Página 14 dos resultados de 287434 itens digitais encontrados em 0.930 segundos

‣ Advancing Health Disparities Research Within the Health Care System: A Conceptual Framework

Kilbourne, Amy M.; Switzer, Galen; Hyman, Kelly; Crowley-Matoka, Megan; Fine, Michael J.
Fonte: © American Journal of Public Health 2006 Publicador: © American Journal of Public Health 2006
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /12/2006 Português
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We provide a framework for health services–related researchers, practitioners, and policy makers to guide future health disparities research in areas ranging from detecting differences in health and health care to understanding the determinants that underlie disparities to ultimately designing interventions that reduce and eliminate these disparities. To do this, we identified potential selection biases and definitions of vulnerable groups when detecting disparities.

‣ Climate Change: The Public Health Response

Frumkin, Howard; Hess, Jeremy; Luber, George; Malilay, Josephine; McGeehin, Michael
Fonte: American Public Health Association Publicador: American Public Health Association
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /03/2008 Português
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There is scientific consensus that the global climate is changing, with rising surface temperatures, melting ice and snow, rising sea levels, and increasing climate variability. These changes are expected to have substantial impacts on human health. There are known, effective public health responses for many of these impacts, but the scope, timeline, and complexity of climate change are unprecedented. We propose a public health approach to climate change, based on the essential public health services, that extends to both clinical and population health services and emphasizes the coordination of government agencies (federal, state, and local), academia, the private sector, and nongovernmental organizations.

‣ Ethics in Public Health Research: Privacy and Public Health at Risk: Public Health Confidentiality in the Digital Age

Myers, Julie; Frieden, Thomas R.; Bherwani, Kamal M.; Henning, Kelly J.
Fonte: American Public Health Association Publicador: American Public Health Association
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /05/2008 Português
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Public health agencies increasingly use electronic means to acquire, use, maintain, and store personal health information. Electronic data formats can improve performance of core public health functions, but potentially threaten privacy because they can be easily duplicated and transmitted to unauthorized people.

‣ Occupational Health, Mercury Exposure, and Environmental Justice: Learning From Experiences in Tanzania

Spiegel, Samuel J.
Fonte: American Public Health Association Publicador: American Public Health Association
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /11/2009 Português
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Mercury is a potent neurotoxin that is used by poverty-driven miners to extract gold in more than 50 countries. This article examines efforts of the United Nations to address occupational health and environmental justice amid these challenges, focusing on a 3-year campaign in one of the fastest-growing mining communities in Tanzania. By providing an integrative analysis of environmental health risks, labor practices, public health policies, and drivers of social inequity and marginalization, this study highlights the need for interdisciplinary public health approaches that support community development by strengthening local capacities. It illustrates why, to ensure that the needs of vulnerable populations are met, environmental justice and public health paradigms have to expand beyond the conventionally narrow attention paid to toxic exposure and emissions issues.

‣ Leadership Principles for Developing a Statewide Public Health and Clinical Laboratory System

Marshall, Steven A.; Brokopp, Charles D.; Size, Tim
Fonte: Association of Schools of Public Health Publicador: Association of Schools of Public Health
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2010 Português
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In 1999, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the Association of Public Health Laboratories (APHL), and the Federal Bureau of Investigation established the national Laboratory Response Network (LRN) for bioterrorism readiness. A more broad application of the LRN is the National Laboratory System (NLS), an effort to promote the 10 Essential Public Health Services and the Core Functions and Capabilities of State Public Health Laboratories (hereafter, Core Functions). State public health laboratories (PHLs) are responsible for leading the development of both the LRN and the NLS in their jurisdictions. Based on the experience of creating a laboratory network in Wisconsin, leadership principles are provided for developing and strengthening statewide laboratory networks of PHLs and clinical laboratories, which can also include point-of-care testing sites. Each state PHL, in the context of these Core Functions and leadership principles, sets its priorities, budgets, and strategic plans. For a limited investment of personnel and funds that will yield a large benefit to public health, a robust state laboratory system can be established.

‣ Evidence, Ethics, and Values: A Framework for Health Promotion

Carter, Stacy M.; Rychetnik, Lucie; Dietetics, PGradDip; Lloyd, Beverley; Kerridge, Ian H.; Baur, Louise; Bauman, Adrian; Hooker, Claire; Zask, Avigdor
Fonte: American Public Health Association Publicador: American Public Health Association
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /03/2011 Português
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We propose a new approach to guide health promotion practice. Health promotion should draw on 2 related systems of reasoning: an evidential system and an ethical system. Further, there are concepts, values, and procedures inherent in both health promotion evidence and ethics, and these should be made explicit. We illustrate our approach with the exemplar of intervention in weight, and use a specific mass-media campaign to show the real-world dangers of intervening with insufficient attention to ethics and evidence. Both researchers and health promotion practitioners should work to build the capacities required for evidential and ethical deliberation in the health promotion profession.

