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‣ Circadian clock-controlled genes isolated from Neurospora crassa are late night- to early morning-specific

Bell-Pedersen, Deborah; Shinohara, Mari L.; Loros, Jennifer J.; Dunlap, Jay C.
Fonte: The National Academy of Sciences of the USA Publicador: The National Academy of Sciences of the USA
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 12/11/1996 Português
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An endogenous circadian biological clock controls the temporal aspects of life in most organisms, including rhythmic control of genes involved in clock output pathways. In the fungus Neurospora crassa, one pathway known to be under control of the clock is asexual spore (conidia) development. To understand more fully the processes that are regulated by the N. crassa circadian clock, systematic screens were carried out for genes that oscillate at the transcriptional level. Time-of-day-specific cDNA libraries were generated and used in differential screens to identify six new clock-controlled genes (ccgs). Transcripts specific for each of the ccgs preferentially accumulate during the late night to early morning, although they vary with respect to steady-state mRNA levels and amplitude of the rhythm. Sequencing of the ends of the new ccg cDNAs revealed that ccg-12 is identical to N. crassa cmt encoding copper metallothionein, providing the suggestion that not all clock-regulated genes in N. crassa are specifically involved in the development of conidia. This was supported by finding that half of the new ccgs, including cmt(ccg-12), are not transcriptionally induced by developmental or light signals. These data suggest a major role for the clock in the regulation of biological processes distinct from development.

‣ A global two component signal transduction system that integrates the control of photosynthesis, carbon dioxide assimilation, and nitrogen fixation

Joshi, Hemalata M.; Tabita, F. Robert
Fonte: The National Academy of Sciences of the USA Publicador: The National Academy of Sciences of the USA
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 10/12/1996 Português
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451.23344%
Photosynthesis, biological nitrogen fixation, and carbon dioxide assimilation are three fundamental biological processes catalyzed by photosynthetic bacteria. In the present study, it is shown that mutant strains of the nonsulfur purple photosynthetic bacteria Rhodospirillum rubrum and Rhodobacter sphaeroides, containing a blockage in the primary CO2 assimilatory pathway, derepress the synthesis of components of the nitrogen fixation enzyme complex and abrogate normal control mechanisms. The absence of the Calvin–Benson–Bassham (CBB) reductive pentose phosphate CO2 fixation pathway removes an important route for the dissipation of excess reducing power. Thus, the mutant strains develop alternative means to remove these reducing equivalents, resulting in the synthesis of large amounts of nitrogenase even in the presence of ammonia. This response is under the control of a global two-component signal transduction system previously found to regulate photosystem biosynthesis and the transcription of genes required for CO2 fixation through the CBB pathway and alternative routes. In addition, this two-component system directly controls the ability of these bacteria to grow under nitrogen-fixing conditions. These results indicate that there is a molecular link between the CBB and nitrogen fixation process...

‣ Mannose-6-phosphate/insulin-like growth factor-II receptor is a receptor for retinoic acid

Kang, Jing X.; Li, Yunyuan; Leaf, Alexander
Fonte: The National Academy of Sciences of the USA Publicador: The National Academy of Sciences of the USA
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 09/12/1997 Português
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Retinoic acid (RA) exerts diverse biological effects in the control of cell growth in embryogenesis and oncogenesis. These effects of RA are thought to be mediated by the nuclear retinoid receptors. Mannose-6-phosphate (M6P)/insulin-like growth factor-II (IGF-II) receptor is a multifunctional membrane glycoprotein that is known to bind both M6P and IGF-II and function primarily in the binding and trafficking of lysosomal enzymes, the activation of transforming growth factor-β, and the degradation of IGF-II. M6P/IGF-II receptor has recently been implicated in fetal development and carcinogenesis. Despite the functional similarities between RA and the M6P/IGF-II receptor, no direct biochemical link has been established. Here, we show that the M6P/IGF-II receptor also binds RA with high affinity at a site that is distinct from those for M6P and IGF-II, as identified by a photoaffinity labeling technique. We also show that the binding of RA to the M6P/IGF-II receptor enhances the primary functions of this receptor. The biological consequence of the interaction appears to be the suppression of cell proliferation and/or induction of apoptosis. These findings suggest that the M6P/IGF-II receptor mediates a RA response pathway that is important in cell growth regulation. This discovery of the interaction of RA with the M6P/IGF-II receptor may have important implications for our understanding of the roles of RA and the M6P/IGF-II receptor in development...

‣ Resveratrol, a polyphenolic compound found in grapes and wine, is an agonist for the estrogen receptor

Gehm, Barry D.; McAndrews, Joanne M.; Chien, Pei-Yu; Jameson, J. Larry
Fonte: The National Academy of Sciences of the USA Publicador: The National Academy of Sciences of the USA
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 09/12/1997 Português
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451.23344%
The phytochemical resveratrol, which is found in grapes and wine, has been reported to have a variety of anti-inflammatory, anti-platelet, and anti-carcinogenic effects. Based on its structural similarity to diethylstilbestrol, a synthetic estrogen, we examined whether resveratrol might be a phytoestrogen. At concentrations (≈3–10 μM) comparable to those required for its other biological effects, resveratrol inhibited the binding of labeled estradiol to the estrogen receptor and it activated transcription of estrogen-responsive reporter genes transfected into human breast cancer cells. This transcriptional activation was estrogen receptor-dependent, required an estrogen response element in the reporter gene, and was inhibited by specific estrogen antagonists. In some cell types (e.g., MCF-7 cells), resveratrol functioned as a superagonist (i.e., produced a greater maximal transcriptional response than estradiol) whereas in others it produced activation equal to or less than that of estradiol. Resveratrol also increased the expression of native estrogen-regulated genes, and it stimulated the proliferation of estrogen-dependent T47D breast cancer cells. We conclude that resveratrol is a phytoestrogen and that it exhibits variable degrees of estrogen receptor agonism in different test systems. The estrogenic actions of resveratrol broaden the spectrum of its biological actions and may be relevant to the reported cardiovascular benefits of drinking wine.