Página 15 dos resultados de 476117 itens digitais encontrados em 0.061 segundos

‣ Demanda de energia na indústria brasileira: efeitos da eficiência energética; Energy demand of brazilian industry: effects of energy efficiency

Salazar, Marlon Bruno
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 09/03/2012 Português
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A conservação de energia, mais precisamente a eficiência energética, vem ganhando importância nos últimos anos no Brasil e no mundo em função dos impactos ambientais que o uso intensivo de energia gera ao meio ambiente e pelo fato de a oferta de energia, principalmente as derivadas de fontes não renováveis, estar se tornando cada vez mais escassa. Estudos que abordam os impactos que os ganhos de eficiência podem gerar em termos de custos e na conservação de energia e, por conseguinte, na diminuição dos efeitos da atividade industrial no meio ambiente vem ganhando importância. Este trabalho teve como motivação principal determinar o impacto da Eficiência Energética na demanda de energia da indústria brasileira. Para isso utilizaram-se duas metodologias complementares para dissertar a respeito do tema. Primeiramente, a intensidade energética foi decomposta em dois efeitos distintos, Efeito Intensidade e Efeito Estrutural. Os resultados encontrados sugerem que o Efeito Intensidade foi o principal responsável pela perda de Eficiência no consumo de energia pela indústria. Como o Efeito Intensidade é uma importante proxy para a Eficiência Energética, buscou-se determinar o impacto desta no consumo de energia pela industria brasileira. Outras variáveis também foram utilizadas para compor a função de demanda de energia...

‣ Embodied energy versus operational energy : showing the shortcomings of the energy performance building directive (EPBD)

Torgal, Fernando Pacheco; Faria, Joana; Jalali, Said
Fonte: Universidade do Minho Publicador: Universidade do Minho
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Publicado em 19/04/2011 Português
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Energy is a key issue for Portugal, it is responsible for the higher part of its imports and since almost 30% of Portuguese energy is generated in power stations it is also responsible for high CO2 emissions. Between 1995 and 2005 Portuguese GNP rise 28%, however the imported energy in the same period increased 400%, from 1500 million to 5500 million dollars. As to the period between 2005 and 2007 the energy imports reach about 10,000 million dollars. Although recent and strong investments in renewable energy, Portugal continue to import energy and fossil fuels. This question is very relevant since a major part of the energy produced in Portugal is generated in power plants thus emitting greenhouse gases (GHGs). Therefore, investigations that could minimize energy use are needed.This paper presents a case study of a 97 apartment-type building (27.647 m2) located in Portugal,concerning both embodied energy as well as operational energy (heating, hot water, electricity). The operational energy was an average of 187,2 MJ/m2/yr and the embodied energy accounts for aprox. 2372 MJ/m2, representing just 25,3% of the former for a service life of 50 years. Since Portuguese energy efficiency building regulation made under the Energy Performance Building Directive (2002/91/EC-EPBD) will lead to a major decrease of operational energy this means that the energy required for the manufacturing of building materials could represent in a near future almost 400% of operational energy. Replacement up to 75% of Portland cement with mineral admixtures could allow energy savings needed to operate a very high efficient 97 apartment-type building during 50 years.

‣ Embodied energy versus operational energy. Showing the shortcomings of the energy performance building directive (EPBD)

Torgal, Fernando Pacheco; Faria, Joana; Jalali, Said
Fonte: Trans Tech Publications Publicador: Trans Tech Publications
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2013 Português
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Energy is a key issue for Portugal, it is responsible for the higher part of its imports and since almost 30% of Portuguese energy is generated in power stations it is also responsible for high CO2 emissions. Between 1995 and 2005 Portuguese GNP rise 28%, however the imported energy in the same period increased 400%, from 1500 million to 5500 million dollars. As to the period between 2005 and 2007 the energy imports reach about 10,000 million dollars. Although recent and strong investments in renewable energy, Portugal continue to import energy and fossil fuels. This question is very relevant since a major part of the energy produced in Portugal is generated in power plants thus emitting greenhouse gases (GHGs). Therefore, investigations that could minimize energy use are needed. This paper presents a case study of a 97 apartment-type building (27.647 m2) located in Portugal, concerning both embodied energy as well as operational energy (heating, hot water, electricity). The operational energy was an average of 187,2 MJ/m2/yr and the embodied energy accounts for aprox. 2372 MJ/m2, representing just 25,3% of the former for a service life of 50 years. Since Portuguese energy efficiency building regulation made under the Energy Performance Building Directive (2002/91/EC-EPBD) will lead to a major decrease of operational energy this means that the energy required for the manufacturing of building materials could represent in a near future almost 400% of operational energy. Replacement up to 75% of Portland cement with mineral admixtures could allow energy savings needed to operate a very high efficient 97 apartment-type building during 50 years.

