Página 17 dos resultados de 885602 itens digitais encontrados em 0.206 segundos

‣ A price index for biomedical research and development.

Holloway, T M; Reeb, J S
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //1989 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Price changes of goods and services used in biomedical research and development have important effects on the costs of conducting research. We summarize the trends suggested by a recently constructed biomedical research and development price index, which measures the effects of price changes on the inputs to biomedical research from 1979 to 1986. The fixed-weighted index uses fiscal year 1984 National Institutes of Health expenditure patterns in developing the weights. The rate of increase shown in the price index peaked in 1981 and slowed in following years. However, in most years, the rate of increase in the price index has exceeded the rate of increase in other major price indexes, such as the consumer price index, the producer price index, and the Gross National Product fixed-weighted price index.

‣ Maximising SHO training by inclusion of research fellows into a novel hybrid rota.

Wilson, Timothy R.; Wilson, Jeremy I.; Alexander, David J.
Fonte: Royal College of Surgeons of England Publicador: Royal College of Surgeons of England
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /05/2005 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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INTRODUCTION: As a result of current government legislation, junior surgical trainees are increasingly working in shift patterns. Night shifts provide few training opportunities and recent debate has focused on the most effective way of providing appropriate surgical training in the face of these working pattern restrictions. METHODS: At York Hospital, we have recently implemented a new hybrid rota in general surgery which uses research fellows to cover the majority of night-time shifts at SHO level. RESULTS & DISCUSSION: Surgical trainees have benefited by spending a much greater proportion of their time working with patients during the day where training is more continuous, better supervised and more uniform. Research fellows have benefited in being able to maintain their clinical skills whilst having sufficient free time to pursue research during the day. Extending the role of the research fellow at night to include registrar duties could also release higher surgical trainees from some night-time service commitments and allow them to benefit from more day-time training.

‣ Clinical research in the private office setting--ethical issues.

Fleischman, Alan R.; Klein, Jason E.
Fonte: American Clinical and Climatological Association Publicador: American Clinical and Climatological Association
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2002 Português
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A new model for performing clinical investigations has emerged in the United States which utilizes networks of physicians practicing in private office settings. This arrangement has sparked much controversy because of the potential conflicts of interest inherent in the dual roles of physician as clinician and investigator as well as the significant direct financial gains reported by some physicians which might impact on the interests of research subjects. We describe some of the ethical concerns and propose some procedural guidelines to safeguard the interests of research subjects participating in clinical trials in private physician offices. These safeguards include: requiring education of all investigators in research ethics, limiting financial incentives, disclosure to subjects of potential conflicts and financial arrangements, creation of an independent resource available to subjects to discuss concerns and answer questions, and development of educational materials to inform all potential subjects about important issues related to clinical research.

‣ Optimizing healthcare research data warehouse design through past COSTAR query analysis.

Murphy, S. N.; Morgan, M. M.; Barnett, G. O.; Chueh, H. C.
Fonte: American Medical Informatics Association Publicador: American Medical Informatics Association
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //1999 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Over the past two years we have reviewed and implemented the specifications for a large relational database (a data warehouse) to find research cohorts from data similar to that contained within the clinical COSTAR database at the Massachusetts General Hospital. A review of 16 years of COSTAR research queries was conducted to determine the most common search strategies. These search strategies are relevant to the general research community, because they use the Medical Query Language (MQL) developed for the COSTAR M database which is extremely flexible (much more so than SQL) and allows searches by coded fields, text reports, and laboratory values in a completely ad hoc fashion. By reviewing these search strategies, we were able to obtain user specifications for a research oriented healthcare data warehouse that could support 90% of the queries. The data warehouse was implemented in a relational database using the star schema, allowing for highly optimized analytical processing. This allowed queries that performed slowly in the M database to be performed very rapidly in the relational database. It also allowed the data warehouse to scale effectively.

‣ Informatics application provides instant research to practice benefits.

