Página 16 dos resultados de 10906 itens digitais encontrados em 0.009 segundos

‣ Database resources of the National Center for Biotechnology Information

Sayers, Eric W.; Barrett, Tanya; Benson, Dennis A.; Bolton, Evan; Bryant, Stephen H.; Canese, Kathi; Chetvernin, Vyacheslav; Church, Deanna M.; DiCuccio, Michael; Federhen, Scott; Feolo, Michael; Geer, Lewis Y.; Helmberg, Wolfgang; Kapustin, Yuri; Landsma
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.299458%
In addition to maintaining the GenBank® nucleic acid sequence database, the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) provides analysis and retrieval resources for the data in GenBank and other biological data made available through the NCBI web site. NCBI resources include Entrez, the Entrez Programming Utilities, MyNCBI, PubMed, PubMed Central, Entrez Gene, the NCBI Taxonomy Browser, BLAST, BLAST Link (BLink), Electronic PCR, OrfFinder, Spidey, Splign, Reference Sequence, UniGene, HomoloGene, ProtEST, dbMHC, dbSNP, Cancer Chromosomes, Entrez Genomes and related tools, the Map Viewer, Model Maker, Evidence Viewer, Trace Archive, Sequence Read Archive, Retroviral Genotyping Tools, HIV-1/Human Protein Interaction Database, Gene Expression Omnibus, Entrez Probe, GENSAT, Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man, Online Mendelian Inheritance in Animals, the Molecular Modeling Database, the Conserved Domain Database, the Conserved Domain Architecture Retrieval Tool, Biosystems, Peptidome, Protein Clusters and the PubChem suite of small molecule databases. Augmenting many of the web applications are custom implementations of the BLAST program optimized to search specialized data sets. All these resources can be accessed through the NCBI home page at www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov.

‣ Global nutrient profiling by Phenotype MicroArrays: a tool complementing genomic and proteomic studies in conidial fungi*

Atanasova, Lea; Druzhinina, Irina S.
Fonte: Zhejiang University Press Publicador: Zhejiang University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /03/2010 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.299458%
Conidial fungi or molds and mildews are widely used in modern biotechnology as producers of antibiotics and other secondary metabolites, industrially important enzymes, chemicals and food. They are also important pathogens of animals including humans and agricultural crops. These various applications and extremely versatile natural phenotypes have led to the constantly growing list of complete genomes which are now available. Functional genomics and proteomics widely exploit the genomic information to study the cell-wide impact of altered genes on the phenotype of an organism and its function. This allows for global analysis of the information flow from DNA to RNA to protein, but it is usually not sufficient for the description of the global phenotype of an organism. More recently, Phenotype MicroArray (PM) technology has been introduced as a tool to characterize the metabolism of a (wild) fungal strain or a mutant. In this article, we review the background of PM applications for fungi and the methodic requirements to obtain reliable results. We also report examples of the versatility of this tool.

‣ Albumin and mammalian cell culture: implications for biotechnology applications

Francis, Geoffrey L.
Fonte: Springer Netherlands Publicador: Springer Netherlands
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.299458%
Albumin has a long historical involvement in design of media for the successful culture of mammalian cells, in both the research and commercial fields. The potential application of albumins, bovine or human serum albumin, for cell culture is a by-product of the physico-chemical, biochemical and cell-specific properties of the molecule. In this review an analysis of these features of albumin leads to a consideration of the extracellular and intracellular actions of the molecule, and importantly the role of its interactions with numerous ligands or bioactive factors that influence the growth of cells in culture: these include hormones, growth factors, lipids, amino acids, metal ions, reactive oxygen and nitrogen species to name a few. The interaction of albumin with the cell in relation to these co-factors has a potential impact on metabolic and biosynthetic activity, cell proliferation and survival. Application of this knowledge to improve the performance in manufacturing biotechnology and in the emerging uses of cell culture for tissue engineering and stem cell derived therapies is an important prospect.

‣ Synthetic biology approaches in drug discovery and pharmaceutical biotechnology

Neumann, Heinz; Neumann-Staubitz, Petra
Fonte: Springer-Verlag Publicador: Springer-Verlag
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.299458%
Synthetic biology is the attempt to apply the concepts of engineering to biological systems with the aim to create organisms with new emergent properties. These organisms might have desirable novel biosynthetic capabilities, act as biosensors or help us to understand the intricacies of living systems. This approach has the potential to assist the discovery and production of pharmaceutical compounds at various stages. New sources of bioactive compounds can be created in the form of genetically encoded small molecule libraries. The recombination of individual parts has been employed to design proteins that act as biosensors, which could be used to identify and quantify molecules of interest. New biosynthetic pathways may be designed by stitching together enzymes with desired activities, and genetic code expansion can be used to introduce new functionalities into peptides and proteins to increase their chemical scope and biological stability. This review aims to give an insight into recently developed individual components and modules that might serve as parts in a synthetic biology approach to pharmaceutical biotechnology.

