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‣ Okadaic acid and microcystin insensitive PPP-family phosphatases may represent novel biotechnology targets

Uhrig, R. Glen; Moorhead, Greg B
Fonte: Landes Bioscience Publicador: Landes Bioscience
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/12/2011 Português
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Reversible protein phosphorylation is of central importance to the proper cellular functioning of all living organisms. Catalyzed by the opposing reactions of protein kinases and phosphatases, dysfunction in reversible protein phosphorylation can result in a wide variety of cellular aberrations. In eukaryotic organisms there exists four classes of protein phosphatases, of which the PPP-family protein phosphatases have documented susceptibility to a range of protein and small molecule inhibitors. These inhibitors have been of great importance to the biochemical characterization of PPP-family protein phosphatases since their discovery, but also maintain in natura biological significance with their endogenous regulatory properties (protein inhibitors) and toxicity (small molecule inhibitors). Recently, two unique PPP-family protein phosphatases, named the Shewanella-like protein phosphatases (SLP phosphatases), from Arabidopsis thaliana were characterized and found to be phylogenetically similar to the PPP-family protein phosphatases protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) and protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), while completely lacking sensitivity to the classic PPP-family phosphatase small molecule inhibitors okadaic acid and microcystin-LR. SLP phosphatases were also found to be absent in metazoans...

‣ New Trends in Nucleoside Biotechnology

Mikhailopulo, I.A.; Miroshnikov, A.I.
Fonte: A.I. Gordeyev Publicador: A.I. Gordeyev
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /07/2010 Português
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This review focuses on new trends in nucleoside biotechnology, which have emerged during the last decade. Continuously growing interest in the study of this class of compounds is fueled by a number of factors: ( i ) a growing need for large–scale production of natural 2 ′ –deoxy– β –D–ribonucleosides as well as their analogs with modifications in the carbohydrate and base fragments, which can then be used for the synthesis and study of oligonucleotides, including short–interfering RNA (siRNA), microRNA (miRNA), etc.; ( ii ) a necessity for the development of efficient practical technologies for the production of biologically important analogs of natural nucleosides, including a number of anticancer and antiviral drugs; ( iii ) a need for further study of known and novel enzymatic transformations and their use as tools for the efficient synthesis of new nucloside analogs and derivates with biomedical potential. This article will review all of these aspects and also include a brief retrospect of this field of research.

‣ The Role of Biotechnology for Conservation and Biologically Active Substances Production of Rhodiola rosea: Endangered Medicinal Species

Tasheva, Krasimira; Kosturkova, Georgina
Fonte: The Scientific World Journal Publicador: The Scientific World Journal
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 30/04/2012 Português
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At present, more than 50 000 plant species are used in phytotherapy and medicine. About 2/3 of them are harvested from nature leading to local extinction of many species or degradation of their habitats. Biotechnological methods offer possibilities not only for faster cloning and conservation of the genotype of the plants but for modification of their gene information, regulation, and expression for production of valuable substances in higher amounts or with better properties. Rhodiola rosea is an endangered medicinal species with limited distribution. It has outstanding importance for pharmaceutical industry for prevention and cure of cancer, heart and nervous system diseases, and so forth. Despite the great interest in golden root and the wide investigations in the area of phytochemistry, plant biotechnology remained less endeavoured and exploited. The paper presents research on initiation of in vitro cultures in Rhodiola rosea and some other Rhodiola species. Achievements in induction of organogenic and callus cultures, regeneration, and micropropagation varied but were a good basis for alternative in vitro synthesis of the desired metabolites and for the development of efficient systems for micropropagation for conservation of the species.