‣ Dzialania energooszczedne w rolnictwie (Energy saving measures in agriculture)

Golaszewski, J; de Visser, C; Stolarski, M; Brodzinski, Z; Olba-Ziety, E; Myhan, R; Mikkola, H; Ahokas, J; Jokiniemi, T; Rajaniemi, M; Meyer-Aurich, A; Ziegler, T; Briassoulis, D; Balafoutis, A; Mistriotis, A; Panagakis, P; Papdakis, G; Buisonjé, F; Elle
Fonte: Wydawnictwo UWM (University of Warmia and Mazury) Publicador: Wydawnictwo UWM (University of Warmia and Mazury)
Tipo: Parte de Livro
Português
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The reduction of energy inputs in agricultural production is a process of practical implementation of a set of energy saving (ES) measures associated with a given type of production, farm infrastructure and managerial or organizational activities. In six national reports from Finland, Germany, Greece, the Netherlands, Poland and Portugal for 13 subsectors of agriculture, 481 ES measures in total were identified and classified into seven categories: 1) type of energy input: indirect, direct; 2) type of ES measure: operational level, systems level, process monitoring, farm management, market orientation, capital goods; 3) importance: from 1-low to 5-high; 4) R&D: yes, no; 5) potential of the measure: achievable at present or not immediately ready for implementation; 6) indication of an investment cost: from €1000 to over €1000000; 7) estimated payback time: from 1 to over 5 years.  The general conclusions from the analysis are as follows.ES measures refer to the reduction of main energy inputs in agricultural production, including fertilizers and pesticides; fuels for powering tractors and other machinery; fuel use for heating, cooling, and ventilation in farm buildings and facilities; electricity use for pumping, lighting; and energy embodied in buildings and equipment.  In general...

‣ Transforming U.S. Energy Innovation

Diaz Anadon, Laura; Bunn, Matthew G.; Chan, Melissa; Jones, Charles A.; Kempener, Ruud; Chan, Gabriel Angelo; Lee, Audrey; Logar, Nathaniel James; Narayanamurti, Venkatesh
Fonte: Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs, Harvard Kennedy School Publicador: Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs, Harvard Kennedy School
Tipo: Research Paper or Report
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The United States and the world need a revolution in energy technology—a revolution that would improve the performance of our energy systems to face the challenges ahead. A dramatic increase in the pace of energy innovation is crucial to meet the challenges of: • Energy and national security, to address the dangers of undue reliance on dwindling supplies of oil increasingly concentrated in some of the most volatile regions of the world, and to limit the connection between nuclear energy and the spread of nuclear weapons; • Environmental sustainability, to reduce the wide range of environmental damages due to energy production and use, from fine particulate emissions at coal plants, to oil spills, to global climate disruption; and • Economic competitiveness, to seize a significant share of the multi-trillion-dollar clean energy technology market and improve the balance of payments by increasing exports, while reducing the hundreds of billions of dollars spent every year on importing oil. In an intensely competitive and interdependent global landscape, and in the face of large climate risks from ongoing U.S. reliance on a fossil-fuel based energy system, it is important to maintain and expand long-term investments in the energy future of the U.S. even at a time of budget stringency. It is equally necessary to think about how to improve the efficiency of those investments...

‣ Assessing Markets for Renewable Energy in Rural Areas of Northwestern China

Voravate, Tuntivate; Barnes, Douglas F.; Bogach, V. Susan
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
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The main objective of this study was to determine the market potential for photo-voltaic systems in the remote areas of China, particularly in villages without access to grid electricity. A number of photo-voltaic systems have been sold in the remote provinces, but the size and nature of this market was not well understood. The study produced data that addresses several needs: it yielded an estimate of the size of the potential market for photo-voltaic systems in four Chinese provinces; provided important information on the characteristics, ability to pay, and preferences of potential customers; detailed positive, and negative experiences with existing photo-voltaic systems; and, developed recommendations to increase the penetration of photo-voltaic systems in rural China, as part of the upcoming China Renewable Energy Development Project. The main conclusion of the report is that there is significant desire by households in remote areas, for electricity, and that there is significant potential market demand for photo-voltaic systems.