‣ Inteins, valuable genetic elements in molecular biology and biotechnology

Elleuche, Skander; Pöggeler, Stefanie
Fonte: Springer-Verlag Publicador: Springer-Verlag
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.299458%
Inteins are internal protein elements that self-excise from their host protein and catalyze ligation of the flanking sequences (exteins) with a peptide bond. They are found in organisms in all three domains of life, and in viral proteins. Intein excision is a posttranslational process that does not require auxiliary enzymes or cofactors. This self-excision process is called protein splicing, by analogy to the splicing of RNA introns from pre-mRNA. Protein splicing involves only four intramolecular reactions, and a small number of key catalytic residues in the intein and exteins. Protein-splicing can also occur in trans. In this case, the intein is separated into N- and C-terminal domains, which are synthesized as separate components, each joined to an extein. The intein domains reassemble and link the joined exteins into a single functional protein. Understanding the cis- and trans-protein splicing mechanisms led to the development of intein-mediated protein-engineering applications, such as protein purification, ligation, cyclization, and selenoprotein production. This review summarizes the catalytic activities and structures of inteins, and focuses on the advantages of some recent intein applications in molecular biology and biotechnology.

‣ Genetic Tool Development for a New Host for Biotechnology, the Thermotolerant Bacterium Bacillus coagulans▿ †

Kovács, Ákos T.; van Hartskamp, Mariska; Kuipers, Oscar P.; van Kranenburg, Richard
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology (ASM) Publicador: American Society for Microbiology (ASM)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.299458%
Bacillus coagulans has good potential as an industrial production organism for platform chemicals from renewable resources but has limited genetic tools available. Here, we present a targeted gene disruption system using the Cre-lox system, development of a LacZ reporter assay for monitoring gene transcription, and heterologous d-lactate dehydrogenase expression.

‣ Education resources of the National Center for Biotechnology Information

Cooper, Peter S.; Lipshultz, Dawn; Matten, Wayne T.; McGinnis, Scott D.; Pechous, Steven; Romiti, Monica L.; Tao, Tao; Valjavec-Gratian, Majda; Sayers, Eric W.
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.299458%
The National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) hosts 39 literature and molecular biology databases containing almost half a billion records. As the complexity of these data and associated resources and tools continues to expand, so does the need for educational resources to help investigators, clinicians, information specialists and the general public make use of the wealth of public data available at the NCBI. This review describes the educational resources available at NCBI via the NCBI Education page (www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Education/). These resources include materials designed for new users, such as About NCBI and the NCBI Guide, as well as documentation, Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) and writings on the NCBI Bookshelf such as the NCBI Help Manual and the NCBI Handbook. NCBI also provides teaching materials such as tutorials, problem sets and educational tools such as the Amino Acid Explorer, PSSM Viewer and Ebot. NCBI also offers training programs including the Discovery Workshops, webinars and tutorials at conferences. To help users keep up-to-date, NCBI produces the online NCBI News and offers RSS feeds and mailing lists, along with a presence on Facebook, Twitter and YouTube.

‣ Database resources of the National Center for Biotechnology Information

Sayers, Eric W.; Barrett, Tanya; Benson, Dennis A.; Bolton, Evan; Bryant, Stephen H.; Canese, Kathi; Chetvernin, Vyacheslav; Church, Deanna M.; DiCuccio, Michael; Federhen, Scott; Feolo, Michael; Fingerman, Ian M.; Geer, Lewis Y.; Helmberg, Wolfgang; Kapu
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.299458%
In addition to maintaining the GenBank® nucleic acid sequence database, the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) provides analysis and retrieval resources for the data in GenBank and other biological data made available through the NCBI Web site. NCBI resources include Entrez, the Entrez Programming Utilities, MyNCBI, PubMed, PubMed Central (PMC), Entrez Gene, the NCBI Taxonomy Browser, BLAST, BLAST Link (BLink), Primer-BLAST, COBALT, Electronic PCR, OrfFinder, Splign, ProSplign, RefSeq, UniGene, HomoloGene, ProtEST, dbMHC, dbSNP, dbVar, Epigenomics, Cancer Chromosomes, Entrez Genomes and related tools, the Map Viewer, Model Maker, Evidence Viewer, Trace Archive, Sequence Read Archive, Retroviral Genotyping Tools, HIV-1/Human Protein Interaction Database, Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO), Entrez Probe, GENSAT, Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM), Online Mendelian Inheritance in Animals (OMIA), the Molecular Modeling Database (MMDB), the Conserved Domain Database (CDD), the Conserved Domain Architecture Retrieval Tool (CDART), IBIS, Biosystems, Peptidome, OMSSA, Protein Clusters and the PubChem suite of small molecule databases. Augmenting many of the Web applications are custom implementations of the BLAST program optimized to search specialized data sets. All of these resources can be accessed through the NCBI home page at www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov.