‣ Synthesis and characterization of membrane stable bis(arylimino)isoindole dyes and their potential application in nano-biotechnology

Kim, Benjamin; Yalaz, Ceren; Pan, Dipanjan
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 08/08/2012 Português
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A synthetic methodology of preparing novel membrane stable, responsive dyes is revealed in this manuscript. 1,3-bis(arylimino)isoindole dyes were synthesized and their properties to undergo intramolecular hydrogen bonding was studied with fluorescence spectroscopy in varying solvent polarities. Based on the functional moieties, compound that is capable of hydrogen donor and acceptor interactions produces predominant photoexcitation in comparison to the responsive dyes that lack these functionalities. These dyes, by the virtue of the presence of long chain acyl groups could be incorporated stably within the phospholipids membrane of core-shell nanoparticles. Nanoparticle was ‘cracked’ to release the dye from a hydrophobic to a hydrophilic environment, A significant change in florescence intensity was then observed, indicating the direct change in effect of intramolecular hydrogen bonding based on solvent polarity changes. This unique study provided implications of many further applications towards nanomedicine and nano-biotechnology.

‣ Student Learning Outcomes and Attitudes When Biotechnology Lab Partners Are of Different Academic Levels

Miller, Heather B.; Witherow, D. Scott; Carson, Susan
Fonte: American Society for Cell Biology Publicador: American Society for Cell Biology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2012 Português
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The North Carolina State University Biotechnology Program offers laboratory-intensive courses to both undergraduate and graduate students. In “Manipulation and Expression of Recombinant DNA,” students are separated into undergraduate and graduate sections for the laboratory, but not the lecture, component. Evidence has shown that students prefer pairing with someone of the same academic level. However, retention of main ideas in peer learning environments has been shown to be greater when partners have dissimilar abilities. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that there will be enhanced student learning when lab partners are of different academic levels. We found that learning outcomes were met by both levels of student, regardless of pairing. Average undergraduate grades on every assessment method increased when undergraduates were paired with graduate students. Many of the average graduate student grades also increased modestly when graduate students were paired with undergraduates. Attitudes toward working with partners dramatically shifted toward favoring working with students of different academic levels. This work suggests that offering dual-level courses in which different-level partnerships are created does not inhibit learning by students of different academic levels. This format is useful for institutions that wish to offer “boutique” courses in which student enrollment may be low...

‣ Plastid biotechnology for crop production: present status and future perspectives

Clarke, Jihong Liu; Daniell, Henry
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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The world population is expected to reach an estimated 9.2 billion by 2050. Therefore, food production globally has to increase by 70% in order to feed the world, while total arable land, which has reached its maximal utilization, may even decrease. Moreover, climate change adds yet another challenge to global food security. In order to feed the world in 2050, biotechnological advances in modern agriculture are essential. Plant genetic engineering, which has created a new wave of global crop production after the first green revolution, will continue to play an important role in modern agriculture to meet these challenges. Plastid genetic engineering, with several unique advantages including transgene containment, has made significant progress in the last two decades in various biotechnology applications including development of crops with high levels of resistance to insects, bacterial, fungal and viral diseases, different types of herbicides, drought, salt and cold tolerance, cytoplasmic male sterility, metabolic engineering, phytoremediation of toxic metals and production of many vaccine antigens, biopharmaceuticals and biofuels. However, useful traits should be engineered via chloroplast genomes of several major crops. This review provides insight into the current state of the art of plastid engineering in relation to agricultural production...

‣ New challenges and opportunities for industrial biotechnology

Chen, Guo-Qiang
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 20/08/2012 Português
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Industrial biotechnology has not developed as fast as expected due to some challenges including the emergences of alternative energy sources, especially shale gas, natural gas hydrate (or gas hydrate) and sand oil et al. The weaknesses of microbial or enzymatic processes compared with the chemical processing also make industrial biotech products less competitive with the chemical ones. However, many opportunities are still there if industrial biotech processes can be as similar as the chemical ones. Taking advantages of the molecular biology and synthetic biology methods as well as changing process patterns, we can develop bioprocesses as competitive as chemical ones, these including the minimized cells, open and continuous fermentation processes et al.

