagonize chimpanzee tetherin. Functional analyses demonstrated that alterations in and near the highly conserved ExxxLL motif in the C-terminal loop of Nef were critical for the reacquisition of anti-tetherin activity. Strikingly, just two amino acid changes allowed HIV-1 Nef to counteract chimpanzee tetherin and promote virus release. Our data demonstrate that primate lentiviruses can reacquire lost accessory gene functions during a single in vivo passage and suggest that other functional constraints keep Nef ready to regain anti-tetherin activity.

‣ Development of a German version of the Oswestry Disability Index. Part 1: cross-cultural adaptation, reliability, and validity

Mannion, A. F.; Junge, A.; Fairbank, J. C. T.; Dvorak, J.; Grob, D.
Fonte: Springer-Verlag Publicador: Springer-Verlag
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Patient-orientated assessment methods are of paramount importance in the evaluation of treatment outcome. The Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) is one of the condition-specific questionnaires recommended for use with back pain patients. To date, no German version has been published in the peer-reviewed literature. A cross-cultural adaptation of the ODI for the German language was carried out, according to established guidelines. One hundred patients with chronic low-back pain (35 conservative, 65 surgical) completed a questionnaire booklet containing the newly translated ODI, along with a 0–10 pain visual analogue scale (VAS), the Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire, and Likert scales for disability, medication intake and pain frequency [to assess ODI’s construct (convergent) validity]. Thirty-nine of these patients completed a second questionnaire within 2 weeks (to assess test–retest reliability). The intraclass correlation coefficient for the test–retest reliability of the questionnaire was 0.96. In test–retest, 74% of the individual questions were answered identically, and 21% just one grade higher or lower. The standard error of measurement (SEM) was 3.4, giving a “minimum detectable change” (MDC95%) for the ODI of approximately 9 points...

‣ Ribosomal Multi-Operon Diversity: An Original Perspective on the Genus Aeromonas

Roger, Frédéric; Lamy, Brigitte; Jumas-Bilak, Estelle; Kodjo, Angeli; ; Marchandin, Hélène
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 27/09/2012 Português
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16S rRNA gene (rrs) is considered of low taxonomic interest in the genus Aeromonas. Here, 195 Aeromonas strains belonging to populations structured by multilocus phylogeny were studied using an original approach that considered Ribosomal Multi-Operon Diversity. This approach associated pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) to assess rrn operon number and distribution across the chromosome and PCR-temporal temperature gel electrophoresis (TTGE) to assess rrs V3 region heterogeneity. Aeromonads harbored 8 to 11 rrn operons, 10 operons being observed in more than 92% of the strains. Intraspecific variability was low or nul except for A. salmonicida and A. aquariorum suggesting that large chromosomic rearrangements might occur in these two species while being extremely rarely encountered in the evolution of other taxa. rrn operon number at 8 as well as PFGE patterns were shown valuable for taxonomic purpose allowing resolution of species complexes. PCR-TTGE revealed a high rate of strains (41.5%) displaying intragenomic rrs heterogeneity. Strains isolated from human samples more frequently displayed intragenomic heterogeneity than strains recovered from non-human and environmental specimens. Intraspecific variability ranged from 0 to 76.5% of the strains. The observation of species-specific TTGE bands...

‣ Application of a Chimeric Protein Construct having Enterotoxin B and Toxic Shock Syndrome Toxin Domains of S. aureus in Immunodiagnostics

Shylaja, R.; Thakasi, Devi Kalyan Kumar; Murali, H. S.; Reddy, K. Prakash Narayana; Batra, H. V.
Fonte: Springer-Verlag Publicador: Springer-Verlag
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) and toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 are the super antigens responsible for diseases such as staphylococcal food poisoning and toxic shock syndrome. At low serum concentrations, SEB can trigger toxic shock, profound hypotension and multi organ failure and hence is recognized as biowarfare molecule. In this study, a multidomain fusion protein (r-TE) was generated with specificity for SEB and toxic shock syndrome toxin (Tsst-1). The fusion gene comprising the conserved regions of seb and the tsst genes was codon-optimized for expression in Escherichia coli and encoded a 26 kDa recombinant multidomain chimeric protein (r-TE). Hyperimmune antiserum raised against r-TE specifically reacted with SEB (~28 kDa) and Tsst-1 (~22 kDa) components during Western blot analysis and by plate ELISA in confirmed toxin producing strains of S. aureus. The antigenicity of the SEB component of the r-TE protein was also confirmed using TECRA kit. The described procedure of creating a single protein molecule carrying components of two different toxins whilst still retaining the original antigenic determinants of individual toxins proved highly advantageous in the development of rapid, reliable and cost effective immunoassays and may also have the potential to serve as candidate molecule for vaccine studies.