‣ Proteomics of industrial fungi: trends and insights for biotechnology

de Oliveira, José Miguel P. Ferreira; de Graaff, Leo H.
Fonte: Springer-Verlag Publicador: Springer-Verlag
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.299458%
Filamentous fungi are widely known for their industrial applications, namely, the production of food-processing enzymes and metabolites such as antibiotics and organic acids. In the past decade, the full genome sequencing of filamentous fungi increased the potential to predict encoded proteins enormously, namely, hydrolytic enzymes or proteins involved in the biosynthesis of metabolites of interest. The integration of genome sequence information with possible phenotypes requires, however, the knowledge of all the proteins in the cell in a system-wise manner, given by proteomics. This review summarises the progress of proteomics and its importance for the study of biotechnological processes in filamentous fungi. A major step forward in proteomics was to couple protein separation with high-resolution mass spectrometry, allowing accurate protein quantification. Despite the fact that most fungal proteomic studies have been focused on proteins from mycelial extracts, many proteins are related to processes which are compartmentalised in the fungal cell, e.g. β-lactam antibiotic production in the microbody. For the study of such processes, a targeted approach is required, e.g. by organelle proteomics. Typical workflows for sample preparation in fungal organelle proteomics are discussed...

‣ The Penicillium Chrysogenum Extracellular Proteome. Conversion from a Food-rotting Strain to a Versatile Cell Factory for White Biotechnology*

Jami, Mohammad-Saeid; García-Estrada, Carlos; Barreiro, Carlos; Cuadrado, Abel-Alberto; Salehi-Najafabadi, Zahra; Martín, Juan-Francisco
Fonte: The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Publicador: The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.299458%
The filamentous fungus Penicillium chrysogenum is well-known by its ability to synthesize β-lactam antibiotics as well as other secondary metabolites. Like other filamentous fungi, this microorganism is an excellent host for secretion of extracellular proteins because of the high capacity of its protein secretion machinery. In this work, we have characterized the extracellular proteome reference map of P. chrysogenum Wisconsin 54–1255 by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. This method allowed the correct identification of 279 spots by peptide mass fingerprinting and tandem MS. These 279 spots included 328 correctly identified proteins, which corresponded to 131 different proteins and their isoforms. One hundred and two proteins out of 131 were predicted to contain either classical or nonclassical secretion signal peptide sequences, providing evidence of the authentic extracellular location of these proteins. Proteins with higher representation in the extracellular proteome were those involved in plant cell wall degradation (polygalacturonase, pectate lyase, and glucan 1,3-β-glucosidase), utilization of nutrients (extracellular acid phosphatases and 6-hydroxy-d-nicotine oxidase), and stress response (catalase R). This filamentous fungus also secretes enzymes specially relevant for food industry...

‣ Development of Biotechnology Products in Pre-filled Syringes: Technical Considerations and Approaches

Badkar, Advait; Wolf, Amanda; Bohack, Leigh; Kolhe, Parag
Fonte: Springer US Publicador: Springer US
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 04/05/2011 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.299458%
A monoclonal antibody (mAb) product development case study is presented to address some of the issues faced during developing a pre-filled syringe (PFS) product for a biotherapeutic. In particular, issues involving incompatibility with silicone oil and a stability-based approach for selection of PFS barrel and tip cap components have been discussed. Silicone spiking studies followed by exposure to agitation stress or accelerated temperature conditions were used to check for incompatibilities of the mAb with silicone oil, a necessary product contact material in PFS. In addition, screening studies to compare various closure materials as well as syringe barrel processing methods were used to select the optimum closure materials as well as the correct syringe processing method. Results indicate that the model mAb formulation used was sensitive to high levels of silicone oil especially under accelerated temperature conditions resulting in formation of protein–silicone particles in the solution for samples that were spiked with the silicone oil. Agitation stress did not have any significant impact on the quality attributes tested. Samples stored in syringe barrels that were processed with sprayed-on silicone had higher levels of subvisible particles as compared to those that were processed with the baked-on process. The tip cap comparability study resulted in one tip cap material having superior compatibility among the three that were tested. The quality attribute that was most impacted by the tip cap materials was mAb oxidation. An approach for evaluation of primary packaging components during the development of pre-filled syringe presentations for biotechnology-based compounds has been highlighted.