‣ Database resources of the National Center for Biotechnology Information

Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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In addition to maintaining the GenBank® nucleic acid sequence database, the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov) provides analysis and retrieval resources for the data in GenBank and other biological data made available through the NCBI web site. NCBI resources include Entrez, the Entrez Programming Utilities, MyNCBI, PubMed, PubMed Central, Gene, the NCBI Taxonomy Browser, BLAST, BLAST Link (BLink), Primer-BLAST, COBALT, Splign, RefSeq, UniGene, HomoloGene, ProtEST, dbMHC, dbSNP, dbVar, Epigenomics, the Genetic Testing Registry, Genome and related tools, the Map Viewer, Model Maker, Evidence Viewer, Trace Archive, Sequence Read Archive, BioProject, BioSample, Retroviral Genotyping Tools, HIV-1/Human Protein Interaction Database, Gene Expression Omnibus, Probe, Online Mendelian Inheritance in Animals, the Molecular Modeling Database, the Conserved Domain Database, the Conserved Domain Architecture Retrieval Tool, Biosystems, Protein Clusters and the PubChem suite of small molecule databases. Augmenting many of the web applications are custom implementations of the BLAST program optimized to search specialized data sets. All of these resources can be accessed through the NCBI home page.

‣ Association of CASP9, CASP10 gene polymorphisms and tea drinking with colorectal cancer risk in the Han Chinese population*

Liu, He; Jiang, Xia; Zhang, Ming-wu; Pan, Yi-feng; Yu, Yun-xian; Zhang, Shan-chun; Ma, Xin-yuan; Li, Qi-long; Chen, Kun
Fonte: Zhejiang University Press Publicador: Zhejiang University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /01/2013 Português
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The initiators caspase-9 (CASP9) and caspase-10 (CASP10) are two key controllers of apoptosis and play important roles in carcinogenesis. This study aims to explore the association between CASPs gene polymorphisms and colorectal cancer (CRC) susceptibility in a population-based study. A two-stage designed population-based case-control study was carried out, including a testing set with 300 cases and 296 controls and a validation set with 206 cases and 845 controls. A total of eight tag selected single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in CASP9 and CASP10 were chosen based on HapMap and the National Center of Biotechnology Information (NCBI) datasets and genotyped by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) assay. Multivariate logistic regression models were applied to evaluate the association of SNPs with CRC risk. In the first stage, from eight tag SNPs, three polymorphisms rs4646077 (odds ratio (OR)AA+AG: 0.654, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.406–1.055; P=0.082), rs4233532 (ORCC: 1.667, 95% CI: 0.967–2.876; ORCT: 1.435, 95% CI: 0.998–2.063; P=0.077), and rs2881930 (ORCC: 0.263, 95% CI: 0.095–0.728, P=0.036) showed possible association with CRC risk. However, none of the three SNPs, rs4646077 (ORAA+AG: 1.233, 95% CI: 0.903–1.683)...

‣ De-novo characterization of the soft-shelled turtle Pelodiscus sinensis transcriptome using Illumina RNA-Seq technology* #

Wang, Wei; Li, Cai-yan; Ge, Chu-tian; Lei, Lei; Gao, You-ling; Qian, Guo-ying
Fonte: Zhejiang University Press Publicador: Zhejiang University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /01/2013 Português
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The soft-shelled turtle Pelodiscus sinensis is a high-profile turtle species because of its nutritional and medicinal value in Asian countries. However, little is known about the genes that are involved in formation of their nutritional quality traits, especially the molecular mechanisms responsible for unsaturated fatty acid and collagen biosynthesis. In the present study, the transcriptomes from six tissues from Pelodiscus sinensis were sequenced using an Illumina paired-end sequencing platform. We obtained more than 47 million sequencing reads and 73 954 unigenes with an average size of 754 bp by de-novo assembly. In total, 55.19% of the unigenes (40 814) had significant similarity with proteins in the National Center of Biotechnology Information (NCBI) non-redundant protein database and Swiss-Prot database (E-value <10−5). Of these annotated unigenes, 9 156 and 11 947 unigenes were assigned to 52 gene ontology categories (GO) and 25 clusters of orthologous groups (COG), respectively. In total, 26 496 (35.83%) unigenes were assigned to 242 pathways using the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway database (KEGG). In addition, we found a number of highly expressed genes involved in the regulation of P. sinensis unsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis and collagen formation...

