Últimos itens adicionados do Acervo: CEPAL - Comissão Econômica para a América Latina e o Caribe

A Comissão Econômica para a América Latina e o Caribe (CEPAL) foi criada em 1948 pelo Conselho Econômico e Social das Nações Unidas com o objetivo de incentivar a cooperação econômica entre os seus membros. Ela é uma das cinco comissões econômicas da Organização das Nações Unidas (ONU) e possui 44 estados e oito territórios não independentes como membros.

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‣ Andean exchange-rate regimes, 1994-2003: a brief for stable but flexible" regimes"

Beckerman, Paul
Fonte: ECLAC Publicador: ECLAC
Português
Includes bibliography; Recent analytical work has focused on exchange-rate regimes" and their general and specific consequences for growth and stability. Although significant progress has been made in formulating taxonomies of regimes, general consensus on which regimes are likely to prove optimal for given economies has proven elusive. In recent years, the five Andean economies have adapted a variety of exchange-rate regimes. Their experience appears to support the view that the most convenient exchange-rate regimes are those that afford policymakers sufficient freedom of maneuver to adjust their policies in response to evolving emphases on stability and growth objectives. That is, "intermediate", relatively flexible, regimes seem generally preferable to "polar" regimes that leave no scope for policy intervention. Bolivia and Peru, and more recently Colombia, have been able to secure a high degree of price-level and exchange-rate stability through disciplined monetary policy and exchange-rate management under flexible regimes. In Ecuador, dollarization has brought about price stability but aggravated competitiveness problems. Venezuela has had to adjust its fixed exchange rate repeatedly, although clearly this economy's difficulties go far beyond its exchange-rate regime. The different economies' different exchange-rate regimes have led to haphazard consequences for their bilateral trade relationships...

‣ Economic growth in Latin America and the Caribbean: growth transitions rather than steady states

Gutiérrez, Mario A.
Fonte: CEPAL Publicador: CEPAL
Português
Includes bibliography; Recent evidence on economic growth indicates that growth fluctuations at frequencies of a decade or so are at the centre of the Latin American countries'growth story. In this context, investment has played an important role as a source of growth, while national saving has been the main source of investment financing. Foreign saving has played a secondary role and has generally been substituted for national saving, rather than augmenting the total amount of savings available in Latin America. The high volatility and vulnerability to external swings exhibited by foreign capital have made foreign saving an unstable source of investment financing. This study on Latin America helps to provide a statistical framework for analysing the growth story of Latin America. Transitions affecting per capita GDP growth, investment and national and foreign savings rates are identified, as are common and country-specific transitions, based on comparisons of a sample group of eight Latin American countries with the Latin American and Caribbean region as a whole for the period 1960-2005. This research also helps to demonstrate that some growth episodes are not well captured by standard growth theories and econometric work developed and based on different economic contexts and time periods. The study confirms some general conclusions reached in the literature but provides evidence that raises doubts about others. Although growth needs to be sustained by higher investment rates...

‣ Globalization and liberalization: the impact on developing countries

Stallings, Barbara
Fonte: ECLAC Publicador: ECLAC
Português
Includes bibliography; Summary This paper analyzes the impact of globalization on developing countries over the last several decades. The first section examines the components and mechanisms of globalization. The second turns to financial globalization –considered to be the most important aspect of a multifaceted process– and looks in more detail at the changing trends in finance for developing countries. The third analyzes the impact of the new pattern of finance in terms of growth, equity, and government autonomy. The concluding section offers policy recommendations for making globalization a more positive force. Four basic arguments are developed in the paper with respect to the impact of financial globalization. First, globalization has increased the capital available to developing countries, which potentially increases their ability to grow faster than if they had to rely exclusively on their own resources. Not all capital flows contribute equally to growth, however; short-term flows and the purchase of existing assets are less valuable than investment in new facilities. At the same time, the increasing mobility of capital can also lead to greater volatility, which is very costly for growth. Second, capital flows are unequally distributed by region and country...

‣ Flexible labour markets, workers' protection and the security of the wings": a Danish flexicurity solution to the unemployment and social problems in globalized economies"

Jorgensen, Henning
Fonte: CEPAL Publicador: CEPAL
Português
Includes bibliography; During these years of growing global uncertainties, financial and economic pressures, nations and international institutions are searching for political, social and professional answers to the new challenges. The Washington consensus has discredited itself in more respects. Denmark seems to have found effective answers to adaptation needs with it flexicurity system: a labour market arrangement that builds on high mobility, high income security, employment security, and active market and educational policies. Security and flexibility is combined in innovative ways, giving wage earners transferable qualifications and social security while at the same time improving the dynamics of the labour market and the economy as a whole. There is no master plan behind the Danish system but politicians have realized that giving the social partners pivotal positions in decision making and in implementation structures help realizing the political aims of full employment, welfare and equality. This “high road” to competitiveness, social cohesion and lifelong learning has been made a role model for Europe in 2007 by the help of decisions by the European Union. And the question is posed to Latin America: why not learn something from this flexicurity arrangement? The potentialities for learning are stressed in this report but it is argued that flexicurity must be promoted not as a question of imitation but one of inspiration in a Latin American context. Three policy principles of flexicurity are considered: policy design...

