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‣ CC chemokine ligand 20 and its cognate receptor ccr6 in mucosal T cell immunology and inflammatory bowel disease: odd couple or axis of evil?

Lee, A.; Eri, R.; Lyons, A.; Grimm, M.; Korner, H.
Fonte: Frontiers Research Foundation Publicador: Frontiers Research Foundation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2013 Português
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Chemokines and their cognate receptors have been identified as major factors initiating and governing cell movement and interaction. These ligands and their receptors are expressed on a wide variety of cells and act during steady-state migration as well as inflammatory recruitment. CCR6 is a non-promiscuous chemokine receptor that has only one known chemokine ligand, CCL20, and is present on B and T cells as well as dendritic cells (DCs). Two CD4+ T cell populations with opposing functions present in the intestines and the mesenteric lymph nodes express CCR6: the pro-inflammatory TH17 and regulatory Treg cells. CCL20 is also present in the intestine and is strongly up-regulated after an inflammatory stimulus. Interestingly, this ligand is also expressed by TH17 cells, which opens up the possibility of autocrine/paracrine signaling and, consequently, a self-perpetuating cycle of recruitment, thereby promoting inflammation. Recently, CCR6 has been implicated in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) by genome wide association studies which showed an association between SNPs in the genomic region of the CCR6 gene and the inflammation. Furthermore, recent research targeting the biological function of CCR6 indicates a significant role for this chemokine receptor in the development of chronic IBD. It is therefore possible that IBD is facilitated by a disordered regulation of TH17 and Treg cells due to a disruption in the CCL20-CCR6 axis and consequently disturbed mucosal homeostasis. This review will summarize the literature on CCL20-CCR6 in mucosal immunology and will analyze the role this receptor-ligand axis has in chronic IBD.; Adrian Y. S. Lee...

‣ Immunology in emerging nations

Robertson, S.A.; Dent, L.A.
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //1996 Português
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Sarah A. Robertson and Lindsay A. Dent

‣ Eine neue Strategie zur Identifikation von minor H-Antigenen; A new strategy for minor H antigen identification

Schuler, Mathias
Fonte: Universidade de Tubinga Publicador: Universidade de Tubinga
Tipo: Dissertação
Português
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Die Bedeutung von mHags für die Medizin geht von der Vermeidung von unerwünschten Abstoßungsreaktionen im Empfänger von Stammzelltransplantationen, den sogenannten Graft-versus-Host-Erkrankungen, bis zum vorteilhaften Einsatz in Stammzelltransplantation-basierten Immuntherapien zur Behandlung von Leukämien und soliden Tumoren, den Graft-versus-Tumor-Effekten. Je höher die Zahl der bekannten mHags ist, desto wahrscheinlicher ist das Auslösen oder Vermeiden dieser Reaktionen. Es ist daher von großem Interesse, neue mHags zu finden, auch und gerade über neue Strategien wie die in dieser Arbeit gezeigte. In dieser Arbeit wurde eine neue Strategie zur Suche von minor H Antigenen im Rahmen der reversen Immunologie entwickelt. Zunächst wurde nach natürlich prozessierten, auf HLA präsentierten und molekular nachgewiesenen Liganden gesucht, von denen bekannt ist, dass es Varianten mit Aminosäurenaustauschen in der präsentierten Peptidsequenz gibt. Die Liste mit diesen Liganden wurde aufgereinigt, von Doppelungen und Peptiden aus HLA-Molekülen befreit und die übrig gebliebenen Liganden anhand ihrer Gewebespezifität oder ihrer Assoziation zu Erkrankungen wie Leukämien oder soliden Tumoren auf einen kleineren Kandidatenpool selektiert. Dieser Pool wurde durch Allelfrequenzen und das Nachweisen von beiden Allelen in eigener Arbeit auf zwei Kandidaten reduziert...