‣ Citrus biotechnology: Achievements, limitations and future directions

Singh, Sandeepa; Rajam, Manchikatla V.
Fonte: Springer-Verlag Publicador: Springer-Verlag
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Citrus is one of the most important commercial and nutritional fruit crops in the world, hence it needs to be improved to cater to the diverse needs of consumers and crop breeders. Genetic manipulation through conventional techniques in this genus is invariably a difficult task for plant breeders as it poses various biological limitations comprising long juvenile period, high heterozygosity, sexual incompatibility, nucellar polyembryony and large plant size that greatly hinder cultivar improvement. Hence, several attempts were made to improve Citrus sps. by using various in vitro techniques. Citrus sps are widely known for their recalcitrance to transformation and subsequent rooting, but constant research has led to the establishment of improved protocols to ensure the production of uniformly transformed plants, albeit with relatively low efficiency, depending upon the genotype. Genetic modification through Agrobacterium-mediated transformation has emerged as an important tool for introducing agronomically important genes into Citrus sps. Somatic hybridization has been applied to overcome self and cross-incompatibility barriers and generated inter-specific and inter-generic hybrids. Encouraging results have been achieved through transgenics for resistance against viruses and bacteria...

‣ Biotechnology-Related Intellectual Property Law of Iran

Rasekh, Mohammad
Fonte: Avicenna Research Institute Publicador: Avicenna Research Institute
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2009 Português
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In this study, an attempt has been made to expound the Iranian law of intellectual property in relation to biotechnology. The most important themes studied are patents, industrial designs and trade marks. The latest relevant piece of legislation concerning the subject matters was passed in March 2008. However, the history of laws and regulations in this field goes back to early twentieth century (i.e. 1925). In this review, on the basis of the latest law passed in 2008, the topics explored are the responsible authority, patentable items and criteria, excluded items, registration procedure, rights conferred and sanctions. At the end, an attempt is made to put forward a few points as an analysis of the above Law from a critical point of view.

‣ American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists National Biotechnology Conference Short Course: Translational Challenges in Developing Antibody-Drug Conjugates: May 24, 2012, San Diego, CA

Thudium, Karen; Bilic, Sanela; Leipold, Douglas; Mallet, William; Kaur, Surinder; Meibohm, Bernd; Erickson, Hans; Tibbitts, Jay; Zhao, Hong; Gupta, Manish
Fonte: Landes Bioscience Publicador: Landes Bioscience
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/01/2013 Português
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The American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists (AAPS) National Biotechnology Conference Short Course “Translational Challenges in Developing Antibody-Drug Conjugates (ADCs),” held May 24, 2012 in San Diego, CA, was organized by members of the Pharmacokinetics, Pharmacodynamics and Drug Metabolism section of AAPS. Representatives from the pharmaceutical industry, regulatory authorities, and academia in the US and Europe attended this short course to discuss the translational challenges in ADC development and the importance of characterizing these molecules early in development to achieve therapeutic utility in patients. Other areas of discussion included selection of target antigens; characterization of absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion; assay development and hot topics like regulatory perspectives and the role of pharmacometrics in ADC development. MUC16-targeted ADCs were discussed to illustrate challenges in preclinical development; experiences with trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1; Genentech) and the recently approved brentuximab vedotin (Adcetris®; Seattle Genetics) were presented in depth to demonstrate considerations in clinical development. The views expressed in this report are those of the participants and do not necessarily represent those of their affiliations.