Bowles, K. H.; Peng, T.; Qian, R.; Naylor, M. D.
Fonte: American Medical Informatics Association Publicador: American Medical Informatics Association
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2001 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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A web-based research information system was designed to enable our research team to efficiently measure health related quality of life among frail older adults in a variety of health care settings (home care, nursing homes, assisted living, PACE). The structure, process, and outcome data is collected using laptop computers and downloaded to a SQL database. Unique features of this project are the ability to transfer research to practice by instantly sharing individual and aggregate results with the clinicians caring for these elders and directly impacting the quality of their care. Clinicians can also dial in to the database to access standard queries or receive customized reports about the patients in their facilities. This paper will describe the development and implementation of the information system. The conference presentation will include a demonstration and examples of research to practice benefits.

‣ Comparison of mailed vs. Internet applications of the Delphi technique in clinical informatics research.

Snyder-Halpern, R.; Thompson, C. B.; Schaffer, J.
Fonte: American Medical Informatics Association Publicador: American Medical Informatics Association
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2000 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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The Delphi technique provides a means of assessing the judgments of groups of experts without the necessity of having these experts meet together. The technique has been used in health care since the mid-1970s, and has just recently become more common in clinical informatics research. As informatics develops as a specialty, it is logical to consider information technology solutions to research as well as clinical practice problems. The overall purpose of this methodology presentation is to compare a mailed vs. Internet application of the Delphi technique for clinical informatics research. Specifically, this presentation will provide: 1) an overview of the Delphi technique, and 2) a methodological comparison of two research applications of the Delphi technique. Results of the studies will be presented elsewhere.

‣ Use of a MeSH-based index of faculty research interests to identify faculty publications: an IAIMSian study of precision, recall, and data reusability.

McKibbon, K. Ann; Friedman, Patricia W.; Friedman, Charles P.
Fonte: American Medical Informatics Association Publicador: American Medical Informatics Association
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2002 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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OBJECTIVE: To determine whether MEDLINE searches based on an existing automated faculty research interest index or on author name entities can be used to automate construction of accurate online lists of faculty publications. METHODS: Curricula vitae (CVs) for 36 faculty members were selected at random. Their lists of journal publications were used to determine recall and precision of two MEDLINE search strategies. OUTCOME: Most faculty publications in the CVs (86%) were indexed in MEDLINE. The research-interest-enhanced MEDLINE searches retrieved citations in the CVs that were also in MEDLINE with a recall of 0.53 and precision of 0.85. For every 10 citations in the research interest-enhanced search, on average 8.5 were in the CVs. The name entity searches retrieved a higher proportion of citations in the CVs (recall 0.94, precision 0.59) with a higher rate of citations not in the CVs: For every 10 citations in the faculty name searches, 7.3 citations were in the CVs. Name commonness or clinical or basic sciences appointment did not change these results. CONCLUSION: MEDLINE searches, especially those based on research interests, can be used to populate faculty publication lists with high rates of accuracy. Author based searches can also be used...

‣ Use of animal models in musculoskeletal research.

Neyt, J. G.; Buckwalter, J. A.; Carroll, N. C.
Fonte: University of Iowa Publicador: University of Iowa
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //1998 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Understanding of the human musculoskeletal system and common clinical disorders of bones, joints and soft tissues has been enhanced by the use of experimental animal models. Articles reporting on the results of these biomedical experiments frequently include conclusions that are based on the assumption that the biology of the animal model is similar to that of a human being for the disease process under investigation. The purpose of this investigation was to study the criteria and the considerations for selection of an animal model in musculoskeletal research. Selected journals from the musculoskeletal literature published between January 1991 and November 1995 were scrutinized for the use of animal models, and several criteria used in the selection of the various animal models were investigated. The selection criteria analyzed in this study included the biologic characteristics of the model, budget issues, the reproducibility of a musculoskeletal disease, and animal handling factors. A computer-assisted search of the musculoskeletal literature published from 1965 to 1995 was also performed to screen for reports comparing mammals used as animal models in terms of these selection criteria. Our findings imply that the selection of animal models in research of the musculoskeletal system is based partly on non-standardized criteria that are not necessarily based on the biology of the disease process being studied. In addition...

‣ Ethnicity as a variable in epidemiological research.