‣ Framing Peak Petroleum as a Public Health Problem: Audience Research and Participatory Engagement in the United States

Nisbet, Matthew C.; Maibach, Edward; Leiserowitz, Anthony
Fonte: American Public Health Association Publicador: American Public Health Association
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /09/2011 Português
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Between December 2009 and January 2010, we conducted a nationally representative telephone survey of US adults (n = 1001; completion rate = 52.9%) to explore perceptions of risks associated with peak petroleum. We asked respondents to assess the likelihood that oil prices would triple over the next 5 years and then to estimate the economic and health consequences of that event. Nearly half (48%) indicated that oil prices were likely to triple, causing harm to human health; an additional 16% said dramatic price increases were unlikely but would harm health if they did occur. A large minority (44%) said sharp increases in oil prices would be “very harmful” to health. Respondents who self-identified as very conservative and those who were strongly dismissive of climate change were the respondents most likely to perceive very harmful health consequences.

‣ Lessons Learned From a Decade of Focused Recruitment and Training to Develop Minority Public Health Professionals

Kreuter, Matthew W.; Griffith, Deidre J.; Thompson, Vetta; Brownson, Ross C.; McClure, Stephanie; Scharff, Darcell P.; Clark, Eddie M.; Haire-Joshu, Debra
Fonte: American Public Health Association Publicador: American Public Health Association
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /12/2011 Português
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From 1999 to 2009, the Eliminating Health Disparities Pre-doctoral Fellowship Program provided specialized education and mentoring to African American graduate students in public health. Fellows received a public health degree, coursework in understanding and eliminating health disparities, experiential learning, mentored research, and professional network building with African American role models. We describe successful strategies for recruiting and training fellows and make 5 recommendations for those seeking to increase workforce diversity in public health: (1) build a community of minority students, not a string of individual recruits; (2) reward mentoring; (3) provide a diverse set of role models and mentors; (4) dedicate staffing to assure a student-centered approach; and, (5) commit to training students with varying levels of academic refinement.

‣ Public Health Options for Improving Cardiovascular Health Among Older Americans

Greenlund, Kurt J.; Keenan, Nora L.; Clayton, Paula F.; Pandey, Dilip K.; Hong, Yuling
Fonte: American Public Health Association Publicador: American Public Health Association
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Life expectancy at birth has increased from 74 years in 1980 to 78 years in 2006. Older adults (aged 65 years and older) are living longer with cardiovascular conditions, which are leading causes of death and disability and thus an important public health concern. We describe several major issues, including the impact of comorbidities, the role of cognitive health, prevention and intervention approaches, and opportunities for collaboration to strengthen the public health system. Prevention can be effective at any age, including for older adults. Public health models focusing on policy, systems, and environmental change approaches have the goal of providing social and physical environments and promoting healthy choices.

‣ Improving State Health Policy Assessment: An Agenda for Measurement and Analysis

Macinko, James; Silver, Diana
Fonte: American Public Health Association Publicador: American Public Health Association
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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We examine the scope of inquiry into the measurement and assessment of the state public health policy environment. We argue that there are gains to be made by looking systematically at policies both within and across health domains. We draw from the public health and public policy literature to develop the concepts of interdomain and intradomain policy comprehensiveness and illustrate how these concepts can be used to enhance surveillance of the current public health policy environment, improve understanding of the adoption of new policies, and enhance evaluations of the impact of such policies on health outcomes.

‣ Primary Care Pediatrics and Public Health: Meeting the Needs of Today’s Children

Kuo, Alice A.; Etzel, Ruth A.; Chilton, Lance A.; Watson, Camille; Gorski, Peter A.
Fonte: American Public Health Association Publicador: American Public Health Association
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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The proportion of children suffering from chronic illnesses—such as asthma and obesity, which have significant environmental components—is increasing. Chronic disease states previously seen only in adulthood are emerging during childhood, and health inequalities by social class are increasing. Advocacy to ensure environmental health and to protect from the biological embedding of toxic stress has become a fundamental part of pediatrics. We have presented the rationale for addressing environmental and social determinants of children’s health, the epidemiology of issues facing children’s health, recent innovations in pediatric medical education that have incorporated public health principles, and policy opportunities that have arisen with the passage of the 2010 Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act.