‣ T-Zell-Antwort bei Nierenkrebspatienten nach Peptid-basierter Immuntherapie; T-cell response in renal cell carcinoma patients after peptide-based immunotherapy

Dröge, Annemarie
Fonte: Universidade de Tubinga Publicador: Universidade de Tubinga
Tipo: Dissertação
Português
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In dieser Arbeit wurden die T-Zellen von Patienten untersucht, welche im Rahmen einer Immuntherapie-Studie zur adjuvanten Behandlung des fortgeschrittenen Nierenzellkarzinoms Peptidvakzinierungen erhalten hatten. Bei der Studie handelt es sich um eine Kooperation der Klinik für Urologie der Universität Tübingen mit dem Interfakultären Institut für Zellbiologie, Abteilung Immunologie Tübingen. Die Patienten wurden entsprechend ihres HLA-Typs in HLA-A*02-positiv und -negativ unterteilt und dann randomisiert zwei Studienarmen zugeordnet. Die eine Gruppe erhielt GM-CSF als Adjuvans zu den intradermal injizierten Peptiden, während die andere Gruppe die Peptide subkutan in einer Emulsion mit Montanide verabreicht bekam. In beiden Studienarmen waren bis zu 18 Vakzinierungen über ein Jahr vorgesehen, die unterbrochen wurden, wenn die Erkrankung progredient war. Zum Zeitpunkt der in der vorliegenden Arbeit gezeigten Untersuchungen waren die Vakzinierungen bei zehn Patienten beendet, von denen je fünf aus dem Montanide- und fünf aus dem GM-CSF-Studienarm stammten. An Tag 0 und bei jeder weiteren Vakzinierung waren den Patienten Blutproben entnommen worden, aus denen die Lymphozyten isoliert wurden. Diese eingefrorenen Zellen wurden nach dem Auftauen mit den Impfpeptiden der HLA-Klasse I und II präsensitiviert und ihre IFNg-Sekretion 12 Tage später nach einer erneuten Peptidstimulation in Elispot-Assays analysiert. Zusätzlich wurden die CD8+ T-Zellen in Tetramer-Färbungen und die CD4+ T-Zellen in intrazellulären Zytokinfärbungen untersucht. Die Vakzinierungen induzierten einzelne HLA-Klasse-I-Antworten...

‣ Ecologic Immunology of Avian Influenza (H5N1) in Migratory Birds

WEBER THOMAS; STILIANAKIS NIKOLAOS
Fonte: CENTER DISEASE CONTROL Publicador: CENTER DISEASE CONTROL
Tipo: Articles in Journals Formato: Printed
Português
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The claim that migratory birds are responsible for the long-distance spread of Asian lineage highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses of the subtype H5N1 rests on the assumption that infected wild birds can remain asymptomatic and carry out long migratory flights unhampered. We critically assess this claim from the perspective of ecological immunology, a research field which analyses immune function in an ecological, physiological and evolutionary context. Long-distance migration is one of the most demanding activities in the animal world. We show that a number of studies demonstrate that such prolonged, intense exercise leads to immunosuppression and that migratory performance is negatively affected by infections. These findings make it unlikely that wild birds can spread the virus along established long-distance migration pathways. It remains, however, possible that infected, symptomatic wild birds can act as vectors over shorter distances, as appears to have occurred in Europe in early 2006.; JRC.G.2-Support to external security

‣ Fourteen years of debate and workshops on the immunology of preeclampsia. Where are we now after the 2012 workshop?

Robillard, P.Y.; Dekker, G.; Chaouat, G.
Fonte: Elsevier Ireland Publicador: Elsevier Ireland
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2014 Português
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Abstract not available; Pierre-Yves Robillard, Gustaaf Dekker, Gérard Chaouat

‣ Immune responses to Nippostrongylus brasiliensis in Interleukin-5 transgenic mice / Christine M. Daly.

Daly, Christine M. (Christine Marie)
Fonte: Universidade de Adelaide Publicador: Universidade de Adelaide
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 730356 bytes; application/pdf
Publicado em //1999 Português
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Demonstrates that resistance to primary N. brasiliensis occurs within the first twenty-four hours of a primary infection in Interleukin-5 (IL-5) transgenic mice. Reduced parasite fecundity within the small intestines of this host appears to result from a culmination of early attrition at the inoculation site and lungs, in addition to adverse events in the local intestinal environment. Implies that eosinophils and not some other indirect consequence of over-expression of IL-5 are responsible for this resistance.; Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Adelaide, Dept. of Microbiology and Immunology, 1999; Copies of author's previously published articles in plastic pocket inside back end-paper.; Errata is pasted onto front end-papers.; Bibliography: leaves 181-208.; xi, 208, [161] leaves, [28] leaves of plates : ill. (chiefly col.) ; 30 cm.

