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‣ Understanding CO2 Emissions from the Global Energy Sector

Foster, Vivien; Bedrosyan, Daron
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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The energy sector contributes about 40 percent of global emissions of CO2. Threequarters of those emissions come from six major economies. Although coal-fired plants account for just 40 percent of world energy production, they were responsible for more than 70 percent of energy-sector emissions in 2010. Despite improvements in some countries, the global CO2 emission factor for energy generation has hardly changed over the last 20 years.

‣ Expenditure of Low-Income Households on Energy : Evidence from Africa and Asia

Bacon, Robert; Bhattacharya, Soma; Kojima, Masami
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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Patterns of household energy use and expenditure have been the subject of a large number of studies. Household expenditures on energy-particularly, how much the poor spend-have policy implications for several reasons. First, policies to mitigate or cope with energy price shocks are increasingly focusing on targeted support to low-income households as a way of limiting the fiscal cost of such policies while offering protection to the most vulnerable members of society. Second, for governments looking to reform energy price subsidies, the effects on household welfare- especially effects on poor households-of price increases resulting from subsidy reduction/removal is an important policy consideration. But subsidies for liquid fuels targeting the poor are difficult to design and implement effectively, because liquid fuels tend to be used more by the rich than by the poor, and are also easy to transport (and hence to divert to non-poor users). For this reason, there is a growing recognition of the need to move away from price subsidies for liquid fuels to alternative forms of targeted assistance to compensate the poor for the adverse effects of higher fuel prices. Third...

‣ Energy Pricing Strategy in Egypt

KANTOR Management Consultants; EQI
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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The present report is the final deliverable of the consulting study, an energy pricing strategy for Egypt, undertaken for the Government of Egypt with World Bank financing. The purpose of the report is threefold: to provide an overview and summarize key aspects of the project, and integrate the main findings that have been presented in a series of separate reports developed during the project; to provide specific recommendations for energy prices and levels, the transition path to full cost-reflective prices and the mitigation support to accompany the pricing reform; and to provide an overview of the organizational arrangements and key actions for implementing the energy pricing strategy. The present report comprises of the following sections: section one gives introduction, section two provides an overview of key elements of the study, including its objectives and tasks, the rationale for reforming energy prices, and the methodology for determining cost-reflective prices and assessing the impact of implementing them. Section three contains the recommended energy prices over the suggested transition period...

‣ ICT Solutions for Energy Efficiency

Youngman, Richard
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Energy Study; Economic & Sector Work
Português
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The report is focused on showing a wide range and variety of ways in which Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) solutions could play a transformative role, and so the bulk of the report provides case studies of actual examples of ICT solutions already developed and in action to enable energy efficiency in three particular areas, namely, smart logistics, smart grid/smart metering, and smart buildings. Ultimately, in line with the WBG's charter, this study is concerned with the question of how ICT can play a transformative role in developing countries'climate-smart future. However, as the World Development Report 2010 recognized, this is bound to start in higher-income countries, which have the incentives (being high-energy and high-cost users), the technical know-how and the resources to innovate and implement pioneering solutions to cut their costs and their carbon emissions. Some such solutions will have applicability to the developing world; a minority right away, more year by year as technology is proven and efficiencies of scale kick in. The report concludes with some thoughts...

‣ Promoting Renewable Energy through Auctions : The Case of Brazil

Elizondo Azuela, Gabriela; Barroso, Luiz; Cunha, Gabriel
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Journal Article; Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
Português
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This knowledge note singles out auctions as an important mechanism that has been implemented in a growing number of countries in recent decades. It features a case study of auctions designed to promote the generation of electricity from renewable sources in Brazil. The Brazilian experience with wind energy auctions illustrates that even carefully designed policies often must be reconsidered in the light of a complex and changing environment. Many considerations need to be taken into account to ensure competitive prices while also delivering the required renewable energy supply. This case study is interesting, because Brazil's initial success with developing wind capacity had unforeseen consequences. Challenges introduced in the first stage of wind power development had to be solved in the second. The chief challenges were (i) the Brazilian system had to be able to balance supply and demand more accurately; (ii) investors were overoptimistic about the amount of electricity able to be generated; and (iii) the government's arrangements for coordinating the planning of generation and transmission left too little room for error. The benefits offered to the auctioned plants were reduced...

‣ Technological Learning, Energy Efficiency, and CO2 Emissions in China's Energy Intensive Industries

Rock, Michael T.; Toman, Michael; Cui, Yuanshang; Jiang, Kejun; Song, Yun; Wang, Yanjia
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
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Since the onset of economic reforms in 1978, China has been remarkably successful in reducing the carbon dioxide intensities of gross domestic product and industrial production. Most analysts correctly attribute the rapid decline in the carbon dioxide intensity of industrial production to rising energy prices, increased openness to trade and investment, increased competition, and technological change. China's industrial and technology policies also have contributed to lower carbon dioxide intensities, by transforming industrial structure and improving enterprise level technological capabilities. Case studies of four energy intensive industries -- aluminum, cement, iron and steel, and paper -- show how the changes have put these industries on substantially lower carbon dioxide emissions trajectories. Although the changes have not led to absolute declines in carbon dioxide emissions, they have substantially weakened the link between industry growth and carbon dioxide emissions.

‣ Ghana : Women's Energy Enterprise - Developing a Model for Mainstreaming Gender into Modern Energy Service Delivery

Kumasi Institute of Technology and Environment
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: ESMAP Paper; Publications & Research
Português
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This paper looks at the feasibility of creating employment in the energy sector for women in rural communities in Ghana. The report is based on a stakeholders' analysis of the feasibility of embarking on a micro-enterprise on multiple energy services for women in rural fishing and farming communities. The objective of the study is to test a business model for empowering women through income generation in energy service delivery. It is based on the background experience of a successful pilot project, in Bangladesh. The model involves capacity-building among rural women and micro-enterprise development for modern energy service delivery to their communities and surrounding ones. The focus of this study is to see if transfer of skills for manufacturing and production of energy service appliances can be accomplished without a high level of education among rural women. Such skills are considered as opportunities for initiating social transformation. The stakeholders' analysis in five selected communities was carried out to assess the willingness and preparedness of women in these communities to engage in other similar projects in Ghana. The findings of the analysis have recommended that the Nyanyano region be selected as the pilot electrified community. The findings are presented in the report and are followed up with some recommendations on how to proceed and what the next steps should be.