‣ Context-dependent motor skill and the role of practice

Ruitenberg, Marit F. L.; De Kleine, Elian; Van der Lubbe, Rob H. J.; Verwey, Willem B.; Abrahamse, Elger L.
Fonte: Springer-Verlag Publicador: Springer-Verlag
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Research has shown that retrieval of learned information is better when the original learning context is reinstated during testing than when this context is changed. Recently, such contextual dependencies have also been found for perceptual-motor behavior. The current study investigated the nature of context-dependent learning in the discrete sequence production task, and in addition examined whether the amount of practice affects the extent to which sequences are sensitive to contextual alterations. It was found that changing contextual cues—but not the removal of such cues—had a detrimental effect on performance. Moreover, this effect was observed only after limited practice, but not after extensive practice. Our findings support the notion of a novel type of context-dependent learning during initial motor skill acquisition and demonstrate that this context-dependence reduces with practice. It is proposed that a gradual development with practice from stimulus-driven to representation-driven sequence execution underlies this practice effect.

‣ Patient outcome following revision total knee arthroplasty: a meta-analysis

Sheng, Puyi; Lehto, Matti; Kataja, Matti; Halonen, Pekka; Moilanen, Teemu; Pajamäki, Jorma
Fonte: Springer-Verlag Publicador: Springer-Verlag
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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The purpose of this study was to summarize the literature describing patient outcome following revision total knee arthroplasty. Original studies were included if they were published between 1990 and 2002, enrolled ten or more patients, and measured patient outcome using a global knee rating scale. We found 33 studies with a total number of 1,356 patients. There were 429 men and 611 women with a mean age of 67 (45–90) years. The weighted mean follow-up time was 57 (6–108) months. The main indication of revision was loosening. The weighted mean preoperative and postoperative knee scores were 49 (15–82) and 84 (58–109) respectively. There were significant differences between preoperative and postoperative knee and function scores and motion (knee: t=12.507 p<0.001, function: t=4.704 p<0.001, motion: t=5.346 p<0.001). Loosening was also the main complication after revision surgery. In this analysis, revision total knee arthroplasty was a safe and effective procedure.

‣ Postoperative spondylitis after posterior lumbar interbody fusion using cages

Ha, Kee-Yong; Kim, Young-Hoon
Fonte: Springer-Verlag Publicador: Springer-Verlag
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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The recommended surgical options for postoperative wound infections after instrumented spine surgery include a wide debridement and irrigation with antibiotics. In most cases, implant removal is not recommended for a solid fusion. However, there are few reports on the treatment choices for persistent postoperative wound infections following a posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) using cages. This paper reviewed ten patients referred to our department, who underwent revision surgery for a postoperative, deep infection after a PLIF with cages. The surgery included an anterior radical debridement and interbody fusion with removal of all implants. The clinical and laboratory results, including a bacteriologic study for the causative organism and the radiological changes, were analyzed. All patients complained of persistent severe back pain after the primary surgery. MRSA was the main organism found in these patients (five cases). Complete bony fusion was obtained in nine patients (90%). In one patient, back pain and radiating pain prevented him from returning to his original work. Despite the anterior interbody fusion with an autogenous iliac bone graft, all cases had a complete collapse of the intervertebral disc space, without a dislodgement or collapse of the graft bone. The mean loss of the height and lordosis in the involved segment was 12.7 mm (range 4–46 mm) and 5.6° (range 0–15°)...

‣ Anatomical study of the paraspinal approach to the lumbar spine

Vialle, Raphaël; Court, C.; Khouri, N.; Olivier, E.; Miladi, L.; Tassin, J. L.; Defives, T.; Dubousset, J.
Fonte: Springer-Verlag Publicador: Springer-Verlag
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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The original description of the paraspinal posterior approach to the lumbar spine was for spinal fusion, especially regarding lumbosacral spondylolisthesis treatment. In spite of the technical details described by Wiltse, exact location of the area where the sacrospinalis muscle has to be split remains somewhat unclear. The goal of this study was to provide topographic landmarks to facilitate this surgical approach. Thirty cadavers were dissected in order to precisely describe the anatomy of the trans-muscular paraspinal approach. The level of the natural cleavage plane between the multifidus and the longissimus part of the sacrospinalis muscle was noted and measurements were done between this level and the midline at the level of the spinous process of L4. A natural cleavage plane between the multifidus and the longissimus part of the sacrospinalis muscle was present in all cases. There was a fibrous separation between the two muscular parts in 55 out of 60 cases. The mean distance between the level of the cleavage plane and the midline was 4 cm (2.4–5.5 cm). In all cases, small arteries and veins were present, precisely at the level of the cleavage plane. We found it possible to easily localize the anatomical cleavage plane between the multifidus part and the longissimus part of the sacrospinalis muscle. First the superficial muscular fascia is opened near the midline...

