Página 16 dos resultados de 476117 itens digitais encontrados em 0.101 segundos

‣ Modelagem da carteira dos recursos energéticos no PIR: validação do modelo no PIR de Araçatuba.; Energy resources portfolio model in the IERP: a case of study in the administrative region of Araçatuba.

Biague, Mário Fernandes
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 10/05/2010 Português
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O objetivo desta tese é construir um modelo de composição de carteiras de recursos energéticos dentro do Planejamento Integrado de Recursos Energéticos (PIR), aplicável em uma determinada região ou país. Este modelo inclui as etapas de definição do espaço geográfico de estudo, o mapeamento de recursos, a caracterização dos recursos energéticos existentes e sua valoração. Após estas etapas, é feita a composição de carteiras energéticas, seguida pela construção de cenários e análise de riscos e incertezas para a definição da carteira preferencial dos recursos energéticos da região. Como ferramentas de apoio, são adaptados modelos matemáticos aplicados em sistemas financeiros para a seleção e análise de carteiras de investimentos, modelos para a avaliação de riscos e incertezas, o software de Planejamento de Alternativas Energéticas de Longo Alcance (LEAP) para a criação de cenários e previsão da demanda energética e o software Decision Lens (DL) para o ranqueamento e a alocação de recursos financeiros dos recursos energéticos dentro da carteira definida, considerando as dimensões técnico-econômico, ambiental, social e política. A caracterização dos recursos energéticos envolve o levantamento das características socioeconômicas...

‣ Incorporação de energia na vida útil de uma colhedora autopropelida de cana-de-açúcar; Energy embodiment in life cycle of a self-propelled sugarcane harvester

Mantoam, Edemilson José
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 23/11/2011 Português
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A questão energética é um dos principais desafios do século XXI. Por outro lado, os aspectos geopolíticos e ambientais, são fontes de preocupação para o modelo econômico atual. O Brasil é um país que apresenta vantagens em relação ao mundo em termos de utilização de fontes renováveis de energia. Desde 2007 os produtos da cana-de-açúcar assumiram o primeiro lugar na oferta de energia renovável. A análise de energia é necessária para o gerenciamento de recursos naturais limitados, para abastecer, com as mais diversas alternativas de biomassa, uma população mundial em constante crescimento. Essa análise identifica as práticas de produção e quantifica sua eficiência sob o ponto de vista energético, determinando a energia incorporada nas etapas do processo de produção. Estudos de energia incorporada em máquinas agrícolas são escassos. A participação do setor sucroalcooleiro na matriz energética do Brasil, fornecendo energia renovável a partir da biomassa tem aumentado. Devido à energia consumida no processo, ser produzida a partir dos seus próprios resíduos, avaliar as formas pelas quais a energia é demandada é vital para se determinar a viabilidade energética dessa fonte. Esse estudo visa determinar a energia incorporada em colhedora autopropelida de cana-de-açúcar. Foram avaliadas duas colhedoras...

‣ Lights Out? The Outlook for Energy in Eastern Europe and Central Asia

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
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It is very likely that an energy crunch could hit several countries in Eastern Europe and Central Asia (ECA) in the next five or six years. Before the financial crisis of 2008, several electricity importing countries in the region had begun to experience difficulties with supply; however, the crisis has reduced demand and created some breathing room. It has also created a window of opportunity to take action to mitigate the impact of the anticipated energy crunch. But countries need to act now. Mitigating actions are required on both the supply side and the demand side and will require significant investments (about $3.3 trillion in 2008 dollars over the next 20 years, or about 3% of cumulative gross domestic product) if the region wants to meet all its anticipated energy needs. This level of investment cannot be provided by the public sector alone and measures will be required to create a climate that appeals to private sector investors. In conclusion, the region faces a potential energy crunch. The financial crisis has provided some breathing room to address the potential energy constraints...

