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‣ Loss-of-function HDAC8 mutations cause a phenotypic spectrum of Cornelia de Lange syndrome-like features, ocular hypertelorism, large fontanelle and X-linked inheritance

Kaiser, Frank J.; Ansari, Morad; Braunholz, Diana; Concepción Gil-Rodríguez, María; Decroos, Christophe; Wilde, Jonathan J.; Fincher, Christopher T.; Kaur, Maninder; Bando, Masashige; Amor, David J.; Atwal, Paldeep S.; Bahlo, Melanie; Bowman, Christine
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS) is a multisystem genetic disorder with distinct facies, growth failure, intellectual disability, distal limb anomalies, gastrointestinal and neurological disease. Mutations in NIPBL, encoding a cohesin regulatory protein, account for >80% of cases with typical facies. Mutations in the core cohesin complex proteins, encoded by the SMC1A, SMC3 and RAD21 genes, together account for ∼5% of subjects, often with atypical CdLS features. Recently, we identified mutations in the X-linked gene HDAC8 as the cause of a small number of CdLS cases. Here, we report a cohort of 38 individuals with an emerging spectrum of features caused by HDAC8 mutations. For several individuals, the diagnosis of CdLS was not considered prior to genomic testing. Most mutations identified are missense and de novo. Many cases are heterozygous females, each with marked skewing of X-inactivation in peripheral blood DNA. We also identified eight hemizygous males who are more severely affected. The craniofacial appearance caused by HDAC8 mutations overlaps that of typical CdLS but often displays delayed anterior fontanelle closure, ocular hypertelorism, hooding of the eyelids, a broader nose and dental anomalies, which may be useful discriminating features. HDAC8 encodes the lysine deacetylase for the cohesin subunit SMC3 and analysis of the functional consequences of the missense mutations indicates that all cause a loss of enzymatic function. These data demonstrate that loss-of-function mutations in HDAC8 cause a range of overlapping human developmental phenotypes...

‣ Phenotypic severity of homozygous GCK mutations causing neonatal or childhood-onset diabetes is primarily mediated through effects on protein stability

Raimondo, Anne; Chakera, Ali J.; Thomsen, Soren K.; Colclough, Kevin; Barrett, Amy; De Franco, Elisa; Chatelas, Alisson; Demirbilek, Huseyin; Akcay, Teoman; Alawneh, Hussein; ; Flanagan, Sarah E.; Van De Bunt, Martijn; Hattersley, Andrew T.; Gloyn, Anna L
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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37.68711%
Mutations in glucokinase (GCK) cause a spectrum of glycemic disorders. Heterozygous loss-of-function mutations cause mild fasting hyperglycemia irrespective of mutation severity due to compensation from the unaffected allele. Conversely, homozygous loss-of-function mutations cause permanent neonatal diabetes requiring lifelong insulin treatment. This study aimed to determine the relationship between in vitro mutation severity and clinical phenotype in a large international case series of patients with homozygous GCK mutations. Clinical characteristics for 30 patients with diabetes due to homozygous GCK mutations (19 unique mutations, including 16 missense) were compiled and assigned a clinical severity grade (CSG) based on birth weight and age at diagnosis. The majority (28 of 30) of subjects were diagnosed before 9 months, with the remaining two at 9 and 15 years. These are the first two cases of a homozygous GCK mutation diagnosed outside infancy. Recombinant mutant GCK proteins were analyzed for kinetic and thermostability characteristics and assigned a relative activity index (RAI) or relative stability index (RSI) value. Six of 16 missense mutations exhibited severe kinetic defects (RAI ≤ 0.01). There was no correlation between CSG and RAI (r2 = 0.05...

‣ Germline and somatic cancer-associated mutations in the ATP-binding motifs of PTEN influence its subcellular localization and tumor suppressive function

Lobo, Glenn P.; Waite, Kristin A.; Planchon, Sarah M.; Romigh, Todd; Nassif, Najah T.; Eng, Charis
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.68711%
Germline and somatic PTEN mutations are found in Cowden syndrome (CS) and multiple sporadic malignancies, respectively. PTEN function appears to be modulated by subcellular compartmentalization, and mislocalization may affect function. We have shown that cellular ATP levels affect nuclear PTEN levels. Here, we examined the ATP-binding capabilities of PTEN and functional consequences, relevant to cancer-associated mutations. PTEN mutation analysis of CS patients and sporadic colorectal carcinomas and comparative aminoacid analysis were utilized to identify mutations in ATP-binding motifs. The ability of wild-type (WT) or mutant PTEN to bind ATP was assessed by ATP–agarose-binding assays. Subcellular fractionation, western blotting, confocal microscopy and growth assays were used to determine relative nuclear-cytoplasmic localization and function. Somatic colorectal carcinoma-derived PTEN missense mutations were associated with nuclear mislocalization. These mutations altered cellular proliferation, apoptosis and anchorage-dependent growth. Examination of PTEN's amino acid sequence revealed these mutations resided in previously undescribed ATP-binding motifs (c.60–73; c.122–136). In contrast to WT PTEN, both cancer-associated somatic and germline-derived PTEN missense mutations...