‣ Combinatorial Design of a Highly Efficient Xylose-Utilizing Pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae for the Production of Cellulosic Biofuels

Kim, Byoungjin; Du, Jing; Eriksen, Dawn T.; Zhao, Huimin
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /02/2013 Português
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Balancing the flux of a heterologous metabolic pathway by tuning the expression and properties of the pathway enzymes is difficult, but it is critical to realizing the full potential of microbial biotechnology. One prominent example is the metabolic engineering of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain harboring a heterologous xylose-utilizing pathway for cellulosic-biofuel production, which remains a challenge even after decades of research. Here, we developed a combinatorial pathway-engineering approach to rapidly create a highly efficient xylose-utilizing pathway for ethanol production by exploring various combinations of enzyme homologues with different properties. A library of more than 8,000 xylose utilization pathways was generated using DNA assembler, followed by multitiered screening, which led to the identification of a number of strain-specific combinations of the enzymes for efficient conversion of xylose to ethanol. The balancing of metabolic flux through the xylose utilization pathway was demonstrated by a complete reversal of the major product from xylitol to ethanol with a similar yield and total by-product formation as low as 0.06 g/g xylose without compromising cell growth. The results also suggested that an optimal enzyme combination depends on not only the genotype/phenotype of the host strain...

‣ Advances in biotechnology and genomics of switchgrass

Nageswara-Rao, Madhugiri; Soneji, Jaya R; Kwit, Charles; Stewart, C Neal
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 12/05/2013 Português
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Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) is a C4 perennial warm season grass indigenous to the North American tallgrass prairie. A number of its natural and agronomic traits, including adaptation to a wide geographical distribution, low nutrient requirements and production costs, high water use efficiency, high biomass potential, ease of harvesting, and potential for carbon storage, make it an attractive dedicated biomass crop for biofuel production. We believe that genetic improvements using biotechnology will be important to realize the potential of the biomass and biofuel-related uses of switchgrass. Tissue culture techniques aimed at rapid propagation of switchgrass and genetic transformation protocols have been developed. Rapid progress in genome sequencing and bioinformatics has provided efficient strategies to identify, tag, clone and manipulate many economically-important genes, including those related to higher biomass, saccharification efficiency, and lignin biosynthesis. Application of the best genetic tools should render improved switchgrass that will be more economically and environmentally sustainable as a lignocellulosic bioenergy feedstock.

‣ From Waste to Plastic: Synthesis of Poly(3-Hydroxypropionate) in Shimwellia blattae

Heinrich, Daniel; Andreessen, Björn; Madkour, Mohamed H.; Al-Ghamdi, Mansour A.; Shabbaj, Ibrahim I.; Steinbüchel, Alexander
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /06/2013 Português
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In recent years, glycerol has become an attractive carbon source for microbial processes, as it accumulates massively as a by-product of biodiesel production, also resulting in a decline of its price. A potential use of glycerol in biotechnology is the synthesis of poly(3-hydroxypropionate) [poly(3HP)], a biopolymer with promising properties which is not synthesized by any known wild-type organism. In this study, the genes for 1,3-propanediol dehydrogenase (dhaT) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (aldD) of Pseudomonas putida KT2442, propionate-coenzyme A (propionate-CoA) transferase (pct) of Clostridium propionicum X2, and polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) synthase (phaC1) of Ralstonia eutropha H16 were cloned and expressed in the 1,3-propanediol producer Shimwellia blattae. In a two-step cultivation process, recombinant S. blattae cells accumulated up to 9.8% ± 0.4% (wt/wt [cell dry weight]) poly(3HP) with glycerol as the sole carbon source. Furthermore, the engineered strain tolerated the application of crude glycerol derived from biodiesel production, yielding a cell density of 4.05 g cell dry weight/liter in a 2-liter fed-batch fermentation process.

‣ Photoactivatable metal complexes: from theory to applications in biotechnology and medicine

Smith, Nichola A.; Sadler, Peter J.
Fonte: The Royal Society Publishing Publicador: The Royal Society Publishing
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 28/07/2013 Português
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This short review highlights some of the exciting new experimental and theoretical developments in the field of photoactivatable metal complexes and their applications in biotechnology and medicine. The examples chosen are based on some of the presentations at the Royal Society Discussion Meeting in June 2012, many of which are featured in more detail in other articles in this issue. This is a young field. Even the photochemistry of well-known systems such as metal–carbonyl complexes is still being elucidated. Striking are the recent developments in theory and computation (e.g. time-dependent density functional theory) and in ultrafast-pulsed radiation techniques which allow photochemical reactions to be followed and their mechanisms to be revealed on picosecond/nanosecond time scales. Not only do some metal complexes (e.g. those of Ru and Ir) possess favourable emission properties which allow functional imaging of cells and tissues (e.g. DNA interactions), but metal complexes can also provide spatially controlled photorelease of bioactive small molecules (e.g. CO and NO)—a novel strategy for site-directed therapy. This extends to cancer therapy, where metal-based precursors offer the prospect of generating excited-state drugs with new mechanisms of action that complement and augment those of current organic photosensitizers.