‣ Vietnam : Renewable Energy Action Plan

Bogach, V. Susan; Cabraal, R. Anil; Exel, Jon; Pham Nguyet Anh
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
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The Renewable Energy Action Plan (REAP) was prepared in a participatory workshop with stakeholders, to discuss renewable energy potential, problems, and solutions, and synthesize study results into a draft action report. The objective of the REAP is to provide cost-effective, and reliable electricity to rural populations, by supplying isolated households, and communities with renewable sources of energy, and augmenting grid supply in remote areas. The capacity-building phase will build on the renewable energy policy, and institutional development, support individual household and institutional renewable energy systems, through the provision of mini-grids based on hydro-hybrid plants. To this end technical assistance, and investment support will be provided to encourage small power producers of renewable electricity for grid supply, from small hydro, bagasse, or rice husk cogeneration, while other technologies will also be supported, such as wind power. Lessons learned from the REAP experience address the need to ensure a policy...

‣ Energy and Poverty Reduction : Proceedings from a Multi-Sector and Multi-Stakeholder Workshop - How Can Modern Energy Services Contribute to Poverty Reduction?

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
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This report summarizes the proceedings from a workshop, the first in the region designed to foster a multi-sectoral approach to development energy services for poverty reduction, held at the Hilton Hotel in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, October 23-25, 2002. It was co-organized by the World Bank-UNDP sponsored Energy Sector Management Assistance Program (ESMAP) and the World Bank Africa Energy Unit, and others. The report focuses on the key issues raised in the presentations and discussions which were structured around the following three themes: (a) Understanding the Energy-Poverty situation in the different countries as reflected in the Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers (PRSPs) of each country and clarified by the Ministers and country delegates; (b) Understanding the role of Energy in meeting priority objectives in the social and economic sectors of health, education, water, agriculture and development of small to medium enterprises (SMEs); and (c) Designing appropriate response initiatives in the form of draft country action plans outlining the priority energy interventions required to enhance the effectiveness of poverty reduction strategies.

‣ Economics of Transiting to Renewable Energy in Morocco : A General Equilibrium Analysis

Timilsina, Govinda R.; Landis, Florian
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
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Morocco has set an ambitious target of supplying 42 percent of electricity through renewable sources, 14 percent each through hydro, wind, and solar, by 2020. To analyze the economic and environmental implications of implementing this target, this study uses a dynamic computable general equilibrium model with foresight that includes explicit representation of various electricity generation technologies. Two types of policy instruments, a production subsidy financed through fossil fuel taxation and a renewable energy mandate financed through increased electricity prices, have been considered to attract investment in renewable energy. The study shows that meeting the renewable target would achieve up to 15 percent reduction of national greenhouse gas emissions in 2020 compared with a situation in the absence of the target, or the baseline. However, meeting the target would decrease household consumption of goods and services, thereby worsening household welfare. The study also shows that the renewable production subsidy financed through fossil fuel taxation is superior to the mandate policy to meet the renewable energy target in Morocco...

‣ Country Energy Sector Vulnerability Assessments Program : Helping Countries Prepare an Effective Energy Sector Response

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
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Emerging energy transitions, recently triggered by the global financial crisis, highly volatile energy prices, and climate change, have created a turbulent environment for the energy sector, testing governments and nongovernment actors around the world. Energy industries in developing countries are particularly exposed to these new sources of vulnerability. Governments are constrained in cushioning the adverse impacts due to limited institutional capacities and fiscal resources. The Country Energy Sector Vulnerability Assessments Program (CESVAP) is comprised of three components: power sector vulnerability assessments, help countries assess the impact of the global financial crisis on priority investments in the power sector. Oil price volatility assessments, help countries assess the effects of oil price increases and heightened price volatility, including their ability to absorb price shocks. Climate vulnerability assessments, help countries assess their energy sector vulnerability in the face of climate change...

‣ The spatial representation of embodied energy of residential areas in the urban environment.

Pullen, Stephen Frederick
Fonte: Universidade de Adelaide Publicador: Universidade de Adelaide
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2008 Português
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The motivation for the research described in this thesis is the imperative to minimise energy consumption of buildings in the urban environment. A comprehensive approach to analysing energy usage involves the whole life cycle of buildings and infrastructure including embodied energy consumption. Embodied energy represents all of the energy consumed in the production of building materials and components, as well as the energy used to assemble them into the built form. This thesis describes the development and application of a model which spatially depicts embodied energy as a basis for undertaking more holistic analyses of urban energy consumption. The need for comprehensive analyses of energy consumption is initially explored. Such analyses would enable more favourable energy outcomes to be achieved when making decisions about urban planning and development. Research on the value of representing energy usage in a spatial format is reviewed and the case is made for modelling the embodied energy as a contribution to the broader understanding of urban energy consumption. This thesis concentrates on residential areas of the urban environment. The model for spatially representing the embodied energy consumption of residential areas has three components which are embodied energy theory...

