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‣ THE DETERMINANTS OF HEALTHY EATING AMONG LOW-INCOME CANADIANS

Power, Elaine
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Tipo: Relatório Formato: 1021353 bytes; application/pdf
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This paper outlines the state of knowledge regarding the determinants of healthy eating among low-income Canadians, as well as gaps in that knowledge. It focuses on income and social class, the first of twelve determinants of health identified in Health Canada’s model of population health. Its orientation is sociological, drawing in particular on the work of French sociologist Pierre Bourdieu, to understand both the economic and socio-cultural determinants of healthy eating for low-income Canadians.; This scoping paper on the state of knowledge regarding the determinants of healthy eating for low-income Canadians was commissioned by the Office of Nutrition Policy and Promotion, Health Canada. It is one of a series of papers regarding the determinants of healthy eating. For published, short versions of the series of papers, please see the special issue of the Canadian Journal of Public Health, volume 96, supplement 3, "Understanding the Forces that Influence Our Eating Habits: What We Know and Need to Know"; Health Canada Office of Nutrition Policy and Promotion

‣ Trade, Regulations, and Income

Freund, Caroline; Bolaky, Bineswaree
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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We examine the relationship between openness and per-capita income using cross-country data from 126 countries. We find that trade leads to a higher standard of living in flexible economies, but not in rigid economies. Business regulation, especially on firm entry, is more important than financial development, higher education, or rule of law as a complementary policy to trade liberalization. Specifically, after controlling for the standard determinants of per-capita income, our results imply that a 1% increase in trade is associated with more than a one-half percent rise in per-capita income in economies that facilitate firm entry, but has no positive income effects in more rigid economies. The findings are consistent with Schumpeterian "creative destruction", which highlights the importance of new business entry in economic performance, and with previous firm-level studies showing that the beneficial effects of trade liberalization come largely from an intra-sectoral reallocation of resources.

‣ World Food Prices and Human Development: Policy Simulations for Archetype Low-Income Countries

Lofgren, Hans
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
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In recent years, world food prices have increased and fluctuated widely. This paper explores the impact of international food prices and domestic policies on Millennium Development Goal (MDG) and macro indicators for two archetype low-income countries, a net food exporter and a net food importer, using Maquette for MDG Simulations (MAMS), a Computable General Equilibrium model. The simulations, which cover the period 2011-2025, indicate that the size of positive (negative) effects on macro and MDG indicators of a food export (import) price increase depend on the initial gross domestic product share for food exports (imports), leaving countries that are heavily involved in international food trade more exposed to international shocks. Given relatively low elasticity estimates, the impact of changes in food prices on undernourishment are relatively marginal. Flexible responses (in terms of production shares, whether output is exported or sold at home, and whether domestic demanders buy imports or domestic output) enable countries to benefit from or be less hurt by price changes. The case for policy responses to higher import prices is stronger for the net food importer. An untargeted food subsidy...

‣ AML/CFT Regulation : Implications for Financial Service Providers that Serve Low-Income People

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
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This report on anti-money laundering (AML) and combating the financing of terrorism (CFT) regulation addresses the consequences of these regulations on low-income people. The introduction of new or tightened AML/CFT regulations may have the unintended and undesirable consequence of reducing the access of low-income individuals to formal financial services. As a means to avoid this outcome, this paper argues in favor of gradual implementation of new measures; the adoption of a risk-based approach to regulation; and the use of exemptions for low-risk categories of transactions.

‣ Literacy for All in 100 Days? A Research-based Strategy for Fast Progress in Low-income Countries

Abadzi, Helen
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
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In low-income countries many students are marginalized very early and remain illiterate. In grades 1-3 they attend rarely, though they may officially drop out in grade 4. Many others graduate from primary school without having learned letter values. The worrisome outcomes, despite much donor investment in low-income countries, have prompted scrutiny of the methods, and textbooks used to make students literate. This document offers insights from cognitive neuroscience and evidence suggesting that students can be taught basic literacy within the first semester of grade 1, if taught in consistently spelled languages. Teaching students at risk of dropout to read as early as possible enhances equity. However, the reading methods used in many countries are complex and hard for teachers to execute. They pertain to high-income countries and to certain western European languages. English but also French, Portuguese, and Dutch have complex spelling systems. English in particular requires three years of learning time. (French requires about two). Reading instruction for English is expensive and complex. Lists of whole words must be learned...

‣ Child Labor, Income Shocks, and Access to Credit

Beegle, Kathleen; Dehejia, Rajeev H.; Gatti, Roberta
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
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Although a growing theoretical literature points to credit constraints as an important source of inefficiently high child labor, little work has been done to assess its empirical relevance. Using panel data from Tanzania, the authors find that households respond to transitory income shocks by increasing child labor, but that the extent to which child labor is used as a buffer is lower when households have access to credit. These findings contribute to the empirical literature on the permanent income hypothesis by showing that credit-constrained households actively use child labor to smooth their income. Moreover, they highlight a potentially important determinant of child labor and, as a result, a mechanism that can be used to tackle it.

