Página 17 dos resultados de 476117 itens digitais encontrados em 0.120 segundos

‣ Tipificação dos instrumentos de políticas de apoio à eficiência energética: a experiência mundial e o cenário nacional.; Analytic categorizing of programs and measures fostering energy efficiency: experiences abroad and the Brazilian scene.

Alves, Sizenando Silveira
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 08/05/2007 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.842183%
A criação e aplicação de uma política (ou conjunto de políticas) de incentivo à eficiência energética, composta por um conjunto harmônico e coeso de instrumentos adequados à realidade nacional, resultará em: 1) aumento da competitividade da indústria nacional; 2) expansão da oferta de energia a custo mínimo; e 3) avanços no sentido de aproximar a economia nacional de um modelo ambientalmente sustentável. Adicione-se a estes 3 pontos, que importa que se implantem políticas públicas de apoio à eficiência energética, pois, além da larga escala em que muitos dos investimentos em eficiência energética precisam ser coordenados, alguns destes forçosamente devem ser públicos por serem destinados a corrigir falhas de mercado. O conhecimento dos diversos instrumentos de políticas de incentivo à eficiência energética existentes propiciará às instâncias decisórias envolvidas melhores condições para a elaboração e implantação daqueles que se mostrarem mais necessários e eficazes para a realidade nacional. Devido a fatores econômicos e ambientais, diversos países implantaram, ao longo da História, políticas de apoio à eficiência energética. Cada uma destas políticas se valeu de algumas dentre diversas ferramentas...

‣ Quantificação e correlação das variáveis do ciclo de vida energético da edificação: energia incorporada na envolvente arquitetônica e consumo energético pelo comportamento térmico, caso de estudo: moradia; Quantification and correlation of lifecycle building energyvariables: energy embodied in the architectural envelope and energy consumption for its thermal behavior, case study: residential house

Quiroa Herrera, Jaime Andrés
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 25/02/2013 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.842183%
No presente trabalho se analisou o consumo energético de uma moradia social, para isto se calculou a energia incorporada nos materiais construtivos utilizados no projeto da moradia analisada e o consumo energético provocado pelo comportamento térmico da envolvente térmica da edificação estudando como a mudança dos materiais construtivos como: telhados e paredes modificam o valor da energia incorporada e o consumo de energia elétrica pelo comportamento térmico, uma vez que se considera possível que o consumo energético por motivos térmico seja maior que a energia incorporada. Para o calculo da energia incorporadados materiais construtivos que compõem a envolvente, foram utilizados coeficientes de energia incorporada propostos por Tavares, (2006), Graf; Tavares, (2010), Lobo, (2010). A pesquisa foi enfocada ao setor habitacional por ser um dos setores que apresentam maior consumo de energia, enfocando-se especificamente à moradia social. A metodologia para avaliar o consumo energético da edificação no período de análise, se divide em quatros etapas: 1) Quantificação de materiais da envolvente 2) Cálculo de energia incorporada 3) Cálculo de gasto energético nos períodos de 1 e 40 anos realizado por meio de simulações no software Energy Plus 4) Cálculo dos coeficientes de correlação das variáveis.Tomaram-se as cidades de São Carlos...

‣ Fluxos de energia em sistemas de produção de forragens; Energy flows in forage production systems

Andréa, Maria Carolina da Silva
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 18/06/2013 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.842183%
No cenário mundial atual, em que é observado o aumento da população, da demanda por alimentos e da utilização de energia, também é observada a busca por fontes de energia alternativas às fósseis, diminuindo a dependência e risco econômico e ambiental oriundo de seu uso exclusivo. A análise de fluxos de energia possibilita uma avaliação da sustentabilidade de sistemas de produção agrícola, que visa o uso eficiente de insumos em termos energéticos. Essas análises também permitem identificar culturas como fonte de bioenergia, além de poderem ser utilizadas como complemento às análises econômicas, na busca por sistemas de produção mais eficientes. Esse estudo teve como objetivo apresentar uma análise do uso de insumos e energia, bem como a sua eficiência, em sistemas de produção de plantas forrageiras, tradicionalmente utilizadas para alimentação animal, na região dos Campos Gerais, Paraná. Foram determinados o fluxo de materiais (FM), demanda (EE) e disponibilização de energia (ES), balanço energético (BE), lucratividade energética (EROI) e energia incorporada (EI) da biomassa foram aplicados nesses sistemas. O FM determinou o consumo de insumos por área, e serviu de base para o cálculo da EE dos sistemas. Com características das culturas...

