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‣ Implementing Energy Subsidy Reforms : An Overview of the Key Issues

Vagliasindi, Maria
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.85724%
Poorly implemented energy subsidies are economically costly to taxpayers and damage the environment. This report describes the emerging lessons that could help policy makers to address implementation challenges, including overcoming political economy and affordability constraints. The analysis provides strong evidence of the success of reforms in reducing the associated fiscal burden. For the selected sample of 20 developing countries, the average energy subsidy recorded in the budget was reduced from 1.8 percent in 2004 to 1.3 percent of gross domestic product in 2010. The reduction of subsidies is particularly remarkable for net energy importers. In spite of the relatively price inelastic demand for gasoline and diesel, fossil fuel consumption in the road sector (per unit of gross domestic product) declined in the 20 countries examined from 53 (44) in 2002 to about 23 kilotonnes oil equivalent per million of gross domestic product in 2008 in the case of gasoline (diesel). The most notable decline in consumption was recorded in the low-income and lower-middle-income countries. This reflects the much higher rate of growth in gross domestic product in this group of countries. And it underlines the opportunities to influence future consumption behavior rather than modifying the existing consumption patterns...

‣ A Strategy for Coal Bed Methane and Coal Mine Methane Development and Utilization in China

Energy Sector Management Assistance Program
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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35.85724%
China is short of clean energy, particularly conventional natural gas. The proven per capital natural gas reserve is only 1/12th of the world average. However, China has large coal bed methane (CBM) resources with development potential which can be recovered from surface boreholes independent of mining and in advance of mining, and also captured as a part of underground coal mining operations. However, in order to meet its targets, the government must improve the administrative framework for CBM resource management, introduce more effective CBM or coal mine methane (CMM) development incentives, raise the technical capacity of the mining sector, expand gas pipeline infrastructure and promote gas markets in coal mining areas. In order to significantly reduce methane emission from coal mines and better exploit the gas recoverable from coal seams, the government should introduce measures to: strengthen the CBM/CMM policy, legal and regulatory framework to improve resource management; improve CMM availability and quality so more can be utilized; enhance incentives to promote expansion of CBM/CMM exploitation and destruction of surplus drained CMM; and Promote development of regional development strategies to take advantage of specific local advantages.

‣ Pakistan : Household Use of Commercial Energy

Kojima, Masami
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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35.854724%
This study aimed to examine the impact of changing availability of different energy sources and their price levels on household energy choice, consumption, and expenditures. Knowledge of household expenditures and energy consumption patterns is an essential building block for further work on possible policies in the energy sector and associated poverty and social impact analysis. To this end, the four most recent household expenditure surveys-conducted in 1994, 1997, 1999, and 2001-were analyzed in detail. The survey periods included those with low fuel prices (1999) and a time of rising world oil prices (2001). No household expenditure surveys are available from the last two years, when the increase in fuel prices has far outstripped general inflation. Nevertheless, between 1994 and 2001, prices of electricity, natural gas, kerosene, and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) rose more rapidly than the consumer price index (CPI), potentially offering insights into how households might react to, and manage, sharply rising energy prices. The household survey analysis was supplemented by focus group discussions and individual interviews conducted in 2004 and 2005. Participants were asked questions about reasons for energy choice...

‣ Income and Energy Consumption in Mexican Households

Rodriguez-Oreggia, Eduardo; Yepez-Garcia, Rigoberto Ariel
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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35.854724%
The analysis of household energy consumption patterns is critical for evaluating public mechanisms, such as subsidies and social tariffs that aim to provide lower income earners with better access to energy sources. This paper focuses on Mexican households to analyze the relations between their levels of income, consumption of different forms of energy, and the role played by different household characteristics. Using microdata from the Mexican Income Expenditure Surveys, the paper first relate income and energy expenditure to determine the shape of this relation. It then applies OLS and Tobit models to determine how income levels affect energy consumption in relation to other covariates. The results show a positive relation for income deciles and energy consumption and some household characteristics -- pointing to differentiated mechanisms for improving energy use.

‣ Permitting and Licensing Regimes for Renewable Energy Projects

Merle-Beral, Elena; Gassner, Katharina
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Brief; Journal Article
Português
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35.85724%
Permitting, licensing, and other authorization procedures are an integral part of investing in renewable energy. For private companies, the quality of these procedures can drastically affect transaction costs and project risk. Optimal regimes are tailored to country specifics and depend on the way in which private investors access the market in the first place—from auctions to site-specific tenders to standardized contracts on a first-come, first-served basis. Although there is no single best practice when it comes to authorizing renewable energy projects, common principles exist that signal an investor-friendly and socially and environmentally responsible regime.

‣ Household Energy Supply and Use in Yemen : Volume 2. Annexes

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: ESMAP Paper; Publications & Research
Português
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35.856025%
Yemen's Second Five Year Plan for Social and Economic Development (2001-2005) and Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP, 2003-05) provide a framework to reduce poverty through national actions and development assistance. The PRSP recommends a gradual lifting of subsidies for petroleum products, phased to ensure that energy price reform does not aggravate poverty in a country with an already high percentage of poor people. The PRSP also promotes policies that will lead to better access to energy. This report deals with the relationship between energy policy and household welfare. By establishing the facts about household energy supply and use, the impact of new energy policies on the poor can be anticipated with greater confidence. A household energy strategy forms an essential element of overall energy sector planning. At the request of the Ministry of Planning and International Cooperation (MOPIC), the joint World Bank/United Nations Development Program Energy Sector Management Assistance Program (ESMAP) carried out a study to examine the energy policies which would...

‣ The Bank's Assistance to China's Energy Sector

Churchill, Anthony; Thum, Cordula
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
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35.858376%
China is the second largest energy consumer in the world and the largest producer and consumer of coal. Owing to its large coal resources, it is and will remain in the foreseeable future largely energy self-sufficient, although crude oil imports have steadily increased since 1993. In just 17 years, China has become the Bank's largest borrower in the energy sector having received about 7 billion dollars in loans to date. The Bank has also carried out a substantial amount of analytical and advisory services. Despite the amount of lending to the energy sector, the sheer size of the sector in China has made the World Bank, at least in financial terms, a relatively marginal player. The Bank s assistance aimed at helping China's integration into the global economy. It focused on removing bottlenecks to the country's accelerating economic growth and on institutional development (emphasizing technology transfer and capacity building). After the major policy breakthroughs of the mid-1990s in the power sector, progress on sector reform has slowed and major policy issues in such critical subsectors as coal...