‣ Impact of the physician's participatory style in asthma outcomes and patient satisfaction

Adams, R.; Smith, B.; Ruffin, R.
Fonte: Amer Coll Allergy Asthma Immunology Publicador: Amer Coll Allergy Asthma Immunology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2001 Português
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OBJECTIVES: To identify factors associated with asthma patients' perceptions of the propensity of pulmonologists to involve them in treatment decision-making, and its association with asthma outcomes. DESIGN: Cross-sectional observational study performed from June 1995 to December 1997. SETTING: Pulmonary unit of a university teaching hospital. PATIENTS: Adult patients with asthma (n = 128). MEASUREMENTS AND RESULTS: By patient self-report, mean physician's participatory decision-making (PDM) style score was 72 (maximum 100, 95% CI 65, 79). PDM scores were significantly correlated (P < .0001) with the duration of clinic visits (r = .63), patient satisfaction (r = .53), duration of tenure of doctor-patient relationship (r = .37), and formal education (r = .22, P = .023). Significantly higher PDM style scores were reported when visits lasted longer than 20 minutes and when a patient had a >6-month relationship with a particular doctor. PDM scores were also significantly correlated with possession of a written asthma action plan (r = .54, P < .0001), days affected by asthma (r = .36, P = .0001), asthma symptoms (r = .23, P = .017), and preferences for autonomy in asthma management decisions (r = .28, P = .0035). Those with PDM scores <50 reported significantly lower quality of life for all domains of a disease-specific instrument and the Short-Form 36 health survey version 1.0. In multiple regression analysis...

‣ Regulation of leukocyte adhesion to endothelium / by Jennifer Ruth Gamble.

Gamble, Jennifer R.
Fonte: Universidade de Adelaide Publicador: Universidade de Adelaide
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 57089 bytes; application/pdf
Publicado em //1994 Português
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Shows that the cytokine tumour necrosis factor [alpha] (TNF-[alpha]) enhances the adhesion of neutrophils to the endothelium by an action both on the neutrophil and on the endothelial cell.; Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Adelaide, Dept. of Microbiology and Immunology, 1995?; Copies of author's previously published articles inserted.; Includes bibliographical references.; vii, 39 leaves : ill. ; 30 cm.

‣ Characterization of isolated lymphoid aggregations in the mucosa of the small intestine / Mahin Moghaddami.

Moghaddami, Mahin
Fonte: Universidade de Adelaide Publicador: Universidade de Adelaide
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 354544 bytes; application/pdf
Publicado em //1999 Português
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Explores the hypothesis that structures similar to lymphocyte-filled villi in rats and mice are present in the small human intestine.; Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Adelaide, Dept. of Microbiology and Immunology, 1999; Errata & addenda tipped in behind back end paper.; Copies of author's previously published articles in pocket on back end-paper.; Bibliography: leaves 147-194.; xi, 194, [69] leaves, [68] leaves of plates : ill. (chiefly col.) ; 30 cm.; Title page, contents and abstract only. The complete thesis in print form is available from the University Library.

‣ Thymoquinone is a novel ligand which activates Neu4 sialidase to promote a pro-inflammatory response

Finlay, Trisha
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 7504132 bytes; application/pdf
Português
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Thymoquinone (TQ), a volatile oil component of black seed oil (derived from Nigella sativa), has been shown to have various biological effects including disease treatment and prevention. TQ is believed to share similar properties to the benzoquinones already in use as therapeutic drugs. Based on previous reports on the anti-inflammatory properties of black seed oil and TQ, it was originally hypothesized that TQ would inhibit lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced cellular sialidase activity in an anti-inflammatory manner. Sialidase activity was tested on live mouse bone marrow derived primary macrophage cells, BMC-2 macrophage cells, human embryonic kidney epithelial (HEK293) cells and human fibroblast cells using an assay that measures the cleavage of the sialidase specific fluorescent substrate 2’-(4-methylumbelliferyl)-α-DN-acetylneuraminic acid (4-MUNANA). The cleavage of 4-MUNANA causes the release of free 4-methylumbelliferone, which fluoresces at 450nm (blue) after excitation at 365nm. Unexpectedly, TQ induced sialidase activation in all three cell lines and wild type primary macrophage cells. TQ was unable to induce sialidase activity in primary macrophage cells isolated from Neu4 knockout mice suggesting that the TQ activates Neu4 sialidase enzyme. TQ-induced sialidase activity in these live cells was found to occur through intermediate GPCR-associated guanine nucleotide Gαi subunit and matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9) by using specific inhibitors. In addition...