‣ Roteamento de tráfego e alocação de recursos em redes ópticas WDM com base em economia de energia; Energy-aware traffic routing and resource allocation in WDM optical networks

Llerena Valdivia, Nereida Celina
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 28/11/2014 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.842183%
O crescimento do tráfego de serviços de telecomunicações tem aumentado o consumo de energia e, em consequência, aumentado as emissões de CO2 que tem efeitos nocivos sobre o meio ambiente. É assim que a economia de energia torna-se um fator chave no planejamento de redes de telecomunicações. Para garantir a disponibilidade e confiabilidade, as redes possuem arquitetura redundante e são projetadas para suportar a demanda de pico de tráfego. Redes com mecanismos de proteção como proteção dedicada de caminhos (DPP), proveem caminhos alternativos para cada demanda de conexão. Os elementos da rede que suportam esses caminhos estão em estado ativo (consumindo energia), apesar de, na maior parte do tempo, não transportarem tráfego efetivo. Um método para diminuir o gasto de energia é utilizar roteamento adaptado à carga real de tráfego baseado em modo suspenso (estado de baixo consumo de energia que pode passar a estado ativo rapidamente). Assim, o tráfego é roteado com vistas à maximizar a quantidade de componentes que são parte de caminhos de proteção, que podem ser postos em modo suspenso. Neste trabalho, as redes usadas para os testes são a rede europeia Cost239, a rede estadunidense UsNet e a rede brasileira Ipê. Abordamos o problema de economia de energia em redes WDM com DPP através de quatro estratégias de roteamento. Cada uma tem objetivos diferentes...

‣ Balanço energético de adolescentes eutróficos e com diferentes graus de excesso de peso; Energy balance of eutrophic and overweight adolescents

Helen Rose Camargo Pereira
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 30/06/2011 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.842183%
Introdução: Mudanças no padrão alimentar e de atividades físicas durante os últimos 30 anos foram propulsoras para o excedente de peso em crianças e adolescentes, pois estimularam o consumo excessivo de energia combinado ao reduzido gasto energético em atividades. Ações preventivas devem ser baseadas em evidências e neste contexto, quantificar as alterações na ingestão e no gasto energético pode servir de base para o desenvolvimento de formas eficazes de prevenção. Objetivos: (1) Realizar uma revisão dos artigos que investigam a magnitude do desequilíbrio energético associado ao aumento do peso em crianças e adolescentes, (2) estimar o grau de desequilíbrio energético de adolescentes eutróficos, com sobrepeso e obesos, e o viés causado pela subnotificação do consumo alimentar. Métodos: Estudo transversal com adolescentes entre 11 e 17 anos. Foram utilizadas as médias de três registros alimentares e três registros de atividade física, preenchidos simultaneamente. A avaliação nutricional foi composta por medida do peso e estatura, cálculo do índice de massa corporal, avaliação do total de tecido adiposo e da sua distribuição. A ingestão energética relatada foi confrontada com as necessidades estimadas pelas Dietary Reference Intakes (2002) e avaliada a subnotificação do consumo. Foi calculado o balanço energético a partir da ingestão energética relatada e estimada. Para a análise dos resultados...

‣ Net energy evaluation of feeds and determination of net energy requirements for pigs

Noblet,Jean
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Zootecnia Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Zootecnia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/07/2007 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.844458%
Feeds for pigs can be attributed different energy values according to, first, the step considered in energy utilization (DE: digestible energy, ME: metabolizable energy and NE: net energy) and, second, the method used for estimation at each step. Reference methods for evaluating DE content are based on in vivo digestibility measurements; indirect estimates of DE values are obtained from in vitro methods or prediction equations based on chemical characteristics. Methods have also been proposed for estimating urinary energy (and gas energy to a smaller extent) in order to calculate ME content from DE value. The NE values originate from energy balance studies (slaughter methods or, more commonly, indirect calorimetry measurements in respiration chambers) and their compilation allows the calculation of NE prediction equations based on digestible nutrient contents or DE or ME contents. Such equations are applicable to both ingredients and compound feeds. They may differ between origins according to the fractionation method of organic matter or assumptions such as the NE requirement for maintenance (or fasting heat production). These measurements represent the bases for establishment of energy values in feeding tables. Results indicate that energy digestibility of feeds is negatively affected by dietary fibre content but this negative effect is attenuated with body weight increase...