‣ Stigma as a Fundamental Cause of Population Health Inequalities

Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.; Phelan, Jo C.; Link, Bruce G.
Fonte: American Public Health Association Publicador: American Public Health Association
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Bodies of research pertaining to specific stigmatized statuses have typically developed in separate domains and have focused on single outcomes at 1 level of analysis, thereby obscuring the full significance of stigma as a fundamental driver of population health. Here we provide illustrative evidence on the health consequences of stigma and present a conceptual framework describing the psychological and structural pathways through which stigma influences health. Because of its pervasiveness, its disruption of multiple life domains (e.g., resources, social relationships, and coping behaviors), and its corrosive impact on the health of populations, stigma should be considered alongside the other major organizing concepts for research on social determinants of population health.

‣ The Use of Health Impact Assessment for a Community Undergoing Natural Gas Development

Witter, Roxana Z.; McKenzie, Lisa; Stinson, Kaylan E.; Scott, Kenneth; Newman, Lee S.; Adgate, John
Fonte: American Public Health Association Publicador: American Public Health Association
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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The development of natural gas wells is rapidly increasing, yet little is known about associated exposures and potential public health consequences. We used health impact assessment (HIA) to provide decision-makers with information to promote public health at a time of rapid decision making for natural gas development. We have reported that natural gas development may expose local residents to air and water contamination, industrial noise and traffic, and community changes. We have provided more than 90 recommendations for preventing or decreasing health impacts associated with these exposures. We also have reflected on the lessons learned from conducting an HIA in a politically charged environment. Finally, we have demonstrated that despite the challenges, HIA can successfully enhance public health policymaking.

‣ Health Care for the Homeless: What We Have Learned in the Past 30 Years and What’s Next

Zlotnick, Cheryl; Zerger, Suzanne; Wolfe, Phyllis B.
Fonte: American Public Health Association Publicador: American Public Health Association
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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In the 1980s, the combined effects of deinstitutionalization from state mental hospitals and the economic recession increased the number and transformed the demographic profile of people experiencing homelessness in the United States. Specialized health care for the homeless (HCH) services were developed when it became clear that the mainstream health care system could not sufficiently address their health needs. The HCH program has grown consistently during that period; currently, 208 HCH sites are operating, and the program has become embedded in the federal health care system. We reflect on lessons learned from the HCH model and its applicability to the changing landscape of US health care.

‣ A Framework for Examining Social Stress and Susceptibility to Air Pollution in Respiratory Health

Clougherty, Jane E.; Kubzansky, Laura Diane
Fonte: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Publicador: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Objective: There is growing interest in disentangling the health effects of spatially clustered social and physical environmental exposures and in exploring potential synergies among them, with particular attention directed to the combined effects of psychosocial stress and air pollution. Both exposures may be elevated in lower-income urban communities, and it has been hypothesized that stress, which can influence immune function and susceptibility, may potentiate the effects of air pollution in respiratory disease onset and exacerbation. In this paper, we attempt to synthesize the relevant research from social and environmental epidemiology, toxicology, immunology, and exposure assessment to provide a useful framework for environmental health researchers aiming to investigate the health effects of environmental pollution in combination with social or psychological factors. Data synthesis: We review the existing epidemiologic and toxicologic evidence on synergistic effects of stress and pollution, and then describe the physiologic effects of stress and key issues related to measuring and evaluating stress as it relates to physical environmental exposures and susceptibility. Finally, we identify some of the major methodologic challenges ahead as we work toward disentangling the health effects of clustered social and physical exposures and accurately describing the interplay among these exposures. Conclusions: There is still tremendous work to be done toward understanding the combined and potentially synergistic health effects of stress and pollution. As this research proceeds...

‣ Mental health implications of the commercial sex industry in Nigeria

Akinnawo, Ebenezer Olutope
Fonte: Health Transition Centre, National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health, The Australian National University Publicador: Health Transition Centre, National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health, The Australian National University
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 19657 bytes; application/pdf
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The history and some of the consequences of the growth of the sex industry in Nigeria have been identified and discussed by previous researchers (Little 1973; Caldwell, Caldwell and Orubuloye 1992; Orubuloye, Caldwell and Caldwell 1991, 1994). These authors have contributed immensely to providing fundamental information that may be useful in preventing or at least minimizing the hazardous effects of the sex industry. They stress the vital roles played by the sex workers in transmitting STDs and HIV/AIDS and suggested how the situation can be controlled. There are however, some issues of psychological importance that are yet to be examined. For instance, we are interested in knowing what prompted the interest of the women in the business, the occupational hazards in the sex industry, the coping mechanisms adopted, what is keeping the sex workers on the job in spite of the occupational hazards, their level of satisfaction with the business, and most importantly, the mental health implications of the growth of the sex industry in Nigeria. The present study was an attempt to give a psychological analysis of commercial sex in Nigeria and to appraise the prevalence and level of psychopathological symptoms among sex workers. Findings from this study not only will suggest how to arrest the growth of the sex industry in Nigeria but also may alert the Federal Ministry of Health and other health organizations to the mental health implications of commercial sex.; no

