Acute Fulminant Necrotizing Amoebic Colitis is a rare complication of amoebiasis that is associated with high mortality. Only one to four such cases are seen per year in large hospitals of India, and only few such cases have been reported in the literature. The condition requires early diagnosis and surgical intervention. We recently cared for a patient who presented with acute abdomen with history of intermittent abdominal pain and diarrhea. Before presenting to our institution he was misdiagnosed as a case of inflammatory bowel disease and had been treated with steroids. On emergency exploration, extensive necrosis and multiple perforations in retroperitoneum involving entire colon were seen. Total colectomy with ileostomy was performed. Postoperative course was marked by septicaemia and multi-organ failure followed by death. This case report emphasizes the importance of early diagnosis and treatment of acute FAC, and associated high mortality.
This case report describes a 41-year-old Afro-Caribbean lady presenting with a constellation of pyrexia, conjunctivitis, arthralgia, sterile dysuria, apthous ulceration, labial crusting and widespread erythema multiforme. A diagnosis of Stevens-Johnson Syndrome was made. She had taken no medications recently (the most common precipitant of Stevens-Johnson Syndrome) and a full screen for the common and atypical bacterial and viral triggers was negative. The identified trigger was the use of a chemical hair relaxant treatment a few days previously. With supportive measures and a course of oral prednisolone, the patient quickly improved and made a full recovery. This case highlights the importance of considering occupational and recreational precipitants of Stevens-Johnson Syndrome.
This case report looks at the association of an endoscopic oesophagogastroduodenoscopy and the onset of retro-orbital oedema in a young female. A literature search was performed in order to find any common factors between an endoscopic investigation and retroorbital oedema. An association between increased vascular permeability secondary to alcohol abuse and retroorbital oedema has been made. The case also describes the clinical signs of retro-orbital oedema and other possible causes. A link has been made between acute reversible retroorbital oedema following endoscopic oesophagogastroduodenoscopy.
In this case report we describe a rare case of right atrium myxoma that coexisted with antiphospholipid syndrome in a young woman. We describe the unusual findings and diagnostic challenges combined with a review of the literature.
Anaphylaxis is a life-threatening event that can occur anytime during pregnancy. It has been reported following administration of various substances with adverse maternal and neonatal consequences. It should be considered in the differential diagnosis of intrapartum collapse. We encountered a case of severe anaphylactic reaction following a routine cesarean section. It is very important that all members of the perinatal team are aware of early recognition and management of anaphylactic reaction. We think that it is important to highlight this as a further case report of severe anaphylactic reaction to a colloid solution and discuss the pathophysiology and
Plasmablastic lymphoma (PBL) is a recently identified entity that is considered to be a type of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma with a unique immunophenotype and a predilection for the oral cavity of patients with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Although its clinical features may help in the differential diagnosis, an extraoral location in a patient without HIV makes it more difficult to suspect clinically. This case report is the first to describe a patient with PBL originating from the jejunum in a 60-yr-old, HIV-seronegative man. Computed tomography of the face, chest and abdomen showed about a 9.4×9.0 cm mass of the proximal jejunum, multiple masses in the musculoskeletal soft tissue, and multiple lymphadenopathies. The histological examinations demonstrated a large cell lymphoma with plasmablastic differentiation. The neoplastic cells were diffusely positive for MUM1, epithelial membrane antigen and lambda light chains, and focally positive for CD79a; but negative for CD3, CD20, CD30, CD34, CD45RO, CD56, CD99, and CD117. The proliferation index by Ki-67 immunohistochemistry was approximately 70%. These findings were compatible with the diagnosis of PBL. The findings in this case suggest that PBL should be included in the differential diagnosis of a small bowel mass even in a HIV-negative patient.
Background. Squamous cell carcinoma of the gallbladder is a rare disease with symptoms developing late in its course, so that it often presents as an aggressive tumor with a poor prognosis.
Case report. We describe a 58-year-old male with a 5-week history of hypodynamia. He was found to have squamous cell carcinoma of the gallbladder with liver invasion and lymph node metastases. He underwent treatment with 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (CRT). A follow-up computer tomography (CT) scan showed complete tumor remission 2 months after the completion of CRT. The patient survived for 14 months after the end of treatment and died of multiple liver metastases.
Conclusion. The efficacy of radiotherapy in this case is encouraging and suggests a potential role for such therapy in similar cases. The benefit in terms of survival warrants further study.