‣ District Energy Trends, Issues, and Opportunities : The Role of the World Bank

Gochenour, Carolyn
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.844458%
This study reviews the history and development of district heating and district cooling, together referred to as district energy in North America, Western Europe, Asia, Eastern and Central Europe, and the Former Soviet Union (FSU). Experience from other parts of the world where DH systems exist could be beneficial to DH industry managers and regulators in Eastern and Central Europe and FSU countries in modernizing their management systems and improving their policies and practices to allow for the attraction of capital that is urgently needed. The report reviews, in a systematic manner, the key institutional, economic, financial, technical, and environmental issues in the countries of Eastern and Central Europe and the FSU with the goal of arriving at operationally relevant issues and defining the awareness and understanding of the nature of activities which can lead to increasing energy efficiency and the attractiveness of district energy to private financing.

‣ Fire without Smoke : Learning from the National Program on Improved Chulhas

Rehman, Ibrahim Hafeezur; Malhotra, Preeti
Fonte: New Delhi: The Energy and Resources Institute and the World Bank Publicador: New Delhi: The Energy and Resources Institute and the World Bank
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.844458%
A major section of over 720 million rural poor in India continue to depend on biomass sources for meeting their energy requirements. Most of these poor people continue to burn biomass in energy-inefficient devices, locally called Chulhas. This study report is based on an evaluation of the National Program for Improved Chulhas (NPIC) conducted as part of a larger Bank study entitled India : household energy, indoor air pollution and health (World Bank 2002). This book synthesizes learning and insights from various programs implementation across different socio-economic and geographic regions of the country. The critical issues related to dissemination of improves cook-stoves discussed in the book will find wide application not only in India but in other developing countries as well. It is imperative that we take forward the initiatives undertaken in the past to provide energy-efficient option for meeting the cooking needs of rural communities, yet underserved by modern energy options.

‣ Iran - Energy : Environment Review Policy Note

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.842183%
This Policy Note is based on the Final Report of the Environmental Energy Review (EER), prepared over two years, with the full collaboration of the Government of Iran, and the assistance of international, and national consultants. The EER report comprises: an analysis of the current situation with regards to energy generation, and use; an evaluation of the growth prospects with regard to energy generation, and use; the identification of the environmental issues induced by the generation, and use of energy, and the cost estimates of damages; the evaluation of the extent of contribution to the climate-change phenomenon, through emission of greenhouse gases; the evaluation of the proposed mitigating measures for previously identified environmental problems; conclusions and recommendations; and, a proposal for an action plan. The emphasis of the EER is on air pollution, being the most extreme, visible sign of environmental damage, certainly in the large cities. The major source of air pollution is the energy sector, key to the Iranian economy...

‣ Swaziland Solar Electrification Program 2001-2010 : Phase 1. 2001-2002 Solar Energy in the Pilot Area

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.846538%
The report presents the solar electrification program in Swaziland, aimed at meeting the basic electrical needs of rural communities, of which currently, less than five percent is connected to power grids. Although implementation efforts have been made towards the development of sustainable solar markets in the country, a number of constraints, and barriers hinder implementation, e.g., rigid product assortment, focused on photovoltaic technology, rather than service delivery, and, aggravated by poor access to credit. The initial step, creation of awareness will play a pivotal role, since acceptance of solar electrification by the rural community, the government, and the electricity utility Swaziland Electricity Board (SEC), is critical to the sustainability of the program. The deliverables of this solar electrification program include: basic needs assessment, focused on energy needs for both productive, and community activities; development, and implementation of a wide range of solar products, delivery modes...

‣ Optimizing Storage and Memory Systems for Energy and Performance

Useche, Luis Enrique
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.842183%
Electrical energy is an essential resource for the modern world. Unfortunately, its price has almost doubled in the last decade. Furthermore, energy production is also currently one of the primary sources of pollution. These concerns are becoming more important in data-centers. As more computational power is required to serve hundreds of millions of users, bigger data-centers are becoming necessary. This results in higher electrical energy consumption. Of all the energy used in data- centers, including power distribution units, lights, and cooling, computer hardware consumes as much as 80%. Consequently, there is opportunity to make data-centers more energy efficient by designing systems with lower energy footprint. Consuming less energy is critical not only in data-centers. It is also important in mobile devices where battery-based energy is a scarce resource. Reducing the energy consumption of these devices will allow them to last longer and re-charge less frequently. Saving energy in computer systems is a challenging problem. Improving a sys- tem’s energy efficiency usually comes at the cost of compromises in other areas such as performance or reliability. In the case of secondary storage, for example, spinning-down the disks to save energy can incur high latencies if they are accessed while in this state. The challenge is to be able to increase the energy efficiency while keeping the system as reliable and responsive as before. This thesis tackles the problem of improving energy efficiency in existing systems while reducing the impact on performance. First...