‣ A preliminary study of reliability of impedance measurement to detect iatrogenic initial pedicle perforation (in the porcine model)

Bolger, Ciaran; Carozzo, C.; Roger, T.; McEvoy, Linda; Nagaria, Jabir; Vanacker, Gerard; Bourlion, Maurice
Fonte: Springer-Verlag Publicador: Springer-Verlag
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Accidental perforation of the vertebral pedicle wall is a well-known complication associated with standard approach of pedicle screw insertion. Depending on detection criteria, more than 20% of screws are reported misplaced. Serious clinical consequences, from dysesthesia to paraplegia, although not common, may result from these misplaced screws. Many techniques have been described to address this issue such as somatosensory evoked potentials, electromyography, surgical navigation, etc. Each of these techniques presents advantages and drawbacks, none is simple and ergonomic. A new drilling tool was evaluated which allows for instant detection of pedicle perforation by emission of variable beeps. This new device is based on two original principles: the device is integrated in the drilling or screwing tool, the technology allows real-time detection of perforation through two independent parameters, impedance variation and evoked muscular contractions. A preliminary animal study was conducted to assess the safety and efficacy of this system based upon electrical conductivity. A total of 168 manual pedicle drillings followed by insertion of implants were performed in 11 young porcine lumbar and thoracic spines. The presence or absence of perforation detection...

‣ Reliability of motion measurements after total disc replacement: the spike and the fin method

Cakir, Balkan; Richter, Marcus; Puhl, Wolfhart; Schmidt, René
Fonte: Springer-Verlag Publicador: Springer-Verlag
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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As motion preservation is one of the main postulated advantages after total disc replacement (TDR) of the lumbar spine, the quantification of the mobility after TDR seems of special clinical interest. Yet, the best method to assess range of motion (ROM) after TDR remains unclear. The aim of the study was the calculation of 95%-confidence intervals (95%-C.I.) for the measurement error accompanying: (1) different methods (2) different observers and (3) different levels of training for radiographic motion analysis after TDR. In 12 patients the level L4–L5 and in another 12 patients level L5–S1 were measured with the Cobb and the superimposition method on flexion–extension X-rays after monosegmental TDR. Both methods were adopted as the landmarks used the spikes of the prosthesis instead the endplates (spike method) and the fin of the prosthesis instead the whole vertebral body (fin method). Measurements were performed by two experienced (O-I and O-III) and one inexperienced observer (O-II). The adopted spike and fin method showed a better reliability compared to the reported results of the original Cobb and superimposition method. The method used was not clinically relevant for the intraobserver reliability in the experienced observer (95%-C.I.: ±2.0° for the fin and ±2.1 for the spike method) and for the interobserver reliability for two experienced observers (95%-C.I.: −2.8°/+2.8° for the fin and −2.9°/+3.1° for the spike method). The intraobserver reliability for the inexperienced observer was inferior for both methods compared to the experienced observer but no clinically relevant differences could be observed in interobserver reliability measures. The spike and fin method are reliable methods for study protocols dealing with angular motion after TDR as clinically valid conclusions can be drawn with an accuracy of about ±2° for the same observer and with an accuracy of about ±3° for a different observer.

‣ Precompensation for mutual coupling between array elements in parallel excitation

Pang, Yong; Zhang, Xiaoliang
Fonte: AME Publishing Company Publicador: AME Publishing Company
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /12/2011 Português
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Parallel transmission or excitation has been suggested to perform multi-dimensional spatial selective excitation to shorten the pulse width using a coil array and the sensitivity information. The mutual coupling between array elements has been a critical technical issue in RF array designs, which can cause artifacts on the excitation profile, leading to degraded excitation performance and image quality. In this work, a precompensation method is proposed to address the mutual coupling effect in parallel transmission by introducing the mutual coupling coefficient matrix into the RF pulses design procedure of the parallel transmission. 90° RF pulses have been designed using both the original transmit SENSE method and the proposed precompensation method for RF arrays with non-negligible mutual coupling, and their excitation profiles are generated by simulating the Bloch equation. The results show that the mutual coupling effect can be effectively compensated by using the proposed method, yielding enhanced tolerance to insufficient mutual decoupling of RF arrays in parallel excitation, ultimately, providing improved performance and accuracy of parallel excitation.