‣ Issues in Estimating the Employment Generated by Energy Sector Activities

Bacon, Robert; Kojima, Masami
Fonte: World Bank, Washingotn, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washingotn, DC
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Many recent studies and reports on the performance of the energy sector have focused on the employment generated by investment. Governments, planning their energy futures, are also interested in the job creation benefits and possible identification of skill shortages that may emerge from a large energy program. Employment created or supported by the energy sector is frequently an issue whenever government support is being considered or provided. The purpose of this issues paper is to provide a guide to using such figures or constructing such estimates, and focuses in particular on illustrating different approaches and methodologies used in the last decade in estimating employment created. The study does not aim to provide definitive estimates of the employment generation potential of different technologies. The paper begins with a brief review of the various reasons why studies have focused on the employment generated by energy sector activities. It then reviews the different categories of employment that are commonly measured and discusses the bottom-up and top-down methodologies widely used for estimating these employment levels. The second half of the paper reviews in some detail certain studies that provide useful insights into methodology...

‣ Understanding CO2 Emissions from the Global Energy Sector

Foster, Vivien; Bedrosyan, Daron
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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The energy sector contributes about 40 percent of global emissions of CO2. Threequarters of those emissions come from six major economies. Although coal-fired plants account for just 40 percent of world energy production, they were responsible for more than 70 percent of energy-sector emissions in 2010. Despite improvements in some countries, the global CO2 emission factor for energy generation has hardly changed over the last 20 years.

‣ Expenditure of Low-Income Households on Energy : Evidence from Africa and Asia

Bacon, Robert; Bhattacharya, Soma; Kojima, Masami
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
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Patterns of household energy use and expenditure have been the subject of a large number of studies. Household expenditures on energy-particularly, how much the poor spend-have policy implications for several reasons. First, policies to mitigate or cope with energy price shocks are increasingly focusing on targeted support to low-income households as a way of limiting the fiscal cost of such policies while offering protection to the most vulnerable members of society. Second, for governments looking to reform energy price subsidies, the effects on household welfare- especially effects on poor households-of price increases resulting from subsidy reduction/removal is an important policy consideration. But subsidies for liquid fuels targeting the poor are difficult to design and implement effectively, because liquid fuels tend to be used more by the rich than by the poor, and are also easy to transport (and hence to divert to non-poor users). For this reason, there is a growing recognition of the need to move away from price subsidies for liquid fuels to alternative forms of targeted assistance to compensate the poor for the adverse effects of higher fuel prices. Third...

‣ Turkey Energy and Environment Review : Synthesis Report

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
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Gaps in knowledge about the interface between energy and the environment, were identified sometime in the late 1990s, and a number of studies were then conceived to address this knowledge gap, and advance the level of understanding, by collecting additional information, through specialized analyses. This Synthesis Report summarizes the results of ten studies, collectively referred to as the "Energy and Environment Review", covering energy demand forecasting; environmental issues associated with the coal/lignite, mining and power generation sub-sector; potential of co-generation in Turkey; assessment of transmission and distribution loss reduction; improved management of emissions from non-power sectors; improvement of petroleum fuels quality; and, technical support to implement various energy system analyses. This report comprises a discussion of the issues relating to the energy and environment; a description of the key findings and recommendations; and a summary an conclusions.

‣ Energy Pricing Strategy in Egypt

KANTOR Management Consultants; EQI
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
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The present report is the final deliverable of the consulting study, an energy pricing strategy for Egypt, undertaken for the Government of Egypt with World Bank financing. The purpose of the report is threefold: to provide an overview and summarize key aspects of the project, and integrate the main findings that have been presented in a series of separate reports developed during the project; to provide specific recommendations for energy prices and levels, the transition path to full cost-reflective prices and the mitigation support to accompany the pricing reform; and to provide an overview of the organizational arrangements and key actions for implementing the energy pricing strategy. The present report comprises of the following sections: section one gives introduction, section two provides an overview of key elements of the study, including its objectives and tasks, the rationale for reforming energy prices, and the methodology for determining cost-reflective prices and assessing the impact of implementing them. Section three contains the recommended energy prices over the suggested transition period...