‣ Determining the Extremes of the Cellular NAD(H) Level by Using an Escherichia coli NAD+-Auxotrophic Mutant ▿

Zhou, Yongjin; Wang, Lei; Yang, Fan; Lin, Xinping; Zhang, Sufang; Zhao, Zongbao K.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /09/2011 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.299458%
NAD (NAD+) and its reduced form (NADH) are omnipresent cofactors in biological systems. However, it is difficult to determine the extremes of the cellular NAD(H) level in live cells because the NAD+ level is tightly controlled by a biosynthesis regulation mechanism. Here, we developed a strategy to determine the extreme NAD(H) levels in Escherichia coli cells that were genetically engineered to be NAD+ auxotrophic. First, we expressed the ntt4 gene encoding the NAD(H) transporter in the E. coli mutant YJE001, which had a deletion of the nadC gene responsible for NAD+ de novo biosynthesis, and we showed NTT4 conferred on the mutant strain better growth in the presence of exogenous NAD+. We then constructed the NAD+-auxotrophic mutant YJE003 by disrupting the essential gene nadE, which is responsible for the last step of NAD+ biosynthesis in cells harboring the ntt4 gene. The minimal NAD+ level was determined in M9 medium in proliferating YJE003 cells that were preloaded with NAD+, while the maximal NAD(H) level was determined by exposing the cells to high concentrations of exogenous NAD(H). Compared with supplementation of NADH, cells grew faster and had a higher intracellular NAD(H) level when NAD+ was fed. The intracellular NAD(H) level increased with the increase of exogenous NAD+ concentration...

‣ Advances and challenges in analytical characterization of biotechnology products: mass spectrometry-based approaches to study properties and behavior of protein therapeutics

Kaltashov, Igor A.; Bobst, Cedric E.; Abzalimov, Rinat R.; Wang, Guanbo; Baykal, Burcu; Wang, Shunhai
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.299458%
Biopharmaceuticals are a unique class of medicines due to their extreme structural complexity. The structure of these therapeutic proteins is critically important for their efficacy and safety, and the ability to characterize it at various levels (from sequence to conformation) is critical not only at the quality control stage, but also throughout the discovery and design stages. Biological mass spectrometry (MS) offers a variety of approaches to study structure and behavior of complex protein drugs and has already become a default tool for characterizing the covalent structure of protein therapeutics, including sequence and post-translational modifications. Recently, MS-based methods have also begun enjoying a dramatic growth in popularity as a means to provide information on higher order structure and dynamics of biotechnology products. In particular, hydrogen/deuterium exchange MS and charge state distribution analysis of protein ions in electrospray ionization (ESI)MS offer a convenient way to assess the integrity of protein conformation. Native ESI MS also allows the interactions of protein drugs with their therapeutic targets and other physiological partners to be monitored using simple model systems. MS-based methods are also applied to study pharmacokinetics of biopharmaceutical products...

‣ Correlation of Genomic and Physiological Traits of Thermoanaerobacter Species with Biofuel Yields▿†

Hemme, Christopher L.; Fields, Matthew W.; He, Qiang; Deng, Ye; Lin, Lu; Tu, Qichao; Mouttaki, Housna; Zhou, Aifen; Feng, Xueyang; Zuo, Zheng; Ramsay, Bradley D.; He, Zhili; Wu, Liyou; Van Nostrand, Joy; Xu, Jian; Tang, Yinjie J.; Wiegel, Juergen; Phelps,
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /11/2011 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.299458%
Thermophilic anaerobic noncellulolytic Thermoanaerobacter species are of great biotechnological importance in cellulosic ethanol production due to their ability to produce high ethanol yields by simultaneous fermentation of hexose and pentose. Understanding the genome structure of these species is critical to improving and implementing these bacteria for possible biotechnological use in consolidated bioprocessing schemes (CBP) for cellulosic ethanol production. Here we describe a comparative genome analysis of two ethanologenic bacteria, Thermoanaerobacter sp. X514 and Thermoanaerobacter pseudethanolicus 39E. Compared to 39E, X514 has several unique key characteristics important to cellulosic biotechnology, including additional alcohol dehydrogenases and xylose transporters, modifications to pentose metabolism, and a complete vitamin B12 biosynthesis pathway. Experimental results from growth, metabolic flux, and microarray gene expression analyses support genome sequencing-based predictions which help to explain the distinct differences in ethanol production between these strains. The availability of whole-genome sequence and comparative genomic analyses will aid in engineering and optimizing Thermoanaerobacter strains for viable CBP strategies.