‣ The Process and Challenges in the Translation of World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL- BREF) to a Regional Language; Malayalam

Menon, Bindu; Cherkil, Sandhya; Aswathy, S.; Unnikrishnan, A. G.; Rajani, G.
Fonte: Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd Publicador: Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2012 Português
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A lot of research has been directed on wellbeing and disability in many non-communicable disease conditions. In this context, health-related aspects of life and quality of life (QOL) are receiving a lot of focus. Many Quality of Health measures are available, of which World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL-BREF) is one of the most popular. Translating and adapting this tool is useful in view of research happening in a multicultural arena. Though translations into Hindi and other Indian languages including Tamil and Kannada have been done, a Malayalam version is not available. This paper discusses the steps adopted in this exercise and the challenges in translating WHOQOL-BREF to Malayalam from the original English version.

‣ Prospective Registration and Outcome-Reporting Bias in Randomized Controlled Trials of Eczema Treatments: A Systematic Review

Nankervis, Helen; Baibergenova, Akerke; Williams, Hywel C; Thomas, Kim S
Fonte: Nature Publishing Group Publicador: Nature Publishing Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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We assessed completeness of trial registration and the extent of outcome-reporting bias in published randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of eczema (atopic dermatitis) treatments by surveying all relevant RCTs published from January 2007 to July 2011 located in a database called the Global Resource of Eczema Trials (GREAT). The GREAT database is compiled by searching six bibliographic databases, including EMBASE and MEDLINE. Out of 109 identified RCTs, only 37 (34%) had been registered on an approved trial register. Only 18 out of 109 trials (17%) had been registered “properly” in terms of submitting the registration before the trial end date and nominating a primary outcome. The proportion of “any registered” and “properly registered” RCTs increased from 19% and 10% in 2007 to 57% and 36% in 2011, respectively. Assessment of selective outcome-reporting bias was difficult even among the properly registered trials owing to unclear primary outcome description especially with regard to timing. Only 5 out of the 109 trials (5%) provided enough information for us to be confident that the outcomes reported in the published trial were consistent with the original registration. Adequate trial registration and description of primary outcomes for eczema RCTs is currently poor.

‣ Stromal modulation of bladder cancer-initiating cells in a subcutaneous tumor model

Peek, Elizabeth M; Li, David R; Zhang, Hanwei; Kim, Hyun Pyo; Zhang, Baohui; Garraway, Isla P; Chin, Arnold I
Fonte: e-Century Publishing Corporation Publicador: e-Century Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 20/11/2012 Português
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The development of new cancer therapeutics would benefit from incorporating efficient tumor models that mimic human disease. We have developed a subcutaneous bladder tumor regeneration system that recapitulates primary human bladder tumor architecture by recombining benign human fetal bladder stromal cells with SW780 bladder carcinoma cells. As a first step, SW780 cells were seeded in ultra low attachment cultures in order to select for sphere-forming cells, the putative cancer stem cell (CSC) phenotype. Spheroids were combined with primary human fetal stromal cells or vehicle control and injected subcutaneously with Matrigel into NSG mice. SW780 bladder tumors that formed in the presence of stroma showed accelerated growth, muscle invasion, epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), decreased differentiation, and greater activation of growth pathways compared to tumors formed in the absence of fetal stroma. Tumors grown with stroma also demonstrated a greater similarity to typical malignant bladder architecture, including the formation of papillary structures. In an effort to determine if cancer cells from primary tumors could form similar structures in vivo using this recombinatorial approach, putative CSCs, sorted based on the CD44+CD49f+ antigenic profile...

‣ Anomalous diffusion of brain metabolites evidenced by diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance spectroscopy in vivo

Marchadour, Charlotte; Brouillet, Emmanuel; Hantraye, Philippe; Lebon, Vincent; Valette, Julien
Fonte: Nature Publishing Group Publicador: Nature Publishing Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Translational displacement of molecules within cells is a key process in cellular biology. Molecular motion potentially depends on many factors, including active transport, cytosol viscosity and molecular crowding, tortuosity resulting from cytoskeleton and organelles, and restriction barriers. However, the relative contribution of these factors to molecular motion in the cytoplasm remains poorly understood. In this work, we designed an original diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance spectroscopy strategy to probe molecular motion at subcellular scales in vivo. This led to the first observation of anomalous diffusion, that is, dependence of the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) on the diffusion time, for endogenous intracellular metabolites in the brain. The observed increase of the ADC at short diffusion time yields evidence that metabolite motion is characteristic of hindered random diffusion rather than active transport, for time scales up to the dozen milliseconds. Armed with this knowledge, data modeling based on geometrically constrained diffusion was performed. Results suggest that metabolite diffusion occurs in a low-viscosity cytosol hindered by ∼2-μm structures, which is consistent with known intracellular organization.