‣ Romania - Functional Review : Ministry of Economy, Energy Sector and Business Environment

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Energy-Environment Review; Economic & Sector Work
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The objective of the functional review of the Ministry of Economy, Commerce and Business Environment (MEC) is to analyze its current structure and operations, to provide recommendations so that the Ministry and the Government can improve the delivery of its key functions and respond effectively to the emerging challenges. The focus of the Review was on the Ministry's energy and business environment functions. The coverage of the energy sector review goes beyond the Ministry, into electricity and gas market issues, governance of energy SOEs under MEC, the institutional capacity of the energy regulator ANRE, and the coordination with energy-related functions in other ministries. The coverage of the business environment review similarly goes beyond the Ministry and assesses institutional capacities across the Government - as responsibilities are scattered across the Romanian administration, it was necessary to expand the analysis in order to provide sound policy recommendations to improve the business environment as a key strategy for government action. The draft final report is organized into two main parts...

‣ ICT Solutions for Energy Efficiency

Youngman, Richard
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Energy Study; Economic & Sector Work
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The report is focused on showing a wide range and variety of ways in which Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) solutions could play a transformative role, and so the bulk of the report provides case studies of actual examples of ICT solutions already developed and in action to enable energy efficiency in three particular areas, namely, smart logistics, smart grid/smart metering, and smart buildings. Ultimately, in line with the WBG's charter, this study is concerned with the question of how ICT can play a transformative role in developing countries'climate-smart future. However, as the World Development Report 2010 recognized, this is bound to start in higher-income countries, which have the incentives (being high-energy and high-cost users), the technical know-how and the resources to innovate and implement pioneering solutions to cut their costs and their carbon emissions. Some such solutions will have applicability to the developing world; a minority right away, more year by year as technology is proven and efficiencies of scale kick in. The report concludes with some thoughts...

‣ Design and Performance of Policy Instruments to Promote the Development of Renewable Energy : Emerging Experience in Selected Developing Countries

Elizondo Azuela, Gabriela; Barroso, Luiz Augusto
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
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This report summarizes the results of a recent review of the emerging experience with the design and implementation of policy instruments to promote the development of renewable energy (RE) in a sample of six representative developing countries and transition economies ('developing countries') (World Bank 2010). The review focused mainly on price- and quantity-setting policies, but it also covered fiscal and financial incentives, as well as relevant market facilitation measures. The lessons learned were taken from the rapidly growing literature and reports that analyze and discuss RE policy instruments in the context of different types of power market structures. The analysis considered all types of grid-connected RE options except large hydropower: wind (on-shore and off-shore), solar (photovoltaic and concentrated solar power), small hydropower (SHP) (with capacities below 30 megawatts), biomass, bioelectricity (cogeneration), landfill gas, and geothermal. The six countries selected for the review included Brazil...

‣ Promoting Renewable Energy through Auctions : The Case of Brazil

Elizondo Azuela, Gabriela; Barroso, Luiz; Cunha, Gabriel
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Journal Article; Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
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This knowledge note singles out auctions as an important mechanism that has been implemented in a growing number of countries in recent decades. It features a case study of auctions designed to promote the generation of electricity from renewable sources in Brazil. The Brazilian experience with wind energy auctions illustrates that even carefully designed policies often must be reconsidered in the light of a complex and changing environment. Many considerations need to be taken into account to ensure competitive prices while also delivering the required renewable energy supply. This case study is interesting, because Brazil's initial success with developing wind capacity had unforeseen consequences. Challenges introduced in the first stage of wind power development had to be solved in the second. The chief challenges were (i) the Brazilian system had to be able to balance supply and demand more accurately; (ii) investors were overoptimistic about the amount of electricity able to be generated; and (iii) the government's arrangements for coordinating the planning of generation and transmission left too little room for error. The benefits offered to the auctioned plants were reduced...

‣ Technological Learning, Energy Efficiency, and CO2 Emissions in China's Energy Intensive Industries

Rock, Michael T.; Toman, Michael; Cui, Yuanshang; Jiang, Kejun; Song, Yun; Wang, Yanjia
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
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Since the onset of economic reforms in 1978, China has been remarkably successful in reducing the carbon dioxide intensities of gross domestic product and industrial production. Most analysts correctly attribute the rapid decline in the carbon dioxide intensity of industrial production to rising energy prices, increased openness to trade and investment, increased competition, and technological change. China's industrial and technology policies also have contributed to lower carbon dioxide intensities, by transforming industrial structure and improving enterprise level technological capabilities. Case studies of four energy intensive industries -- aluminum, cement, iron and steel, and paper -- show how the changes have put these industries on substantially lower carbon dioxide emissions trajectories. Although the changes have not led to absolute declines in carbon dioxide emissions, they have substantially weakened the link between industry growth and carbon dioxide emissions.