Localized gingival enlargement is often associated with specific systemic medication, abscess formation, trauma or reactive lesions. Scant literature is available reporting enlargement of gingiva due the metastasis of adenocarcinoma from lung. The case report presents a unique case of an adenocarcinoma in the lung metastasizing to the buccal and lingual interdental papillae of teeth numbering 34 and 35. A 72-year-old female was referred to the Mayo Clinic with a recent diagnosis of metastatic stage IV adenocarcinoma of the left lung presented with an abnormal mass located on the left posterior buccal keratinized tissue adjacent to teeth numbering 34-35. Biopsy of the lesion was performed for CK7, CK20, TTF-1 and p63. The tumor cells were positive for CK7 and TTF-1, and weakly positive for p63 suggesting a diagnosis of adenocarcinoma. The periodontist may be in the unique position to be the first oral health care provider to evaluate any biopsy suspicious intra-oral lesions.
An atypical and rare case report is presented here of a 16 years old female patient who presented with severe, unilateral, gingival enlargement along with aggressive periodontitis around first molars that was confined to the left side of her mouth. A careful recording of the case history and results of clinical examination, laboratory blood analysis, radiological findings, and microbiological and histopathological investigations were noted and a critical review of similar conditions was taken into account to arrive at the said diagnosis.
Only a few cases of primary small-cell carcinoma of the breast have been documented in the current medical literature. A confident diagnosis can only be made if a nonmammary site is excluded or if an in-situ component can be demonstrated histologically. These criteria have been met only in a very few of the published cases, including this case report. We describe a case of a 68-year-old lady with left breast lump, which was diagnosed as breast cancer on fine-needle aspiration and core biopsy. Metastatic workup was negative for disease elsewhere, and she received 3 cycles of neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by surgery (modified radical mastectomy). However, the disease behaved very aggressively in the postoperative period. There is a lack of consensus regarding the management of the primary tumor. Present surgical treatment options are similar to those in cases of invasive ductal breast cancer, as appropriate for the size and stage of the lesion. A review of current literature on his rare entity is also presented.
Ophthalmomyiasis is an infestation of eye with larvae or maggots of certain flies. Oestrus ovis (sheep nasal botfly) belonging to family Oestridae is the most common cause of human myiasis. We describe here an acute presentation of a case of external ophthalmomyiasis, i.e., infestation of conjunctiva due to first instar larvae of Oestrus ovis. In this case report the occurrence, diagnosis and treatment all took place in the setting of a single day. Prompt treatment by removal of larvae mechanically followed by instillation of antibiotic and steroid eye drops helped to prevent serious complications. The taxonomic identification of fly is also important as some fly species are capable of penetrating deeper tissues of eyes, which is sight threatening.
Infections of a total joint replacement (TJR) of the shoulder are rare complications. After revision surgery, the incidence rises dramatically. If infection occurs, it leads to a loss of function and may be devastating to the joint. Treatment options range from single- to multiple-staged revision programs, permanent resection arthroplasty or exarticulation. In this case, a reversed shoulder endoprosthesis, which was implanted after multiple revisions of a TJR due to a posttraumatic omarthrosis and rotator cuff insufficiency, got infected. A hybrid-spacer, made of a humeral nail and a custom-made PMMA spacer forming the humeral head, was used during the revision program. After two operations, clinical and paraclinical signs turned back to normal. The patient felt well and was satisfied with the result of the therapy. The hybrid-spacer was then left in situ as a definitive solution with a satisfying range of motion. This case report shows that a hybrid-spacer can be helpful in the treatment of an infected shoulder TJR.
Catatonia in the setting of a mood disorder, an organic process, or a psychotic disorder presents significant risk to the patient’s well-being, as well as an additional barrier to treating the underlying disorder. The signs and symptoms of catatonia interfere severely with essential activities of daily living; they also at times compromise the ability of caregivers to evaluate and treat the patient’s primary disorder driving the catatonia. This interference often leads to medical emergencies, such as marked dehydration and pressure ulcers. Another life-threatening complication of the immobility commonly seen in catatonic patients is the development of deep vein thromboses (DVT) and pulmonary emboli. As with all patients, it is critical to provide preventative measures where possible to minimize risk of complications. Routine anticoagulation perhaps deserves more consideration in the case of catatonia, such as the one presented in this case report.
A case of recurrent pre and postpartum psychosis is described. Pre-partum psychosis was more severe in intensity when compared with postpartum psychosis and, if untreated, it may have continued as postpartum psychosis. Presence of bipolar affective illness in the family, ongoing stressor and unplanned pregnancy may be the risk factors for developing pregnancy- related psychosis. This case report also adds weight to the proposition that puerperal psychosis might occur in late pregnancy also.
Search for a safe and effective analgesic is long and elusive. Buprenorphine was marketed as a potent and non-addictive narcotic drug. In recent years there have been various case reports highlighting its abuse potential. As the drug will be used more widely and particularly with its use in the detoxification of heroin dependence there is an eminent possibility of its abuse at larger scale in future. Physicians should be careful in its prescription and cases of its abuse should be actively sought tor. A case report along with literature review is presented here.