‣ Database resources of the National Center for Biotechnology Information

Sayers, Eric W.; Barrett, Tanya; Benson, Dennis A.; Bolton, Evan; Bryant, Stephen H.; Canese, Kathi; Chetvernin, Vyacheslav; Church, Deanna M.; DiCuccio, Michael; Federhen, Scott; Feolo, Michael; Fingerman, Ian M.; Geer, Lewis Y.; Helmberg, Wolfgang; Kapu
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.299458%
In addition to maintaining the GenBank® nucleic acid sequence database, the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) provides analysis and retrieval resources for the data in GenBank and other biological data made available through the NCBI Website. NCBI resources include Entrez, the Entrez Programming Utilities, MyNCBI, PubMed, PubMed Central (PMC), Gene, the NCBI Taxonomy Browser, BLAST, BLAST Link (BLink), Primer-BLAST, COBALT, Splign, RefSeq, UniGene, HomoloGene, ProtEST, dbMHC, dbSNP, dbVar, Epigenomics, Genome and related tools, the Map Viewer, Model Maker, Evidence Viewer, Trace Archive, Sequence Read Archive, BioProject, BioSample, Retroviral Genotyping Tools, HIV-1/Human Protein Interaction Database, Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO), Probe, Online Mendelian Inheritance in Animals (OMIA), the Molecular Modeling Database (MMDB), the Conserved Domain Database (CDD), the Conserved Domain Architecture Retrieval Tool (CDART), Biosystems, Protein Clusters and the PubChem suite of small molecule databases. Augmenting many of the Web applications are custom implementations of the BLAST program optimized to search specialized data sets. All of these resources can be accessed through the NCBI home page at www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov.

‣ Insight from the draft genome of Dietzia cinnamea P4 reveals mechanisms of survival in complex tropical soil habitats and biotechnology potential

Procópio, Luciano; Alvarez, Vanessa M.; Jurelevicius, Diogo A.; Hansen, Lars; Sørensen, Søren J.; Cardoso, Janine S.; Pádula, Marcelo; Leitão, Álvaro C.; Seldin, Lucy; van Elsas, Jan Dirk
Fonte: Springer Netherlands Publicador: Springer Netherlands
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.299458%
The draft genome of Dietzia cinnamea strain P4 was determined using pyrosequencing. In total, 428 supercontigs were obtained and analyzed. We here describe and interpret the main features of the draft genome. The genome contained a total of 3,555,295 bp, arranged in a single replicon with an average G+C percentage of 70.9%. It revealed the presence of complete pathways for basically all central metabolic routes. Also present were complete sets of genes for the glyoxalate and reductive carboxylate cycles. Autotrophic growth was suggested to occur by the presence of genes for aerobic CO oxidation, formate/formaldehyde oxidation, the reverse tricarboxylic acid cycle and the 3-hydropropionate cycle for CO2 fixation. Secondary metabolism was evidenced by the presence of genes for the biosynthesis of terpene compounds, frenolicin, nanaomycin and avilamycin A antibiotics. Furthermore, a probable role in azinomycin B synthesis, an important product with antitumor activity, was indicated. The complete alk operon for the degradation of n-alkanes was found to be present, as were clusters of genes for biphenyl ring dihydroxylation. This study brings new insights in the genetics and physiology of D. cinnamea P4, which is useful in biotechnology and bioremediation.