Senior, P. A.; Bhopal, R.
Fonte: BMJ Group Publicador: BMJ Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 30/07/1994 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Ethnicity is used increasingly as a key variable to describe health data, and ethnic monitoring in the NHS will further stimulate this trend. We identify four fundamental problems with ethnicity in this type of research: the difficulties of measurement, the heterogeneity of the populations being studied, lack of clarity about the research purpose of the research, and ethnocentricity affecting the interpretation and use of data. Ethnicity needs to be used carefully to be a useful tool for health research. We make nine recommendations for future practice, one of which is that ethnicity and race should be recognised and treated as distinct concepts.

‣ Reaching the parts other methods cannot reach: an introduction to qualitative methods in health and health services research.

Pope, C.; Mays, N.
Fonte: BMJ Group Publicador: BMJ Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/07/1995 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
422.2339%
Qualitative research methods have a long history in the social sciences and deserve to be an essential component in health and health services research. Qualitative and quantitative approaches to research tend to be portrayed as antithetical; the aim of this series of papers is to show the value of a range of qualitative techniques and how they can complement quantitative research.

‣ Knowledge for better health: a conceptual framework and foundation for health research systems.

Pang, Tikki; Sadana, Ritu; Hanney, Steve; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A.; Hyder, Adnan A.; Simon, Jonathon
Fonte: World Health Organization Publicador: World Health Organization
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Health research generates knowledge that can be utilized to improve health system performance and, ultimately, health and health equity. We propose a conceptual framework for health research systems (HRSs) that defines their boundaries, components, goals, and functions. The framework adopts a systems perspective towards HRSs and serves as a foundation for constructing a practical approach to describe and analyse HRSs. The analysis of HRSs should, in turn, provide a better understanding of how research contributes to gains in health and health equity. In this framework, the intrinsic goals of the HRS are the advancement of scientific knowledge and the utilization of knowledge to improve health and health equity. Its four principal functions are stewardship, financing, creating and sustaining resources, and producing and using research. The framework, as it is applied in consultation with countries, will provide countries and donor agencies with relevant inputs to policies and strategies for strengthening HRSs and using knowledge for better health.

‣ Barriers to racial/ethnic minority application and competition for NIH research funding.

Shavers, Vickie L.; Fagan, Pebbles; Lawrence, Deirdre; McCaskill-Stevens, Worta; McDonald, Paige; Browne, Doris; McLinden, Dan; Christian, Michaele; Trimble, Edward
Fonte: National Medical Association Publicador: National Medical Association
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /08/2005 Português
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BACKGROUND: Despite recognition of the need to increase the pool of racial/ethnic minority investigators, racial/ethnic minority representation among National Institutes of Health (NIH)-funded investigators remains low. Racial/ethnic minority investigators bring unique perspectives and experiences that enhance the potential for understanding factors that underlie racial/ethnic variation in health and health status. Identification of barriers to successful minority competition for NIH funding and suggestions for strategies to overcome them were obtained from a concept mapping project and a meeting of minority investigators and investigators at minority-serving institutions. METHODS: Concept mapping, a mixed-methods planning approach that integrates common data collection processes with multivariate statistical analyses, was used in this exploratory project. The concept mapping approach generated a series of related "concept maps" that were used for data interpretation and meeting discussions. RESULTS: Barriers to minority investigator competition for NIH funding identified by concept mapping participants include: (1) inadequate research infrastructure, training and development; (2) barriers to development as independent researchers; (3) inadequate mentoring; (4) insensitivity...

‣ Data sharing and intellectual property in a genomic epidemiology network: policies for large-scale research collaboration.

Chokshi, Dave A.; Parker, Michael; Kwiatkowski, Dominic P.
Fonte: World Health Organization Publicador: World Health Organization
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
422.2339%
Genomic epidemiology is a field of research that seeks to improve the prevention and management of common diseases through an understanding of their molecular origins. It involves studying thousands of individuals, often from different populations, with exacting techniques. The scale and complexity of such research has required the formation of research consortia. Members of these consortia need to agree on policies for managing shared resources and handling genetic data. Here we consider data-sharing and intellectual property policies for an international research consortium working on the genomic epidemiology of malaria. We outline specific guidelines governing how samples and data are transferred among its members; how results are released into the public domain; when to seek protection for intellectual property; and how intellectual property should be managed. We outline some pragmatic solutions founded on the basic principles of promoting innovation and access.