The severe wear of anterior teeth facilitates the loss of anterior guidance, which protects the posterior teeth from wear during excursive movement. The collapse of posterior teeth also results in the loss of normal occlusal plane and the reduction of the vertical dimension. This case report describes 77-year-old female, who had the loss of anterior guidance, the severe wear of dentition, and the reduction of the vertical dimension. Occlusal overlay splint was used after the decision of increasing vertical dimension by anatomical landmark, facial and physiologic measurement. Once the compatibility of the new vertical dimension had been confirmed, interim fixed restoration and the permanent reconstruction was initiated. This case reports that a satisfactory clinical result was achieved by restoring the vertical dimension with an improvement in esthetics and function.
Introduction. Suxamethonium, a deepolarizing muscle relaxant, increases intraocular pressure. It is therefore advised to be avoided in open globe surgery, for fear of extruding ocular contents. Several anecdotal reports support this fear. Some workers however, dispute this claim. There is as yet no formal case report in the literature on the subject. Case Presentation. A 34-year old Nigerian male, was involved in a road traffic accident. He presented at the Accident & Emergency Unit of our hospital about 2 hours after the accident. Clinical examination revealed right corneal laceration (with intact ocular contents) and intra-abdominal visceral injury. Emergency laparotomy was scheduled, to be followed with corneal repair. Anaesthesia was induced with 10 mg midazolam, 100 mg ketamine, and 100 mg suxamethonium given intravenously in sequence. After laparotomy, the ophthalmologists reported for the corneal repair, only to find that the vitreous humour has been extruded. Conclusion. The fear about the use of suxamethonium in open globe situations is real. It will be good clinical judgment to use alternative drugs and techniques to effect rapid muscle relaxation, in the anaesthetic management of the open globe patient. This would be of interest to anaesthetists...
We present a case of an atypical clival meningeal melanoma treated with a multidisciplinary staged transcrusal and transsphenoidal endoscopic surgical approach. A 45-year-old woman presented with a 15-month history of visual symptoms, neck pain, and unsteadiness. Magnetic resonance imaging of the head revealed a clival mass with both intracranial and extracranial involvement. Endoscopic clival biopsy suggested a melanocytic tumor. Extensive imaging and dermatological workup did not demonstrate a primary source. A multidisciplinary staged surgical resection included a transcrusal approach to resect the intracranial component, followed by transsphenoidal endoscopic resection of the extracranial component. Postoperatively, she received adjuvant radiation. At 1 year following surgery, the patient retains full preservation of hearing, facial nerve function, and extraocular movements. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of a combined surgical approach for a primary clival meningitic melanoma.
Objective. To describe a rare case of an impacted large foreign body (chicken bone) in the laryngopharynx. Case Report. A 28-years-old man presented with pain in the neck of 5 days duration. The patient gave a history of severe choking sensation while eating chicken. Laryngoscopic examination revealed a linear whitish large chicken bone impacted in the left pyriform fossa. The bone was removed under local anesthesia with the guidance of telescopic laryngeal examination. Conclusion. This paper describes impaction of a large chicken bone in the hypopharynx in an adult male patient and its removal with guided telescopic laryngeal examination.
Cemento-ossifying fibromas (COF) are benign lesions affecting the jaws and other craniofacial bones. They commonly affect adults between the third and fourth decade of life. Radiographically, they appear as well-defined unilocular or multilocular intraosseous masses, commonly in the premolar/molar region of the mandible. The lesion is invariably encapsulated and of mixed radiolucent densities. The tumour may grow quite extensively, thus the term aggressive is some times applied. Their clinical, radiographical and histopathological features and those of fibro-osseous lesions are overlapping and may cause confusion in classification, diagnosis, and treatment. The histopathology is composed of fibrous tissues with calcified structures resembling bone or cementum. Surgical enucleation or resection is the treatment of choice. They are insensitive to radiotherapy and recurrences are uncommon. This case report presents a case of COF in 70 years old female patient that was asymptomatic. Clinically, there was an expansion of the buccal plate but not the lingual plate of the right mandible. The covering mucosa was normal and there was no tenderness or paraesthesia. Radiographically, the lesion extends superio-inferiory from the alveolar ridge to the area of inferior dental canal and mesiodistally from the premolar region to the retro-molar area. The lesion was of mixed radiolucent densities. The patient was followed up periodically for 5 years without any treatment. The patient continued to be asymptomatic with minimum changes. Occurrence of cemento-ossifying fibroma in patients over 60 years of age is unusual and had not been reported. The clinical...