‣ Ghana : Women's Energy Enterprise - Developing a Model for Mainstreaming Gender into Modern Energy Service Delivery

Kumasi Institute of Technology and Environment
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: ESMAP Paper; Publications & Research
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This paper looks at the feasibility of creating employment in the energy sector for women in rural communities in Ghana. The report is based on a stakeholders' analysis of the feasibility of embarking on a micro-enterprise on multiple energy services for women in rural fishing and farming communities. The objective of the study is to test a business model for empowering women through income generation in energy service delivery. It is based on the background experience of a successful pilot project, in Bangladesh. The model involves capacity-building among rural women and micro-enterprise development for modern energy service delivery to their communities and surrounding ones. The focus of this study is to see if transfer of skills for manufacturing and production of energy service appliances can be accomplished without a high level of education among rural women. Such skills are considered as opportunities for initiating social transformation. The stakeholders' analysis in five selected communities was carried out to assess the willingness and preparedness of women in these communities to engage in other similar projects in Ghana. The findings of the analysis have recommended that the Nyanyano region be selected as the pilot electrified community. The findings are presented in the report and are followed up with some recommendations on how to proceed and what the next steps should be.

‣ Toolkit on the Appraisal of Small Renewable Energy Projects : Tanzania Case Study

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Energy Study; Publications & Research
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Following this introductory chapter, chapter two continues with a general description of the regulatory, institutional, and policy environment for Renewable Energy (RE) in Tanzania. The chapter describes the main existing institutional arrangements in place and shows that the country's legal framework is conducive to private sector RE initiatives. Chapter three discusses the fundamentals of project finance, the basic components of financial analysis, and common due diligence factors concerning RE investments. This discussion provides a framework for a better understanding of RE financing, which from a banker's point of view requires a different approach than the more traditional balance sheet-focused financing. Chapters 4 through 8 go over each of the most common RE technologies: chapter four: Hydropower; chapter five: biomass; chapter six: biogas; chapter seven: solar PV; and chapter eight: wind. Each of the chapters discusses both the basic technical and financial aspects of the technologies. Each chapter will provide the reader with a basic understanding of the technology in question and the associated financial challenges. In the chapters on hydropower (chapter four) and biomass (chapter five)...

‣ Energy Policies and the Mexican Economy

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: ESMAP Paper; Publications & Research
Português
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The report looks at energy policies in Mexico (both a major energy producer, and consumer) within its economic context, how the energy sector is managed, and how it performs, and at the implications for economic growth and public finances, and by extension, for broader social policies which depend heavily on federal funding. The energy sector finds itself in a vicious circle - reduced budget and borrowing capacity are leading to insufficient sector investment - resulting in declines in future production, hence government revenue. Breaking this vicious circle is a major challenge, given that attracting finance for energy sector investment on a major scale, without government support, lies at the heart of the problem. The report reviews the choices to increase efficiency, and electricity subsidies, as well as those for efficiently expanding oil and gas output. Three key areas for reform are discussed: a) achieving permanent gains in operational efficiency of the power and hydrocarbons sectors, to lower costs and improve service quality; b) restructuring electricity subsidies...

‣ Establishing and Operationalizing an Energy Efficiency Revolving Fund : Scaling Up Energy Efficiency in Buildings in the Western Balkans

Limaye, Dilip; Singh, Jas; Hofer, Kathrin
Fonte: World Bank Group, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
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An energy efficiency revolving fund (EERF) is a viable option for scaling up energy efficiency (EE) financing in the public sector in the Western Balkans. Under a typical EERF targeting the public sector, loans are provided to public agencies to cover the initial investment costs of EE projects; some of the resulting savings are then used to repay the EERF until the original investment is recovered, plus interest and service charges. The repayments can then be used to finance additional projects, thereby allowing the capital to revolve creating a sustainable financing mechanism. This guidance note is intended for government decision makers interested in establishing such EE revolving funds. It defines the typical structure of such funds, conditions under which they can be useful and effective, ways they can address some of the financing barriers, and implementation options. The note also provides examples, case studies, and lessons learned, and a 'road map' for establishing such funds.