‣ Mass Casualties and Health Care Following the Release of Toxic Chemicals or Radioactive Material—Contribution of Modern Biotechnology

Göransson Nyberg, Ann; Stricklin, Daniela; Sellström, Åke
Fonte: MDPI Publicador: MDPI
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.299458%
Catastrophic chemical or radiological events can cause thousands of casualties. Such disasters require triage procedures to identify the development of health consequences requiring medical intervention. Our objective is to analyze recent advancements in biotechnology for triage in mass emergency situations. In addition to identifying persons “at risk” of developing health problems, these technologies can aid in securing the unaffected or “worried well”. We also highlight the need for public/private partnerships to engage in some of the underpinning sciences, such as patho-physiological mechanisms of chemical and radiological hazards, and for the necessary investment in the development of rapid assessment tools through identification of biochemical, molecular, and genetic biomarkers to predict health effects. For chemical agents, biomarkers of neurotoxicity, lung damage, and clinical and epidemiological databases are needed to assess acute and chronic effects of exposures. For radiological exposures, development of rapid, sensitive biomarkers using advanced biotechnologies are needed to sort exposed persons at risk of life-threatening effects from persons with long-term risk or no risk. The final implementation of rapid and portable diagnostics tools suitable for emergency care providers to guide triage and medical countermeasures use will need public support...

‣ Disulfide Bond Formation and Activation of Escherichia coli β-Galactosidase under Oxidizing Conditions

Seras-Franzoso, Joaquin; Affentranger, Roman; Ferrer-Navarro, Mario; Daura, Xavier; Villaverde, Antonio; García-Fruitós, Elena
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /04/2012 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.299458%
Escherichia coli β-galactosidase is probably the most widely used reporter enzyme in molecular biology, cell biology, and biotechnology because of the easy detection of its activity. Its large size and tetrameric structure make this bacterial protein an interesting model for crystallographic studies and atomic mapping. In the present study, we investigate a version of Escherichia coli β-galactosidase produced under oxidizing conditions, in the cytoplasm of an Origami strain. Our data prove the activation of this microbial enzyme under oxidizing conditions and clearly show the occurrence of a disulfide bond in the β-galactosidase structure. Additionally, the formation of this disulfide bond is supported by the analysis of a homology model of the protein that indicates that two cysteines located in the vicinity of the catalytic center are sufficiently close for disulfide bond formation.

‣ Function and biotechnology of extremophilic enzymes in low water activity

Karan, Ram; Capes, Melinda D; DasSarma, Shiladitya
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 02/02/2012 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.299458%
Enzymes from extremophilic microorganisms usually catalyze chemical reactions in non-standard conditions. Such conditions promote aggregation, precipitation, and denaturation, reducing the activity of most non-extremophilic enzymes, frequently due to the absence of sufficient hydration. Some extremophilic enzymes maintain a tight hydration shell and remain active in solution even when liquid water is limiting, e.g. in the presence of high ionic concentrations, or at cold temperature when water is close to the freezing point. Extremophilic enzymes are able to compete for hydration via alterations especially to their surface through greater surface charges and increased molecular motion. These properties have enabled some extremophilic enzymes to function in the presence of non-aqueous organic solvents, with potential for design of useful catalysts. In this review, we summarize the current state of knowledge of extremophilic enzymes functioning in high salinity and cold temperatures, focusing on their strategy for function at low water activity. We discuss how the understanding of extremophilic enzyme function is leading to the design of a new generation of enzyme catalysts and their applications to biotechnology.

‣ Yeast Toxicogenomics: Genome-Wide Responses to Chemical Stresses with Impact in Environmental Health, Pharmacology, and Biotechnology

dos Santos, Sandra C.; Teixeira, Miguel Cacho; Cabrito, Tânia R.; Sá-Correia, Isabel
Fonte: Frontiers Research Foundation Publicador: Frontiers Research Foundation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 19/04/2012 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.299458%
The emerging transdisciplinary field of Toxicogenomics aims to study the cell response to a given toxicant at the genome, transcriptome, proteome, and metabolome levels. This approach is expected to provide earlier and more sensitive biomarkers of toxicological responses and help in the delineation of regulatory risk assessment. The use of model organisms to gather such genomic information, through the exploitation of Omics and Bioinformatics approaches and tools, together with more focused molecular and cellular biology studies are rapidly increasing our understanding and providing an integrative view on how cells interact with their environment. The use of the model eukaryote Saccharomyces cerevisiae in the field of Toxicogenomics is discussed in this review. Despite the limitations intrinsic to the use of such a simple single cell experimental model, S. cerevisiae appears to be very useful as a first screening tool, limiting the use of animal models. Moreover, it is also one of the most interesting systems to obtain a truly global understanding of the toxicological response and resistance mechanisms, being in the frontline of systems biology research and developments. The impact of the knowledge gathered in the yeast model, through the use of Toxicogenomics approaches...