‣ Chemical Chaperones Curcumin and 4-Phenylbutyric Acid Improve Secretion of Mutant Factor H R127H by Fibroblasts from a Factor H-Deficient Patient

Albuquerque, Jose Antonio T.; Lamers, Marcelo L.; Castiblanco-Valencia, Monica M.; Santos, Marinilce dos; Isaac, Lourdes
Fonte: AMER ASSOC IMMUNOLOGISTS; BETHESDA Publicador: AMER ASSOC IMMUNOLOGISTS; BETHESDA
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Factor H (FH) is one of the most important regulatory proteins of the alternative pathway of the complement system. Patients with FH deficiency have a higher risk for development of infections and kidney diseases because of the uncontrolled activation and subsequent depletion of the central regulatory component C3 of the complement system. In this study, we investigated the consequences of the Arg(127)His mutation in FH (FHR127H) previously described in an FH-deficient patient, on the secretion of this protein by skin fibroblasts in vitro. We observed that, although the patient cells stimulated with IFN-gamma were able to synthesize FHR127H, the mutant protein was largely retained within the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), whereas normal human fibroblasts stimulated with IFN-gamma secrete FH without retention in the ER. Moreover, the retention of FHR127H provoked enlargement of ER cisterns after treatment with IFN-gamma. A similar ER retention was observed in Cos-7 cells expressing the mutant FHR127H protein. Despite this deficiency in secretion, we show that the FHR127H mutant is capable of functioning as a cofactor in the Factor I-mediated cleavage of C3. We then evaluated whether a treatment could increase the secretion of FH, and observed that the patient's fibroblasts treated with the chemical chaperones 4-phenylbutiric acid or curcumin increased the secretion rate of FH. We propose that these chemical chaperones could be used as alternative therapeutic agents to increase FH plasma levels in FH-deficient patients caused by secretion delay of this regulatory protein. The Journal of Immunology...

‣ Dinamica populacional e imunologia : estudo do caso de estreptococos e estafilococos; Populational dynamic and immunology study of the case of streptococcus and staphylococcus

Yu Jun
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/04/2008 Português
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Bactérias que vencem a barreira física do organismo normal podem provocar reações inflamatórias localizadas. Essa reação é um dos componentes do sistema imunológico para conter invasão de micro-organismos ao corpo humano. Desenvolve-se um modelo matemático para descrever essa resposta do sistema imunológico, levando em consideração a patogenicidade das bactérias. Aplica-se os resultados para explicar a diferença de comportamento entre as bactérias estafilococos e estreptococos. O modelo mostra que a bactéria menos patogênica tem mais chances de superar a resposta do sistema imunológico inato; When bacteria overcome physical barrier (skin or mucus of digestive and intestinal tracts), they induce local inflammatory reaction due to the action of innate immune system. We develop a mathematical model to describe the bacterial infection taking into account the its pathogenicity. The results are applied to assess the invasion by two species of bacteria (staphylococcus and streptococcus) through the human skin and respiratory tract. Streptococcus and staphylococcus are bacterial pathogens that cause infections in the skin and soft tissue. They present distinct characteristics. The staphylococcus invade the tissues releasing lethal toxins. While the streptococcus don't cause intense local destruction. However...