‣ Old and new factors in health transitions

Caldwell, John C
Fonte: Health Transition Centre, National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health, The Australian National University Publicador: Health Transition Centre, National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health, The Australian National University
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 36986 bytes; application/pdf
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The introductory section of the paper notes that the health transition literature suggests a greater range of cultural, social and behavioural influences on health, especially child survival, than has attracted the attention of most social science researchers. They concentrate disproportionately on the impact of parental education, especially maternal education, perhaps because these are measures that are easily quantified and readily available in census and surveys. The major part of the paper discusses the implications of the finding by Preston and Haines that there is little evidence that child survival in the United States a century ago was much affected by mother’s literacy, ethnicity or English-speaking ability. This review draws on that evidence to argue that Third World mortality has in contrast been reduced over recent decades by two imports: modern medical technology and the Western scientific attitude that induces a successful collaboration with the former. This attitude is largely a product of modern education and it is this symbiosis in reducing mortality between modern medical technology and the scientific outlook that explains why steep mortality declines in the contemporary Third World depend both upon providing an easily accessible modern health service (with a significant curative component) and the development of mass schooling (particularly for girls). It also explains the steep differentials in child survival by mother’s education.; no

‣ The impact of a public-health intervention on sex differentials in childhood mortality in rural Punjab, India

Pebley, Anne R; Amin, Sajeda
Fonte: Health Transition Centre, National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health, The Australian National University Publicador: Health Transition Centre, National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health, The Australian National University
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 79421 bytes; application/pdf
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This paper examines the effects of a public-health intervention program on sex differentials in health and mortality during childhood. Among the different health-service packages offered as part of the experimental design, those including nutritional services seem to have been more successful in reducing excess female mortality. The reason for this success appears to have been careful follow-up of undernourished children by project workers. The results also indicate that, consistent with earlier research, girls with surviving older sisters had higher mortality rates after their first month of life. Contrary to earlier research, however, boys with surviving older brothers also have higher mortality rates, at least between the ages of one and three years. We conclude that these effects for boys and girls cannot be attributed to problems associated with larger family size, since the number of older siblings of the opposite sex (regardless of survival status) does not generally appear to be related to children’s chances of survival.; yes

‣ Maternal schooling and comprehension of child health information in urban Zambia: is literacy a missing link in the maternal schooling-child health relationship?

Stuebing, Kathleen W
Fonte: Health Transition Centre, National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health, The Australian National University Publicador: Health Transition Centre, National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health, The Australian National University
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 70430 bytes; application/pdf
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This paper examines the relationship between literacy skills and comprehension of health information by studying mothers of young children in a high-density urban area in Zambia. Both decontextualized language and print literacy skills were assessed for each woman and the resulting scores were related to her comprehension of both broadcast and printed health information. The results indicate that fluency in a language is not sufficient for full comprehension of broadcast messages in the decontextualized type of language used in bureaucratic communication, and that a woman’s ability to use decontextualized language is associated with greater comprehension of such messages. Skill in using this type of language increases with years of schooling, even in the poorly equipped schools in Zambia, as does print literacy, even though the levels of comprehension achieved are well below their grade level on average for these women. Some implications of these findings for both health care providers and educators are then considered.; no

‣ Attitudes to and management of HIV/AIDS among health workers in Ghana: the case of Cape Coast municipality

Awusabo-Asare, Kofi; Marfo, Constance
Fonte: Health Transition Centre, National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health, The Australian National University Publicador: Health Transition Centre, National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health, The Australian National University
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 39551 bytes; application/pdf
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Health Care Workers as key players in the prevention and management of diseases and important opinion and community leaders have become targets for studies, more so with the outbreak of HIV. Their perceptions, attitudes and practices have implications for the management of diseases in both health centres and communities. This study reports some of the results of in-depth interviews with Health Care Workers in the Cape Coast municipality (Ghana) on their perception of risk of exposure to HIV, attitudes to known persons with HIV/AIDS, counselling and confidentiality. Results indicate a general fear of infection given the working environment and conditions such as the insufficient supply of basic items, and inadequate information on the sero-status of some patients. Although aware of the basic precautions needed to avoid infection, some health workers did not follow them. There was also a lack of consensus among them on the issues of confidentiality and responsibility towards a discordant partner. The main arguments were those of the general debate between safeguarding individual rights and protecting the common good. It is important for the medical establishment to debate the issue so that the rights of some individuals are not compromised.; no