‣ Enhancing Financial Capability and Behavior in Low- and Middle-Income Countries

Lundberg, Mattias; Mulaj, Florentina
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
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The Russia Trust Fund for Financial Literacy and Education was set up to support the advancement of financial literacy and capability in low- and middle-income countries. Established in 2008 with funding provided by the Ministry of Finance of the Russian Federation, the Trust Fund enabled the World Bank and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) to conduct methodological, analytical, and policy work on financial literacy, capability, and education. The program has supported work on the definition and measurement of financial capability, methods, and tools to understand the impact of financial capability programs; and field research on interventions designed to enhance financial capability. This volume presents the results of pilot projects financed by the Trust Fund. These include some truly pioneering research into new areas for financial capacity building, including the use of diaries to increase financial awareness, innovative methods for information provision, and new ways to deliver messages that encourage safer financial behavior...

‣ Updating Poverty Estimates at Frequent Intervals in the Absence of Consumption Data : Methods and Illustration with Reference to a Middle-Income Country

Dang, Hai-Anh H.; Lanjouw, Peter F.; Serajuddin, Umar
Fonte: World Bank Group, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
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Obtaining consistent estimates on poverty over time as well as monitoring poverty trends on a timely basis is a priority concern for policy makers. However, these objectives are not readily achieved in practice when household consumption data are neither frequently collected, nor constructed using consistent and transparent criteria. This paper develops a formal framework for survey-to-survey poverty imputation in an attempt to overcome these obstacles, and to elevate the discussion of these methods beyond the largely ad-hoc efforts in the existing literature. The framework introduced here imposes few restrictive assumptions, works with simple variance formulas, provides guidance on the selection of control variables for model building, and can be generally applied to imputation either from one survey to another survey with the same design, or to another survey with a different design. Empirical results analyzing the Household Expenditure and Income Survey and the Unemployment and Employment Survey in Jordan are quite encouraging...

‣ Global Inequality of Opportunity : How Much of Our Income Is Determined By Where We Live?

Milanovic, Branko
Fonte: MIT Press Publicador: MIT Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Suppose that all people in the world are allocated only two characteristics over which they have (almost) no control: country of residence and income distribution within that country. Assume further that there is no migration. We show that more than one-half of variability in income of world population classified according to their household per capita in one-percent income groups (by country) is accounted for by these two characteristics. The role of effort or luck cannot play a large role in explaining global distribution of income.

‣ The Relationship Between a Retention Program and the Persistence and Graduation Rates of First-Generation Low-Income Students at an Urban, Public University

Sawyers, Dorret E
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
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The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between participation in a retention program designed to promote academic and social integration and the persistence rates of first generation, low-income college students at an urban, public multiethnic university. Archival data were collected from the university’s Office of Institutional Research and the retention program office and included SAT/ACT scores, GPA, gender, ethnicity, and program participation data. A total of 292 first-generation, low-income students who were admitted to the university in the summer of 1999 were identified for the study. A group of 166 students were selected for the comparison group because they had not participated in the retention program; 126 students had participated in the retention program. Three major research questions guided this study: (a) Are there differences in persistence rates and other academic characteristics of underprepared, low-income, first generation college students who participate and do not participate in the retention program?; (b) Does involvement in the retention program predict student persistence of first generation low-income, underprepared students?, and (c) Can predictors of GPA be identified for students in the retention program using program and descriptive variables? A series of logistic regression analyses were conducted to assess the relationship between various retention services and the persistence and graduation rates of participants. The results showed that there were statistically significant relationships between participation and non-participation in the retention program and having higher GPAs and higher graduation and persistence rates. Of the four program features...

‣ Income inequality as a determinant of health

Ross, N.; Wolfson, M.; Kaplan, G.; Dunn, J.; Lynch, J.; Sanmartin, C.
Fonte: Oxford University Press; Oxford Publicador: Oxford University Press; Oxford
Tipo: Parte de Livro
Publicado em //2006 Português
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This chapter begins by reviewing research evidence on the relationship between income and health at the individual level, and examines studies that have followed individuals through time to demonstrate the direction of the relationship. This is a fundamental starting point since the individual relationship between income and health likely underlies any analysis examining the connection between income inequality and population health. The chapter introduces research regarding this connection, and then compares the relationship between income inequality and health in jurisdictions within Canada and the United States, finding significant differences. It concludes with a series of hypotheses about why health outcomes in Canada and the United States are so different.; Nancy Ross, Michael Wolfson, George A. Kaplan, James R. Dunn, John Lynch, Claudia Sanmartin