‣ Flexible labour markets, workers' protection and active labour market policies in the Caribbean

Downes, Andrew S.
Fonte: ECLAC Publicador: ECLAC
Português
Includes bibliography; This study examines the application of the flexicurity labour system in the Caribbean countries of Barbados, Jamaica and Trinidad and Tobago. The flexicurity system has its origins in Denmark and combines elements of labour market flexibility with social security for workers. After outlining the elements of the system, the study provides an overview of the labour market in the Caribbean and compares the performance of Denmark with the three Caribbean countries. The comparison shows that there is a much lower level of flexibility and security in the three Caribbean states than in Denmark. The degree of labour market flexibility is examined in the Caribbean context and the discussion indicates that some limited degree of flexibility exist especially work time and functional flexibility. Some attempts have been made to introduce financial flexibility. Some small measure of social protection exists for displaced workers in the form of severance and redundancy pay. Only Barbados has an unemployment scheme which cover workers for up to six months of unemployment. Jamaica is planning to introduce an unemployment assistance scheme. In general, the social protection schemes for workers are weak in the region. In the area of active labour market policies...

‣ Long run economic development in Latin America in a comparative perspective: proximate and ultimate causes

Hofman, André A.
Fonte: ECLAC Publicador: ECLAC
Português
Includes bibliography; Abstract   This paper describes trends in economic growth and its causes in several Latin American countries in the 20th century. In the explanatory scheme, a distinction is made between 'proximate' and 'ultimate' causes of economic growth. Proximate causes are those areas of causality where models and quantification is possible, whereas ultimate causes are much more difficult to quantify. Some elements in the realm of the ultimate causes (like institutions and income distribution) will be analysed in an historical perspective and others, especially total factor productivity and growth accounting, in the proximate scheme. Latin America's performance is also compared to developed and other developing countries.   The paper provides a quantitative assessment of Latin American economic growth performance in the twentieth century in a comparative perspective. Within the region it was found that heterogeneity has not decreased and no clear tendencies of convergence can be detected. The reform process of the late 1980s and 1990s was implemented because of the profound crisis of the 1980s and the detection of some structural weaknesses in the Latin American economies. Some aggressive and early reformers show impressive growth results (e.g. Chile) but on the whole...

‣ Ataque tributário a informalidade

Pessoa, Samuel; Pessoa, Silvia Matos
Fonte: CEPAL, Oficina de Brasília Publicador: CEPAL, Oficina de Brasília
Tipo: Texto
Português
O objetivo aqui é investigar, por meio de um modelo computável de equilíbrio geral, o impacto de políticas de desoneração tributária sobre a informalidade da economia. Entende-se por informalidade a fração do emprego do fator trabalho alocado ao setor informal. Desta forma, redução da informalidade neste trabalho é equivalente à elevação do grau de formalização do trabalho. As políticas de desoneração da folha de salários - que para manter a receita do setor público constante elevam simultaneamente a alíquota sobre o valor adicionado - são improdutivas no longo prazo. A elevação do imposto sobre o valor adicionado desestimula a acumulação de capital, eliminando os ganhos existentes no curto prazo. No longo prazo, os impactos sobre o bem estar são pequenos, podendo ser positivos ou negativos. Há evidência de que a economia encontra-se `no lado errado' da curva de Lafer. Quando se permite que haja ajustamento da alocação dos fatores de produção e da dotação de capital em resposta à alteração dos incentivos, é possível reduzir alíquotas, elevar produto e arrecadação e, simultaneamente, elevar a formalização do mercado de trabalho. Conseqüentemente, a prescrição de política sugerida pelas simulações deste trabalho é de que se deve proceder a reduções de alíquotas de impostos. As simulações também sugerem que é melhor iniciar reduzindo-se as alíquotas de impostos sobre a folha de salário. A grande dificuldade de implementação da supply side economics é que instantaneamente sempre haverá perda de receita. Uma forma de mitigar este problema é...

‣ Women's work: some considerations derived from an integrated approach based on time-use surveys and employment statistics

Rodríguez Enríquez, Corina
Fonte: CEPAL - Comissão Econômica para a América Latina e o Caribe Publicador: CEPAL - Comissão Econômica para a América Latina e o Caribe
Tipo: Texto
Português

‣ Network for Cooperation in Integrated Water Resource Management for Sustainable Development in Latin America and the Caribbean No. 6

Fonte: ECLAC Publicador: ECLAC
Tipo: Texto
Português

‣ Innovaciones institucionales y en políticas sobre agricultura y cambio climático: evidencia en América Latina y el Caribe

Rodríguez, Adrián G.; López, Tania T.; Meza, Laura E.; Loboguerrero, Ana M.
Fonte: CEPAL Publicador: CEPAL
Português
El documento tiene como objetivo analizar los avances realizados por países de América Latina y el Caribe (ALC) en el fortalecimiento de la institucionalidad vinculada a la agricultura, el cambio climático y la seguridad alimentaria. El documento destaca iniciativas innovadoras, en ámbitos como la formulación de políticas, el desarrollo de marcos legales, el fomento de la investigación y la innovación, el desarrollo de mecanismos de financiamiento, y la gestión de riesgos climáticos, entre otros. La revisión está enfocada en las políticas nacionales.