‣ Evaluating the sustainability of future energy mixes.

Hong, Sanghyun
Fonte: Universidade de Adelaide Publicador: Universidade de Adelaide
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2014 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.842183%
For effective mitigation of greenhouse-gas emissions and their ensuing climate disruption, the worldwide consumption of fossil fuels for energy production must be curtailed deeply and urgently. Yet historical evidence shows that energy efficiency typically fails to reduce energy consumption while maintaining economic growth, and large-scale renewable resources, excluding hydroelectric power, are difficult to harness economically at large scales. Moreover, in many East Asian and European countries with large demand and high population densities, there is limited land for energy production. In this thesis I look at the problem of fossil-fuel replacement by nuclear and renewables, focusing on three relevant case studies (South Korea, Japan and Australia). I first calculate the maximum limits of renewable-energy sources in South Korea, revealing that geophysical constraints mean that renewable energy could only supply < 35% of electricity consumption. I then compared the current electricity mix with six alternative scenarios using multi-criteria decision-making analysis (MCDMA); the factors included electricity cost, greenhouse-gas emissions, land transformation, water consumption, heated-water discharge, air pollution, radioactive waste...

‣ From right to light: a human rights-based approach to universal access to modern energy services.

Solis, Manuel Peter Samonte
Fonte: Universidade de Adelaide Publicador: Universidade de Adelaide
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2015 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.844458%
The thesis re-introduces the human rights-based approach to achieve universal access to modern energy services to offer an integrated and coherent legal strategy and implementation framework that brings renewable energy technology and rural electrification under the common logic and language of human rights. Although access to modern energy services is indispensable to providing basic needs, eradicating poverty and meeting sustainable development goals, 1.3 billion people remain without access to electricity and 2.6 billion people are still without access to clean cooking facilities. Essentially, the challenge lies in how to enhance access to modern energy services, particularly for those who are in impoverished rural areas of the developing world, while achieving universal coverage and sustainable development at the same time. In response, the United Nations called the world’s attention to this challenge and launched the ‘Sustainable Energy for All’ initiative that focuses on three interlinked objectives: 1) enhancing universal access to modern energy services; 2) improving the rate of energy efficiency; and 3) increasing renewable energy use. Beyond catalysing global awareness, however, the critical stage of turning the vision into reality with concrete commitments to action beckons. The imperative of developing a coherent and appropriate legal response is vital to advancing international and national development agenda and goals. For this reason...

‣ Energy Accounting and Optimization for Mobile Systems

Dong, Mian
Fonte: Universidade Rice Publicador: Universidade Rice
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.844458%
Energy accounting determines how much a software process contributes to the total system energy consumption. It is the foundation for evaluating software and has been widely used by operating system based energy management. While various energy accounting policies have been tried, there is no known way to evaluate them directly simply because it is hard to track every hardware use by software in a heterogeneous multicore system like modern smartphones and tablets. This work provides the ground truth for energy accounting based on multi-player game theory and offers the first evaluation of existing energy accounting policies, revealing their important flaws. The proposed ground truth is based on Shapley value, a single value solution to multi-player games of which four axiomatic properties are natural and self-evident to energy accounting. This work further provides a utility optimization formulation of energy management and shows, surprisingly, that energy accounting does not matter for existing energy management solutions that control the energy use of a process by giving it an energy budget, or budget based energy management (BEM). This work shows an optimal energy management (OEM) framework can always outperform BEM. While OEM does not require any form of energy accounting...

‣ Promoting Renewable Energy through Auctions : The Case of India

Khana, Ashish; Barroso, Luiz
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Journal Article; Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.844458%
This knowledge note singles out auctions as an important mechanism that has been implemented in a growing number of countries in recent decades. It features a case study of auctions designed to promote the generation of electricity from renewable sources in India. The country's national- and state-level experience with auctions of solar energy products both large and small attests to the flexibility and adaptability of auction mechanisms. Under the National Solar Mission, auctions have been implemented with good results in a variety of settings. Lessons include the importance of clear ideas about key goals and objectives, and about areas where sacrifices can be made. Experience in several states has also underlined the importance of regulatory stability. This case study is interesting, because India's National Solar Mission led to concurrent implementations of renewable auction schemes. Both national- and state-level auctions have led to successful projects. The Indian central government's experience with auction implementations can be split into three main segments. Phase 1 auctions concern centralized auctions for procuring utility-scale solar plants. Rooftop auctions concern central government conducted auctions for rooftop solar generation in specific cities. No centralized auctions for large-scale solar generation were conducted in 2012 or 2013...