‣ Construction of a novel selection system for endoglucanases exhibiting carbohydrate-binding modules optimized for biomass using yeast cell-surface engineering

Nakanishi, Akihito; Bae, Jungu; Kuroda, Kouichi; Ueda, Mitsuyoshi
Fonte: Springer Publicador: Springer
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 23/10/2012 Português
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To permit direct cellulose degradation and ethanol fermentation, Saccharomyces cerevisiae BY4741 (Δsed1) codisplaying 3 cellulases (Trichoderma reesei endoglucanase II [EG], T. reesei cellobiohydrolase II [CBH], and Aspergillus aculeatus β-glucosidase I [BG]) was constructed by yeast cell-surface engineering. The EG used in this study consists of a family 1 carbohydrate-binding module (CBM) and a catalytic module. A comparison with family 1 CBMs revealed conserved amino acid residues and flexible amino acid residues. The flexible amino acid residues were at positions 18, 23, 26, and 27, through which the degrading activity for various cellulose structures in each biomass may have been optimized. To select the optimal combination of CBMs of EGs, a yeast mixture with comprehensively mutated CBM was constructed. The mixture consisted of yeasts codisplaying EG with mutated CBMs, in which 4 flexible residues were comprehensively mutated, CBH, and BG. The yeast mixture was inoculated in selection medium with newspaper as the sole carbon source. The surviving yeast consisted of RTSH yeast (the mutant sequence of CBM: N18R, S23T, S26S, and T27H) and wild-type yeast (CBM was the original) in a ratio of 1:46. The mixture (1 RTSH yeast and 46 wild-type yeasts) had a fermentation activity that was 1.5-fold higher than that of wild-type yeast alone in the early phase of saccharification and fermentation...

‣ Regulation of GluA1 AMPA Receptor Through PKC Phosphorylation Induced by Free Fatty Acid Derivative HUHS2002

Nishimoto, Takaaki; Kanno, Takeshi; Shimizu, Tadashi; Tanaka, Akito; Nishizaki, Tomoyuki
Fonte: Springer-Verlag Publicador: Springer-Verlag
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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The present study investigated the effect of 4-[4-(Z)-hept-1-enyl-phenoxy] butyric acid (HUHS2002), a newly synthesized free fatty acid derivative, on α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA) receptor responses. HUHS2002 potentiated currents through GluA1 AMPA receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes in a bell-shaped concentration (1 nM–1 μM)-dependent manner, the maximum reaching nearly 140 % of original amplitude at 100 nM. The potentiation was significantly inhibited by GF109203X, an inhibitor of protein kinase C (PKC), but not KN-93, an inhibitor of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII). HUHS2002 had no potentiating effect on currents through mutant GluA1 AMPA receptors with replacement of Ser831, a PKC/CaMKII phosphorylation site, by Ala. In the in situ PKC assay using rat PC-12 cells, HUHS2002 significantly enhanced PKC activity, that is suppressed by GF109203X. Overall, the results of the present study show that HUHS2002 potentiates GluA1 AMPA receptor responses by activating PKC and phosphorylating the receptors at Ser831, regardless of CaMKII activation and phosphorylation.

‣ Development of ready-to-fry frozen vegetable snack and its quality evaluation

Maity, Tanushree; Shah, Alok; Raju, P. S.; Bawa, A. S.
Fonte: Springer-Verlag Publicador: Springer-Verlag
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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A formulation for the development of a crispy texture of crust in vegetable snack after freezing and frying was standardized using different flours such as whole-wheat flour (WWF), refined wheat flour (RWF), rice flour (RF) and semolina (S). Formulation with 60% WWF, 20% RWF, 10% RF and 10% S was selected based on sensory characteristics (overall acceptability >7.8). Incorporation of RF significantly (P < 0.05) changed the texture of the raw snack as indicated by texture profile analysis. Higher levels of rice flour resulted in whitish color in raw as well as fried snacks. However, the cooking time was more in the snacks fried directly from the frozen state (6.18 min) than the frozen-thawed fried snack (4.35 min). Quality of the snacks in terms of color values, appearance and texture was found to be superior to the thawed fried snack. During frozen storage of 16 months at −20 ± 1 °C, the overall acceptability (OAA) and lightness was found to be decreased from the original value. Rancidity parameters in terms of free fatty acids, peroxide value and thiobarbituric acid showed a restricted rise with the progression of storage period. The developed frozen snack was found to be microbiologically safe during the storage period.