‣ Climate Change and the World Bank Group - Phase I : An Evaluation of World Bank Win-Win Energy Policy Reforms

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
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The first of a series on climate change, this evaluation assesses International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) and International Development Association (IDA) experience with key win-win policies in the energy sector. It focuses on energy price reform and policies for energy efficiency, both of which offer potentially large gains at the country level together with significant reductions in greenhouse gas emissions. The next phase will look at the project experience of the Bank (including the carbon funds) and the International Finance Corporation (IFC) in promoting technologies for renewable energy and energy efficiency. Transport and forestry issues will also be evaluated. The record levels of energy prices in 2008, although they have been relaxed, provide an impetus for clients to seek more sustainable and price-resilient growth paths. The Bank can proactively help interested clients to assess the domestic benefits of price reform and efficiency policies, explore design options, and finance their implementation. This will require a reorientation of the Bank's internal incentives...

‣ Integrating Gender Considerations into Energy Operations

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: ESMAP Paper; Publications & Research
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The objective of this briefing note is to provide World Bank energy task teams a brief overview of the key issues, resources and tools to help integrate gender considerations into energy sector operations. This briefing note discusses the key elements of the 'gender in energy' topic and provides specific examples on 'how to' integrate gender considerations in energy policy dialogue and the project cycle. This note draws on recent experience within the World Bank and elsewhere in mainstreaming gender in energy projects. It aims to consolidate this knowledge and make it available to energy practitioners addressing gender aspects of energy projects. This note is complemented by a compendium of online resources to provide energy teams with basic tools, such as sample questionnaires, terms of reference, and screening guidance, as well as reference material on gender and energy. These resources have been developed by drawing on the experience of Energy Sector Management assistance Program's (ESMAP's) Africa Renewable Energy and Access (AFREA) gender and energy program...

‣ Results-Based Financing in the Energy Sector : An Analytical Guide

Vivid Economics
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: ESMAP Paper; Publications & Research
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Results based financing (RBF) approaches are becoming an increasingly popular way to support development objectives and wider public policy goals. The fundamental idea of RBF approaches is that payments that would otherwise be made automatically are made contingent on delivery of (a) pre agreed result, with achievement of the result being subject to independent verification. RBF approaches have been pioneered in the health sector but there has been increasing interest in whether and how they could be used within the energy sector, and especially on how they may promote private sector investment in low carbon energy sector opportunities (ESMAP 2012). The work has been commissioned by the Energy Sector Management Assistance Program (ESMAP), as part of a broader initiative looking at the potential for greater use of results-based approaches (RBAs) in the energy sector in developing countries This report identifies the circumstances when Results Based Financing (RBF) approaches might be an appropriate energy sector intervention in developing countries...

‣ Albania’s Energy Sector : Vulnerable to Climate Change

Ebinger, Jane
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
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Energy security is a critical concern in Albania which relies on hydropower for about 90 percent of its electricity production. While renewable energy resources like hydropower play a fundamental role in moving the world towards a low-carbon economy, they can also be vulnerable to climatic conditions. This Knowledge Brief provides an overview of a pilot vulnerability, risk, and adaptation assessment undertaken for Albania's energy sector by the Energy Sector Management Assistance Program (ESMAP), the World Bank and the Trust Fund for Environmentally and Socially Sustainable Development (TFESSD), in partnership with stakeholders in Albania's energy sector. The assessment raised awareness and initiated dialogue on energy sector adaptation. It was aimed at building greater understanding of the climate risks faced by the energy sector and of priority actions that could be taken to reduce vulnerabilities.

‣ Climate Vulnerability Assessments : An Assessment of Climate Change Vulnerability, Risk, and Adaptation in Albania's Energy Sector; Vleresime mbi vulnerabilitetin ndaj klimes : vleresimi mbi vulnerabilitetin, rrezikun dhe adoptimin e sektorit shqiptar te energjise ndaj ndryshimeve klimatike

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: ESMAP Paper; Publications & Research
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Many countries are increasingly vulnerable to destructive weather events, floods, droughts, windstorms, or other parameters. The vulnerability is driven in part by recent extremes in climate variability but also by countries' sensitivity to events exacerbated by past practices, socioeconomic conditions, or legacy issues. The degree to which vulnerability to weather affects the countries' economies is driven by their coping or adaptive capacities. This overview showcases a pilot vulnerability, risk, and adaptation assessment undertaken for Albania's energy sector to raise awareness and initiate dialogue on energy sector adaptation. This pilot assessment demonstrates an approach that can be used to help countries and energy sector stakeholders develop policies and projects that are robust in the face of climatic uncertainties, and assist them in managing existing energy concerns as the climate changes. It identifies key direct risks to energy supply and demand and options for adaptation to establish where to focus subsequent in-depth analyses. It also identifies additional research needed to better understand the implications of extreme climatic events for the energy sector as well as potential indirect impacts...