‣ Measuring the Results of World Bank Lending in the Energy Sector

Banerjee, Sudeshna Ghosh; Soni, Ruchi; Portale, Elisa
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Journal Article; Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.842183%
This note is the first report of energy-sector results indicators reflecting the World Bank's broad lending patterns during FY2000-13. To compile it, energy projects back to FY2000 were manually screened for results data comparable with the standardized indicators now used in the Bank's corporate scorecard. In the future, automation will make it easier to collect, aggregate, and analyze data on project outcomes.

‣ Oil Price Volatility, Economic Growth and the Hedging Role of Renewable Energy

Rentschler, Jun E.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.844458%
This paper investigates the adverse effects of oil price volatility on economic activity and the extent to which countries can hedge against such effects by using renewable energy. By considering the Realized Volatility of oil prices, rather than following the standard approach of considering oil price shocks in levels, the effects of factor price uncertainty on economic activity are analyzed. Sample countries represent developed and developing, oil importing and exporting and service/industry-based economies (United States, Japan, Germany, South Korea, India, and Malaysia) and thus complement the standard literature's analysis of Western OECD countries. In a vector auto-regressive setting, Granger causality tests, impulse response functions, and variance decompositions show that oil price volatility has more-adverse effects in all sample countries than oil price shocks alone can explain. The paper finds that the sensitivity to oil price volatility varies widely across countries and discusses various factors which may determine the level of sensitivity (such as sectoral composition and the energy mix). This implies that the standard approach of solely considering net oil importer-exporter status is not sufficient. Simulations of volatility shocks in hypothetical energy mixes (with increased renewable shares) illustrate the potential economic benefits resulting from efforts to disconnect the macroeconomy from volatile commodity markets. It is concluded that expanding renewable energy can in principle reduce an economy's vulnerability to oil price volatility...

‣ The Impact of Energy on Women's Lives in Rural India

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: ESMAP Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.842183%
This report highlights the tremendous difference that access to improved energy services in the form of biomass stoves, petroleum fuels, and household electrification makes for the life of rural women. Of course, the benefits of rural energy services can differ by region, class, caste, education, and household occupation, but the overall pattern that emerges is that the benefits of improved rural energy services for rural women in India are substantial. The use of Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) or kerosene stoves relieves women of much of the most arduous tasks involved in cooking for their families and permits them to lead a relatively comfortable and healthy life. Household electrification also has positive consequences for women in terms of their general quality of life, including an increased likelihood that they will read, watch television, and earn income. Having lights at night increases their ability to read in the evening after dark. However, the advantages of electrification could be exploited even more...

‣ Togo Energy Sector Policy Review : Review of the Electricity Sub-Sector; Togo - Apercu du sous-secteur de l'electricite

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Energy Study; Economic & Sector Work
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.846538%
The main objective of this sector work (ESW) is to provide the World Bank and the Government of Togo with a sound basis and proposals for decision-making about the main electricity sub-sector issues facing the country. The ESW therefore assesses the key challenges facing the sub-sector and provides information, analysis and recommendations regarding: 1) the overall energy policy and strategy framework; 2) the institutional and regulatory framework including the necessary reforms within the context of Togo's regional undertakings; 3) the electricity demand and supply balance including access to electricity services; 4) electricity tariffing; 5) the investment program and the financing requirements; and 6) the utility's financial situation and the sub-sector financial outlook. The review also summarizes recommendations addressing the key issues facing Togo's electricity sub-sector. Togo will need to confront several constraints to promote economic recovery and reduce poverty. Weak public sector capacity has become the Government's most pressing challenge and is hampering the country's ability to manage the rapidly expanding portfolio of projects funded by the donors...

‣ Confronting the Food-Energy-Environment Trilemma : Global Land Use in the Long Run

Steinbuks, Jevgenijs; Hertel, Thomas W.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
35.846538%
Economic, agronomic, and biophysical drivers affect global land use, so all three influences need to be considered in evaluating economically optimal allocations of the world's land resources. A dynamic, forward-looking optimization framework applied over the course of the coming century shows that although some deforestation is optimal in the near term, in the absence of climate change regulation, the desirability of further deforestation is eliminated by mid-century. Although adverse productivity shocks from climate change have a modest effect on global land use, such shocks combined with rapid growth in energy prices lead to significant deforestation and higher greenhouse gas emissions than in the baseline. Imposition of a global greenhouse gas emissions constraint further heightens the competition for land, as fertilizer use declines and land-based mitigation strategies expand. However, anticipation of the constraint largely dilutes its environmental effectiveness, as deforestation accelerates prior to imposition of the target.