‣ Impacto das opções de conceção em edifícios zero energy o caso dos grandes edifícios de serviços

Lima, Pedro Manuel dos Santos
Fonte: Instituto Politécnico do Porto Publicador: Instituto Politécnico do Porto
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Publicado em //2013 Português
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Atualmente, o parque edificado é responsável pelo consumo de 40% da energia total consumida em toda a União Europeia. As previsões apontam para o crescimento do sector da construção civil, nomeadamente a construção de edifícios, o que permite perspetivar um aumento do consumo de energia nesta área. Medidas importantes, como o lançamento da Diretiva 2010/31/EU do Parlamento Europeu e do Conselho de 19 de Maio de 2010 relativa ao desempenho energético dos edifícios, abrem caminho para a diminuição das necessidades energéticas e emissões de gases de efeito de estufa. Nela são apontados objetivos para aumentar a eficiência energética do parque edificado, tendo como objetivo que a partir de 2020 todos os novos edifícios sejam energeticamente eficientes e de balanço energético quase zero, com principal destaque para a compensação usando produção energética própria proveniente de fontes renováveis. Este novo requisito, denominado nearly zero energy building, apresenta-se como um novo incentivo no caminho para a sustentabilidade energética. As técnicas e tecnologias usadas na conceção dos edifícios terão um impacto positivo na análise de ciclo de vida, nomeadamente na minimização do impacto ambiental e na racionalização do consumo energético. Desta forma...

‣ Spectrum-based energy leak localization; Localização de falhas de energia baseada no espectro do programa

Carção, Tiago Alves
Fonte: Universidade do Minho Publicador: Universidade do Minho
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Publicado em 19/12/2014 Português
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Dissertação de Mestrado em Engenharia Informática; For the past few years, we have begun to witness an exponential growth in the inform ation and communication technologies (ICT) sector. While undoubtedly a milestone, all of this occurs at the expense of high energy costs needed to supply servers, data centers, and any use of computers. Associated with these high energy costs is the emission of greenhouse gases. These two issues have become major problems in society. The ICT sector contributes to 7% of the overall energy consumption, with 50% of the energy costs of an organization being attributed to the information technology (IT) departments. Most of the measures taken to address the high level of energy consumption have been on the hardware side. Although is the hardware that does consume energy, it is the software that operates that hardware. As a consequence, the software is the main responsible for the energy consumed by the hardware, very much like a driver that drives/operates a car influences drastically the fuel consumed by the car. This dissertation proposes and implements a methodology to analyze the software energy consumption. This methodology relates energy consumption to the source code of a soft ware application...

‣ Applying energy efficiency standards in Kosovo's residential buildings : {Presentation given November 2010]

Berisha, Lirie
Fonte: Rochester Instituto de Tecnologia Publicador: Rochester Instituto de Tecnologia
Tipo: Capstone Project
Português
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This Capstone Project addresses the important problem of low energy efficiency in residential buildings in Kosovo. The building sector is one of the biggest energy users and therefore a cause for being a CO₂ emitter. According to the Kosovo Statistical Office of the Ministry of Public Administration, the total number of households in Kosovo is 370,000, of which 10% or approximately 36,400 are apartments. This percentage of the housing stock consists of privatized apartments from the formerly public rental housing and new apartments’ buildings block, and the other 90 % is individual housing. Based on the information of PHE of Prishtina [18] the privatized housing stock is up to 50 years old and not refurbished, due to the lack of funds and longtime absence of complete legal framework. Also, after the war the new housing construction has increased, increasing home ownership and therefore electricity consumption. In Kosovo, concrete initiatives regarding energy efficiency are limited both from the public and private sector. Actually, the Government of Kosovo has approved several laws and regulations for energy, but there has been very little research and development activities undertaken to show energy efficiency importance and especially the direct impact of housing and construction regulation on the energy efficiency. The construction sector of Kosovo over the past ten years was not working based on a defined construction norms and regulations. This is besides the fact that Construction Law 2004/25...