‣ Cytokines and T-Lymphocute count in patients in the acute and chronic phases of Bartonella bacilliformis infection in an endemic area in peru: a pilot study

Huarcaya,Erick; Best,Ivan; Rodriguez-Tafur,Juan; Maguiña,Ciro; Solórzano,Nelson; Menacho,Julio; Lopez De Guimaraes,Douglas; Chauca,Jose; Ventosilla,Palmira
Fonte: Instituto de Medicina Tropical Publicador: Instituto de Medicina Tropical
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2011 Português
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Human Bartonellosis has an acute phase characterized by fever and hemolytic anemia, and a chronic phase with bacillary angiomatosis-like lesions. This cross-sectional pilot study evaluated the immunology patterns using pre- and post-treatment samples in patients with Human Bartonellosis. Patients between five and 60 years of age, from endemic areas in Peru, in the acute or chronic phases were included. In patients in the acute phase of Bartonellosis a state of immune peripheral tolerance should be established for persistence of the infection. Our findings were that elevation of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 and numeric abnormalities of CD4+ and CD8+ T-Lymphocyte counts correlated significantly with an unfavorable immune state. During the chronic phase, the elevated levels of IFN-γ and IL-4 observed in our series correlated with previous findings of endothelial invasion of B. henselae in animal models.

‣ Diametrical diseases reflect evolutionary-genetic tradeoffs: Evidence from psychiatry, neurology, rheumatology, oncology and immunology

Crespi, Bernard J.; Go, Matthew C.
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 09/09/2015 Português
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Tradeoffs centrally mediate the expression of human adaptations. We propose that tradeoffs also influence the prevalence and forms of human maladaptation manifest in disease. By this logic, increased risk for one set of diseases commonly engenders decreased risk for another, diametric, set of diseases. We describe evidence for such diametric sets of diseases from epidemiological, genetic and molecular studies in four clinical domains: (i) psychiatry (autism vs psychotic-affective conditions), (ii) rheumatology (osteoarthritis vs osteoporosis), (iii) oncology and neurology (cancer vs neurodegenerative disorders) and (iv) immunology (autoimmunity vs infectious disease). Diametric disorders are important to recognize because genotypes or environmental factors that increase risk for one set of disorders protect from opposite disorders, thereby providing novel and direct insights into disease causes, prevention and therapy. Ascertaining the mechanisms that underlie disease-related tradeoffs should also indicate means of circumventing or alleviating them, and thus reducing the incidence and impacts of human disease in a more general way.

‣ Differential Modulation of Surface and Intracellular Protein Expression by T Cells after Stimulation in the Presence of Monensin or Brefeldin A

O'Neil-Andersen, Nancy J.; Lawrence, David A.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /03/2002 Português
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Intracellular cytokine staining is an increasingly popular analytical tool that can be used to define the profile of cytokines in various disease states. One important requirement for this assay is the inclusion of a protein transport inhibitor in stimulated cell cultures to trap the cytokine, thus allowing a brighter signal. Two compounds commonly used for this purpose are brefeldin A (BFA) and monensin (MN). Flow cytometry was used to assess the differential effects of BFA and MN on surface CD3, -4, -8, and -69 expression and the intracellular expression of gamma interferon (IFN-γ) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) following stimulation with phorbol myristate acetate and ionomycin. We found that BFA blocked the majority of CD3+ cells from expressing surface CD69, but BFA did not inhibit intracellular CD69 expression. MN did not significantly inhibit surface CD69 expression. With regard to lymphocyte marker expression following activation, surface CD4 expression was significantly downregulated; however, less downregulation was observed with BFA treatment than with MN treatment. Analyzing intracellular cytokine expression, BFA trapped a greater percentage of TNF-α inside activated cells than MN. An analysis of the cytokine concentration in culture supernatants indicated that cells treated with MN released TNF-α and IFN-γ from the cells...