‣ Income and Employment Effects of Trade and Offshoring in Modern Labor Markets; Einkommens- und Beschäftigungseffekte von Außenhandel und Offshoring in Modernen Arbeitsmärkten

Hogrefe, Jan
Fonte: Universidade de Tubinga Publicador: Universidade de Tubinga
Tipo: Dissertação
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This dissertation deals with the effects of international trade on several key variables and mechanisms in the labor market. In particular, a focus is directed on international production relocation, so-called offshoring, and its impact on the German labor market. The dissertation consists of four main chapters with an additional introduction and conclusion. The first main chapter, chapter 2, analyses the driving forces behind movements in the labor share of income in general and the role of openness to international trade in particular. In an econometric panel analysis it is shown that particularly after 1980, international trade had a profound impact on the labor share. Chapter 3 shows a link between offshoring and the permanent component of labor income risk. This income risk is estimated at first and is subsequently linked to offshoring in an econometric sector-year panel study. It is shown that, within German manufacturing, an increase in offshoring is correlated with a decrease in the permanent component of labor income risk. The fourth chapter shows the specific relation between offshoring and relative labor demand for tasks. In comparison to skill-based approaches, the task-based approach allows for a more direct approximation of the tradability of certain parts of the production chain. The analysis first shows how this relationship can be theoretically modeled and then confirms a negative effect of offshoring on relative labor demand for more easily tradable tasks. Chapter 5 is concerned with the effect of offshoring on individual skill upgrading through on-the-job training. An individual skill adjustment margin is incorporated into an extended offshoring model...

‣ Nonstationarity and Stochastic Stability of Relative Income Clubs

El-Gamal, Mahmoud A.; Ryu, Deockhyun
Fonte: Universidade Rice Publicador: Universidade Rice
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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The recent literature on “convergence” of cross-country per capita incomes has been dominated by the two hypotheses of “global convergence” and “club-convergence,” pertaining to limits of estimated income distribution dynamics. Utilizing a new measure of “stochastic stability,” we establish two stylized facts regarding short- and medium-term distribution dynamics. The first is non-stationarity of transition dynamics, in the sense of changing transition kernels, and the second is emergence, disappearance, and re-emergence of a “stochastically stable” middle income group. This middle income group emerges as the gap between rich and poor clubs gets larger, and it changes the dynamics of transition to and from the rich and poor clubs, eventually narrowing the gap between the poor and rich as the middle club vanishes. Analyzing the stochastic stability of middle-income groups is thus a first step toward understanding higher-order dynamics of narrowing or widening of the gap between rich and poor countries.

‣ Income distribution in the Latin American Southern Cone during the first globalization boom, ca: 1870-1920

Bértola, Luis; Castelnovo, Cecilia; Rodríguez, Javier; Willebald, Henry
Fonte: Universidade Carlos III de Madrid Publicador: Universidade Carlos III de Madrid
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /04/2008 Português
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Latin America is the most unequal region in the world and there is a lively debate concerning the explanations and timing of such high levels of income inequality. Latin America was also the region, not including European Offshoots, which experienced the most rapid growth during the first globalization boom. It can, therefore, be taken as an interesting case study for how globalization forces impinged on growth and income distribution in peripheral regions. This paper presents a first estimate of income inequality in the Southern Cone of South America (Brazil 1872 and 1920, Chile 1870 and 1920, Uruguay 1920) and some assumptions concerning Argentina (1870 and 1920), and Uruguay (1870). We find an increasing inequality trend between 1870 and 1920 which can be explained as a process of inequality both within individual countries and between countries. This trend is discussed along three lines: the relation between inequality and per capita income levels; the dynamics of the expansion to new areas, and movements of relative factor prices and of the terms of trade.

‣ Reporting income taxes in the banking sector in Angola accounting, tax regulation and financial reporting evidences

Andrade, Liliana Sofia Mendes
Fonte: Universidade Nova de Lisboa Publicador: Universidade Nova de Lisboa
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Publicado em /01/2015 Português
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This research provides an insight into income taxes reporting in Angola, based in hand collected data from the annual reports of banks. Empirical studies of Angolan companies are scarce, in part due to limited access to data. The results show that income taxes’ reporting has improved over the years 2010-2013, becoming more reliable and understandable. Angolan banks are boosting the economic growth through tax benefits in investment in public debt, which cause a reduction in the effective tax rate. The new income tax law will reduce the statutory tax rate from 2015 onwards and change the taxable income, resulting in shifting the focus to promoting private investment.