‣ Bulgaria Energy Environment Review

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: ESMAP Paper; Publications & Research
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The main purpose of the Energy and Environment Review (EER) was to develop and test a methodology to better integrate energy sector development and investment plans with Bulgaria's environmental objectives. It was undertaken at the request of the country's State Agency for Energy and Energy Resources (SAEER). The EER highlights the intrinsic trade-offs between Bulgaria's objective to ensure least-cost energy supply to the country and its concurrent objectives of being a dominant energy supplier in the region, minimizing its dependence on imported energy, and meeting its national and international environmental commitments. Achievement of these objectives is complicated by Bulgaria's heavy reliance on electricity to meet its own energy needs, the virtual absence of natural gas in the consumption mix of non-industrial consumers, and the fact that except for environmentally polluting lignite, the country does not have economical energy resources. Since the bulk of Bulgaria's electricity (about 80 percent) is generated from nuclear fuel and indigenous lignite...

‣ Municipal Budgeting and Finance : Scaling Up Energy Efficiency in Buildings in the Western Balkans

Network of Associations of Local Authorities in South-East Europe
Fonte: World Bank Group, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
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Within the Western Balkans region, a secure and reliable energy supply is critical for sustainable economic growth. Expensive, imported energy and inefficient energy use place a huge burden on municipalities that require affordable and reliable infrastructure services to attract investment and provide services to their citizens. With energy prices projected to rise, service delivery costs will increase, further straining municipal budgets and disproportionally affecting poorer households. The ability of municipalities to adequately budget for and finance reductions in energy use thus will be a critical need in the years ahead. Saving energy can also help cities renew their building and infrastructure stock while helping to create employment opportunities, all paid for through the reductions in their energy bills. The municipal budget is the main financial planning document at the local level. It contains a list of municipal revenues and expenditures for the coming year, the latter of which are divided into operating and capital expenditures. Typically...

‣ Energy Efficient Cities : Assessment Tools and Benchmarking Practices

Bose, Ranjan K.
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
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With cities accounting for half the world's population today, and two-thirds of global energy demand, urbanization is exacting a serious toll on the environment. As rapid urban growth continues, energy use in cities and associated levels of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are projected to continue unabated; current projections indicate that approximately 70 percent of the world's population will live in cities by 2050, producing some 80 percent of the world's GHG emissions. Unfortunately, most of this urban growth will take place in developing countries, where the vast majority of people remain underserved by basic infrastructure service and where city authorities are under-resourced to shift current trajectories. Further, the developing regions of Africa and Asia are where the most rapid urbanization is taking place, and they are least able to cope with the uncertainties and extremities of climate impacts. The development and mainstreaming of energy-efficient and low-carbon urban pathways that curtail climate impacts without hampering the urban development agenda thus are essential to meeting such challenges. Reducing long-term energy use through efficiency also enhances energy security by decreasing dependence on imported and fossil fuel. In addition...

‣ Energy Demand Characteristics and the Potential for Energy Efficiency in Sports Stadiums and Arenas

Dietrich, Andrew; Melville, Corinne
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Masters' project
Publicado em 09/12/2011 Português
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A professional sports stadium can use 5-10 MW of electricity during an event, the equivalent of 5,000 American homes. The US Energy Information Agency (EIA) classifies these buildings under the broader "entertainment and culture" sector, but very little institutional knowledge or data exists in terms of the unique energy use characteristics of these structures. While sports venues have attracted some investment in energy efficiency and renewable energy, facility managers are often unaware of their energy use breakdown or the potential savings from comprehensive efficiency measures. Further, market barriers exist that hinder the full implementation of energy efficiency. This masters project investigates the progress of U.S. stadiums and arenas in energy management and energy efficiency investment. In order to deeply understand and quantify the energy use characteristics and energy savings potential of sports venues, over 40 leading stadium energy efficiency experts were interviewed and data was collected and analyzed from primary and secondary sources. Interviews requested information on energy use per year (electricity and natural gas), energy use breakdown, energy efficiency investments, and realized returns. General information on the structure and inner-workings of energy management programs at stadiums and arenas was also requested in order to learn how leading facilities approach implementation. The results of four in-depth stadium case studies found that energy retrofits costing between $85...