‣ América Latina y el Caribe: el envejecimiento de la población, 1950-2050 = Latin America and the Caribbean: population ageing, 1950-2050

Fonte: CELADE Publicador: CELADE
Tipo: Texto
Português
Publicación bilingüe (Español e inglés); El presente Boletín muestra las estimaciones y proyecciones de población nacional, por área de residencia, y de la población económicamente activa, realizadas por la División de Población (CELADE) de la CEPAL, con la colaboración de los organismos pertinentes de los países, se documentan la situación y tendencias de los indicadores demográficos generales, y de aquellos específicamente vinculados con el envejecimiento. En la primera parte, se presenta un conjunto de indicadores generales de la población, en cuadros estándar de situación demográfica de los países. La segunda parte consta de cuatro capítulos dedicados a los indicadores del proceso de envejecimiento de la población total, la población urbana, la rural y la económicamente activa, respectivamente.

‣ Perspectivas económicas de América Latina 2016: hacia una nueva asociación con China

Fonte: CEPAL Publicador: CEPAL
Português
La edición 2016 de Perspectivas económicas de América Latina explora los lazos cambiantes entre la región y China. A lo largo de la última década, China se ha posicionado como uno de sus socios comerciales más importantes. Esta relación está adquiriendo hoy una nueva dimensión, y ofrece a América Latina la oportunidad de construir una asociación mutuamente benéfica. En la medida en que China se transforme gradualmente de una economía basada en las exportaciones y la inversión hacia una basada en el consumo y los servicios, entre otros factores, América Latina tiene mucho que ganar participando más allá de un simple rol de proveedor de materias primas. Basados en el análisis de diferentes canales a través de los cuales el nuevo modelo de China impactará la región, incluyendo el comercio, el financiamiento y la estrategia de competencias, el informe identifica respuestas de política de largo plazo para contribuir a que América Latina fortalezca su asociación con China. El reporte destaca experiencias valiosas y mejores prácticas en estas áreas y propone estrategias para permitir a la región consolidar un crecimiento de largo plazo mientras asegura continuidad en su agenda social.

‣ Capital Flows to Latin America and the Caribbean: Recent Developments

Fonte: ECLAC Publicador: ECLAC
Português
This document, prepared by the Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC) Washington Office, presents and analyzes the most recent developments (third quarter of 2015) concerning capital flows to Latin America and the Caribbean.

‣ América Latina y Caribe: estimaciones y proyecciones de población 1950-2050 = Latin America and Caribbean: population estimates and projections 1950-2050

Fonte: CELADE Publicador: CELADE
Tipo: Texto
Português
Publicación bilingüe (Español e inglés); En el presente Boletín demográfico se actualiza la información sobre estimaciones y proyecciones de población, publicada en el Nº 69 de esta misma serie, en enero de 2002, fecha a partir de la cual se han revisado las estimaciones y proyecciones de los países de América Latina. En los casos de Bolivia, Brasil, Chile, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Guatemala Panamá y Venezuela se consideró los datos de los censos de población de la ronda de 2000.

‣ América Latina: tablas de mortalidad, 1950-2025 = Latin America: life tables, 1950-2025

Fonte: CELADE Publicador: CELADE
Tipo: Texto
Português
Publicación bilingüe (Español e inglés); Debido al gran interés de los usuarios de información demográfica, el Centro Latinoamericano y Caribeño de Demografía (CELADE) - División de Población de la CEPAL pone a disposición en este Boletín las tablas de mortalidad para el período 1950-2025. Este conjunto de tablas actualiza el publicado en el Boletín demográfico N

‣ América Latina: urbanización y evolución de la población urbana = Latin America: urbanization and urban population trends

Fonte: CELADE Publicador: CELADE
Tipo: Texto
Português
Publicación bilingüe (Español e inglés); Publicación bilingüe (Español e inglés)

‣ A new era in Caribbean telecommunication

Fonte: ECLAC, Subregional Headquarters for the Caribbean Publicador: ECLAC, Subregional Headquarters for the Caribbean
Tipo: Texto
Português

‣ Network for Cooperation in Integrated Water Resource Management for Sustainable Development in Latin America and the Caribbean No. 38

Fonte: ECLAC Publicador: ECLAC
Tipo: Texto
Português

‣ Network for Cooperation in Integrated Water Resource Management for Sustainable Development in Latin America and the Caribbean No. 40

Fonte: ECLAC Publicador: ECLAC
Tipo: Texto
Português

‣ Informe de la Quincuagésima Segunda Reunión de la Mesa Directiva de la Conferencia Regional sobre la Mujer de América Latina y el Caribe

Fonte: CEPAL Publicador: CEPAL
Tipo: Texto
Português