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‣ Disease mutations in RUNX1 and RUNX2 create nonfunctional, dominant-negative, or hypomorphic alleles

Matheny, Christina J; Speck, Maren E; Cushing, Patrick R; Zhou, Yunpeng; Corpora, Takeshi; Regan, Michael; Newman, Miki; Roudaia, Liya; Speck, Caroline L; Gu, Ting-Lei; Griffey, Stephen M; Bushweller, John H; Speck, Nancy A
Fonte: Nature Publishing Group Publicador: Nature Publishing Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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385.13633%
Monoallelic RUNX1 mutations cause familial platelet disorder with predisposition for acute myelogenous leukemia (FPD/AML). Sporadic mono- and biallelic mutations are found at high frequencies in AML M0, in radiation-associated and therapy-related myelodysplastic syndrome and AML, and in isolated cases of AML M2, M5a, M3 relapse, and chronic myelogenous leukemia in blast phase. Mutations in RUNX2 cause the inherited skeletal disorder cleidocranial dysplasia (CCD). Most hematopoietic missense mutations in Runx1 involve DNA-contacting residues in the Runt domain, whereas the majority of CCD mutations in Runx2 are predicted to impair CBFβ binding or the Runt domain structure. We introduced different classes of missense mutations into Runx1 and characterized their effects on DNA and CBFβ binding by the Runt domain, and on Runx1 function in vivo. Mutations involving DNA-contacting residues severely inactivate Runx1 function, whereas mutations that affect CBFβ binding but not DNA binding result in hypomorphic alleles. We conclude that hypomorphic RUNX2 alleles can cause CCD, whereas hematopoietic disease requires more severely inactivating RUNX1 mutations.

‣ Mutations in residues of TP53 that directly contact DNA predict poor outcome in human primary breast cancer.

Berns, E. M.; van Staveren, I. L.; Look, M. P.; Smid, M.; Klijn, J. G.; Foekens, J. A.
Fonte: Nature Publishing Group Publicador: Nature Publishing Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /04/1998 Português
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The tumour-suppressor gene TP53 is frequently mutated in breast tumours, and the majority of the mutations are clustered within the core domain, the region involved in DNA binding. We searched for alterations in this central domain of the TP53gene in 222 human breast cancer specimens using polymerase chain reaction-single-strand conformation analysis (PCR-SSCA) followed by sequencing. TP53 gene mutations were observed in 66 tumours (31%), including three tumours that contain two mutations. Fifty-four (78%) of these mutations were missense point mutations, one was a nonsense mutation and four were deletions and/or insertions causing disruption of the protein reading frame, whereas four mutations were either silent or a polymorphism (at codon 213; n = 6). Interestingly, the majority of missense mutations were observed at codon 248. The outcome has been related with patient and tumour characteristics, and with prognosis in 177 patients who were eligible for analysis of both relapse-free and overall survival (median survival for patients alive was 115 months). There was no significant association between the frequency of TP53 mutations and menopausal or nodal status, or tumour size. In a Cox univariate analysis, TP53 gene mutation was significantly associated with poor relapse-free survival (RFS: P = 0.02) but not with overall survival (OS: P = 0.07). In a Cox multivariate analysis...

‣ p53 missense but not truncation mutations are associated with low levels of p21CIP1/WAF1 mRNA expression in primary human sarcomas

Mousses, S; Gokgoz, N; Wunder, J S; Ozcelik, H; Bull, S; Bell, R S; Andrulis, I L
Fonte: Nature Publishing Group Publicador: Nature Publishing Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /06/2001 Português
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Many growth-suppressing signals converge to control the levels of the CDK inhibitor p21CIP1/WAF1. Some human cancers exhibit low levels of expression of p21CIP1/WAF1and mutations in p53 have been implicated in this down-regulation. To evaluate whether the presence of p53 mutations was related to the in vivo expression of p21CIP1/WAF1 mRNA in sarcomas we measured the p21CIP1/WAF1 mRNA levels for a group of 71 primary bone and soft tissue tumours with known p53 status. As expected, most tumours with p53 mutations expressed low levels of p21CIP1/WAF1 mRNA. However, we identified a group of tumours with p53 gene mutations that exhibited normal or higher levels of p21CIP1/WAF1 mRNA. The p53 mutations in the latter group were not the common missense mutations in exons 4–9, but were predominantly nonsense mutations predicted to result in truncation of the p53 protein. The results of this study suggest that different types of p53 mutations can have different effects on the expression of downstream genes such as p21CIP1/WAF1 in human sarcomas. © 2001 Cancer Research Campaign http://www.bjcancer.com

‣ Identification and in silico analysis of 14 novel GJB1, MPZ and PMP22 gene mutations

Miltenberger-Miltenyi, Gabriel; Schwarzbraun, Thomas; Löscher, Wolfgang N; Wanschitz, Julia; Windpassinger, Christian; Duba, Hans-Christoph; Seidl, Rainer; Albrecht, Gerhard; Weirich-Schwaiger, Helga; Zoller, Heinz; Utermann, Gerd; Auer-Grumbach, Michael
Fonte: Nature Publishing Group Publicador: Nature Publishing Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
384.6652%
Duplication within the chromosome 17p11.2 (CMT1Adup), peripheral myelin protein 22 (PMP22), myelin protein zero (MPZ) and gap junction β1-protein (GJB1) gene mutations are frequent causes of the Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT). A large number of mutations in these genes are listed in databases. Sequence variants identified in patients are frequently reported as mutations without further evaluation. We analyzed 250 consecutively recruited unrelated Austrian CMT patients for CMT1Adup by microsatellite marker typing, real-time PCR or MLPA, and found 79 duplications (31.6%). The coding regions of the PMP22, MPZ and GJB1 genes were analyzed by direct sequencing in the remaining patients; 28 patients showed mutations, 14 of which were novel. We scored the pathogenicity of novel missense mutations by segregation studies and by their exclusion in control samples. Our comprehensive literature study found that up to 60% of the reported mutations in these genes had not been evaluated regarding their pathogenicity, and the PANTHER bioinformatics tool was used to score novel and published missense variants. The PANTHER program scored known polymorphisms as such, but scored ∼82–88% only of the published and novel mutations as most likely deleterious. Mutations associated with axonal CMT were less likely to be classified as deleterious...