‣ A statistical approach to quantitative data validation focused on the assessment of students’ perceptions about biotechnology

Fonseca, Maria João; Costa, Patrício; Lencastre, Leonor; Tavares, Fernando
Fonte: Springer International Publishing Publicador: Springer International Publishing
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/10/2013 Português
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Student awareness levels are frequently used to evaluate the effectiveness of educational policies to promote scientific literacy. Over the last years several studies have been developed to assess students’ perceptions towards science and technology, which usually rely on quantitative methods to achieve broad characterizations, and obtain quantifiable and comparable data. Although the usefulness of this information depends on its validity and reliability, validation is frequently neglected by researchers with limited background in statistics. In this context, we propose a guideline to implement a statistical approach to questionnaire validation, combining exploratory factor analysis and reliability analysis. The work focuses on the psychometric analysis of data provided by a questionnaire assessing 1196 elementary and high school students’ perceptions about biotechnology. Procedural guidelines to enhance the efficiency of quantitative inquiry surveys are given, by discussing essential methodological aspects and relevant criteria to integrate theory into practice.

‣ Construction of a Prophage-Free Variant of Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC 13032 for Use as a Platform Strain for Basic Research and Industrial Biotechnology

Baumgart, Meike; Unthan, Simon; Rückert, Christian; Sivalingam, Jasintha; Grünberger, Alexander; Kalinowski, Jörn; Bott, Michael; Noack, Stephan; Frunzke, Julia
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /10/2013 Português
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The activity of bacteriophages and phage-related mobile elements is a major source for genome rearrangements and genetic instability of their bacterial hosts. The genome of the industrial amino acid producer Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC 13032 contains three prophages (CGP1, CGP2, and CGP3) of so far unknown functionality. Several phage genes are regularly expressed, and the large prophage CGP3 (∼190 kbp) has recently been shown to be induced under certain stress conditions. Here, we present the construction of MB001, a prophage-free variant of C. glutamicum ATCC 13032 with a 6% reduced genome. This strain does not show any unfavorable properties during extensive phenotypic characterization under various standard and stress conditions. As expected, we observed improved growth and fitness of MB001 under SOS-response-inducing conditions that trigger CGP3 induction in the wild-type strain. Further studies revealed that MB001 has a significantly increased transformation efficiency and produced about 30% more of the heterologous model protein enhanced yellow fluorescent protein (eYFP), presumably as a consequence of an increased plasmid copy number. These effects were attributed to the loss of the restriction-modification system (cg1996-cg1998) located within CGP3. The deletion of the prophages without any negative effect results in a novel platform strain for metabolic engineering and represents a useful step toward the construction of a C. glutamicum chassis genome of strain ATCC 13032 for biotechnological applications and synthetic biology.

‣ Mathematical models of cell factories: moving towards the core of industrial biotechnology

Cvijovic, Marija; Bordel, Sergio; Nielsen, Jens
Fonte: Blackwell Publishing Ltd Publicador: Blackwell Publishing Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Industrial biotechnology involves the utilization of cell factories for the production of fuels and chemicals. Traditionally, the development of highly productive microbial strains has relied on random mutagenesis and screening. The development of predictive mathematical models provides a new paradigm for the rational design of cell factories. Instead of selecting among a set of strains resulting from random mutagenesis, mathematical models allow the researchers to predict in silico the outcomes of different genetic manipulations and engineer new strains by performing gene deletions or additions leading to a higher productivity of the desired chemicals. In this review we aim to summarize the main modelling approaches of biological processes and illustrate the particular applications that they have found in the field of industrial microbiology.