‣ Interview: Glycolipid Antigen Presentation by CD1d and the Therapeutic Potential of NKT cell Activation

Kronenberg, Mitchell
Fonte: MyJove Corporation Publicador: MyJove Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 31/12/2007 Português
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Natural Killer T cells (NKT) are critical determinants of the immune response to cancer, regulation of autioimmune disease, clearance of infectious agents, and the development of artheriosclerotic plaques. In this interview, Mitch Kronenberg discusses his laboratory's efforts to understand the mechanism through which NKT cells are activated by glycolipid antigens. Central to these studies is CD1d - the antigen presenting molecule that presents glycolipids to NKT cells. The advent of CD1d tetramer technology, a technique developed by the Kronenberg lab, is critical for the sorting and identification of subsets of specific glycolipid-reactive T cells. Mitch explains how glycolipid agonists are being used as therapeutic agents to activate NKT cells in cancer patients and how CD1d tetramers can be used to assess the state of the NKT cell population in vivo following glycolipid agonist therapy. Current status of ongoing clinical trials using these agonists are discussed as well as Mitch's prediction for areas in the field of immunology that will have emerging importance in the near future.

‣ Clinical Immunology Review Series: An approach to the patient with recurrent orogenital ulceration, including Behçet's syndrome

Keogan, M T
Fonte: Blackwell Science Inc Publicador: Blackwell Science Inc
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /04/2009 Português
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Patients presenting with recurrent orogenital ulcers may have complex aphthosis, Behçet's disease, secondary complex aphthosis (e.g. Reiter's syndrome, Crohn's disease, cyclical neutropenia) or non-aphthous disease (including bullous disorders, erythema multiforme, erosive lichen planus). Behçet's syndrome is a multi-system vasculitis of unknown aetiology for which there is no diagnostic test. Diagnosis is based on agreed clinical criteria that require recurrent oral ulcers and two of the following: recurrent genital ulcers, ocular inflammation, defined skin lesions and pathergy. The condition can present with a variety of symptoms, hence a high index of suspicion is necessary. The most common presentation is with recurrent mouth ulcers, often with genital ulcers; however, it may take some years before diagnostic criteria are met. All patients with idiopathic orogenital ulcers should be kept under review, with periodic focused assessment to detect evolution into Behçet's disease. There is often a delay of several years between patients fulfilling diagnostic criteria and a diagnosis being made, which may contribute to the morbidity of this condition. Despite considerable research effort, the aetiology and pathogenesis of this condition remains enigmatic.

‣ The Role of PPARs in Placental Immunology: A Systematic Review of the Literature

Hutter, Stefan; Knabl, Julia; Andergassen, Ulrich; Jeschke, Udo
Fonte: Hindawi Publishing Corporation Publicador: Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Pregnancy is a state of immunotolerance, and pregnancy outcome is strongly linked to the correct activation and balancing of the maternal immune system. Besides abortion as possible result of improper early pregnancy development, other pregnancy associated conditions like preeclampsia (PE), intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR), preterm labour, or gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) are linked to immunologic overactivation and dysregulation. Both the innate and the adaptive immune system, and therefore B and T lymphocytes, natural killer cells (NK), macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs) are all involved in trophoblast invasion, pregnancy maintenance, and development of pregnancy disorders. Peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPARs) are nuclear transcription factors with three known isotypes: PPARα, PPARβ/δ, and PPARγ. They are expressed in most human organs and their function extends from regulating metabolism, homeostasis, and carcinogenesis to immune response. In the recent years, PPARs have been identified in most reproductive tissues and in all lines of immune cells. Only in few cases, the role of PPARs in reproductive immunology has been elucidated though the role of PPARs in immune answer and immunotolerance is evident. Within this paper we would like to give an update on today's knowledge about PPARs and immune cells in reproduction and highlight interesting interferences in regard of future therapeutic targets.

‣ Bartonella Infection in Immunocompromised Hosts: Immunology of Vascular Infection and Vasoproliferation

Mosepele, Mosepele; Mazo, Dana; Cohn, Jennifer
Fonte: Hindawi Publishing Corporation Publicador: Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Most infections by genus Bartonella in immunocompromised patients are caused by B. henselae and B. quintana. Unlike immunocompetent hosts who usually develop milder diseases such as cat scratch disease and trench fever, immunocompromised patients, including those living with HIV/AIDS and posttransplant patients, are more likely to develop different and severe life-threatening disease. This paper will discuss Bartonella's manifestations in immunosuppressed patients and will examine Bartonella's interaction with the immune system including its mechanisms of establishing infection and immune escape. Gaps in current understanding of the immunology of Bartonella infection in immunocompromised hosts will be highlighted.