‣ CORPORATE INCOME TAX: A EUROPEAN CONTEXT

David, Fátima; Gallego, Isabel
Fonte: Escola Superior de Técnologia e Gestão da Guarda Publicador: Escola Superior de Técnologia e Gestão da Guarda
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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This research is focused on corporate income tax and the authors examine theoretically the relationship between accounting and fiscal standards. Although the international accounting system is very well developed, some difficulties appear as a result of the particularities of the different taxation systems of each country. Thus, those aspects that influence more the corporate income tax system are the result of the multinational phenomenon that firms face in a global society. The authors present and discuss the fact that corporate income tax that is not defined in the same way in all the European Union (EU) member states, in spite of being calculated in agreement with the generally accepted accounting principles, and that this affects what appears in financial reports. Also, there exist among the EU member states significant differences in application: for example amortization methods, different fiscal incentives to promote investment in specific geographical areas, and several treatments of revenue and capital expenses. The adoption of accounting standards among the EU member states revolves around accounting harmonization. However, the authors argue that, in the same measure, several legislations that regulate corporate income tax could equally be utilised to facilitate fiscal harmonization.

‣ The Effect of Mergers & Acquisitions and Greenfield FDI on Income Inequality

Zhuang, Hong; Griffith, David
Fonte: Universidade de Indiana Publicador: Universidade de Indiana
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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This paper investigates the differential effects of cross-border mergers & acquisitions (M&As) and greenfield investment on income distribution within the host country. Using a sample of 93 countries from 1990-2009, our results show that M&As have an insignificant impact on income inequality, while greenfield investment exhibits a significantly positive effect on income disparity.

‣ National income and balance of payments of Fiji 1950-53

O'Loughlin, Carleen
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Thesis (PhD); Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)
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In this thesis are presented the results of an investigation of the national income and balance of payments for the colony of Fiji during the period 1950-53. The two introductory chapters (I and II) include a background description of the Colony and discussion of national income methods and techniques employed. There follows an analysis of the National Income material (chapter III-VI) set out in output, income and expenditure form and sub-classified by industrial origin of output, distribution of incomes and directions of expenditure on consumption and investment. An account of the government sector and the incidence of taxation is included (chapter VII). The balance of payment analysed and presented (chapter VIII) with a discussion of the direction and composition of external trade. Two chapters of a subsidiary nature (IX and X) describe economic aspects of the life of Indians and Fijians respectively and are based on supplementary information collected during field surveys. A chapter of conclusions (XI) discusses economic aspects of some of the main statistical conclusions which emerge from the investigation modities.; This thesis has been made available through exception 200AB to the Copyright Act; Yes

‣ Exact Measures of Income in Two Capital-Resource-Time Economies

Pezzey, John C.V
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 44328 bytes; application/pdf
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Exact optimal paths are calculated for two closed, continuous-time economies with explicit functional forms for utility from consumption, and for production from human-made capital and a non-renewable resource. Features of the first economy are non-linear utility, hyperbolic utility discounting and (possibly) hyperbolic technical progress. In it: (a) welfare-equivalent income > wealth-equivalent income > Sefton-Weale income > Net National Product, confirming that even if income is viewed only as a measure of prosperity, there is no point in trying to define it uniquely; (b) the Solow (1974) constant consumption path is a special case for a particular discount rate; (c) for a low enough discount rate, sustained growth is optimal even when technical progress is zero. The second economy has linear utility, a non-linear output split between consumption and investment, and exponential technical progress. In it, (a) Weitzman's (1997) technological progress premium works only if an upwards correction factor is first applied to the rate of progress in production, to convert it to a rate of progress in Net National Product; (b) Hartwick's rule has an unfamiliar form.; no

‣ Trading Up to High Income : Turkey Country Economic Memorandum; Turkiye - Yuksek gelir statusune geciste dis ticaretin rolu : ulke ekonomik raporu

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Country Economic Memorandum; Economic & Sector Work
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Turkish exporters substantially broadened market reach, exporting to 137 countries at present, up from 90 in 2000. Turkey's global market share rose substantially from 0.55 percent of global imports in 2002 to 0.82 percent in 2012. Turkey aims to become one of the ten largest economies in the world by 2023, with per-capita gross domestic product (GDP) rising to United States (U.S.) $25,000 and exports to U.S. 500 billion dollars. This report focuses on Turkey's competitiveness from the supply side, but it is important to note that ensuring a more balanced mix of financing for the required investment through measures to boost domestic savings is equally important if Turkey's progress is to be sustained. Achieving Turkey's export target is possible and it will likely require a larger global market share. The relatively low level of foreign direct investment (FDI) in Turkish manufacturing has been a constraint to export growth and quality improvements. Raising export growth to levels that help meet Turkey's development goals will require a policy agenda that targets sustained further improvements in Turkey's physical...