‣ Survey of the Quality of Experimental Design, Statistical Analysis and Reporting of Research Using Animals

Kilkenny, Carol; Parsons, Nick; Kadyszewski, Ed; Festing, Michael F. W.; Cuthill, Innes C.; Fry, Derek; Hutton, Jane; Altman, Douglas G.
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 30/11/2009 Português
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For scientific, ethical and economic reasons, experiments involving animals should be appropriately designed, correctly analysed and transparently reported. This increases the scientific validity of the results, and maximises the knowledge gained from each experiment. A minimum amount of relevant information must be included in scientific publications to ensure that the methods and results of a study can be reviewed, analysed and repeated. Omitting essential information can raise scientific and ethical concerns. We report the findings of a systematic survey of reporting, experimental design and statistical analysis in published biomedical research using laboratory animals. Medline and EMBASE were searched for studies reporting research on live rats, mice and non-human primates carried out in UK and US publicly funded research establishments. Detailed information was collected from 271 publications, about the objective or hypothesis of the study, the number, sex, age and/or weight of animals used, and experimental and statistical methods. Only 59% of the studies stated the hypothesis or objective of the study and the number and characteristics of the animals used. Appropriate and efficient experimental design is a critical component of high-quality science. Most of the papers surveyed did not use randomisation (87%) or blinding (86%)...

‣ Physical Activity Among Persons Aging with Mobility Disabilities: Shaping a Research Agenda

Rosenberg, Dori E.; Bombardier, Charles H.; Hoffman, Jeanne M.; Belza, Basia
Fonte: SAGE-Hindawi Access to Research Publicador: SAGE-Hindawi Access to Research
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 26/06/2011 Português
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With the aging of the baby boomer population and their accompanying burden of disease, future disability rates are expected to increase. This paper summarizes the state of the evidence regarding physical activity and aging for individuals with mobility disability and proposes a healthy aging research agenda for this population. Using a previously published framework, we present evidence in order to compile research recommendations in four areas focusing on older adults with mobility disability: (1) prevalence of physical activity, (2) health benefits of physical activity, (3) correlates of physical activity participation, and, (4) promising physical activity intervention strategies. Overall, findings show a dearth of research examining physical activity health benefits, correlates (demographic, psychological, social, and built environment), and interventions among persons aging with mobility disability. Further research is warranted.

‣ Tissue Banking: Relationship with Blood Donor and Organ Donor Card Status

McKenzie, Kenneth D.; Fitzpatrick, Patricia E.; Sheehan, John D.
Fonte: International Scholarly Research Network Publicador: International Scholarly Research Network
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 05/03/2012 Português
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Understanding the relationships among altruistic health acts may serve to aid therapeutic research advances. In this paper, we report on the links between two such behaviours—donating blood and carrying an organ donor card—and willingness to donate urological tissue to a tissue bank. Reasons for the differential willingness to do so are examined in this paper. A systematic sample of 259 new and returning attendees at a tertiary urology referral clinic in Ireland completed a self-report questionnaire in an outpatient setting. In addition to demographic details, details of known diagnosis of malignancy and family history of cancer; attitudes to tissue donation for research purposes were gauged using a 5-point Likert scale. Both blood donors and organ donor card carriers were more likely to be willing to donate tissue for research purposes. Blood donors were more likely want to know their overall results in comparison to nonblood donors and want their samples to be used for nonprofit research. Our hypothesis that being a blood donor would be a better predictor to donate urological tissue than being an organ donor card carrier borne out by the trends reported above.

‣ Bias in Amputation Research; Impact of Subjects Missed from a Prospective Study

Fortington, Lauren V.; Geertzen, Jan H. B.; Bosmans, Joline C.; Dijkstra, Pieter U.
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 20/08/2012 Português
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For research findings to be generalized, a sample must be representative of the actual population of interest. Lower limb amputation is most frequently performed in older patients with vascular disease, a population that is often under-represented in research. The aim of this study was to explore the impact of selection bias by comparing characteristics from a sample included in a prospective study of phantom pain with the actual population who underwent amputation. Only 27% of all potential patients were referred during the first year of the prospective study. The referred patients were 8 years younger (p<0.001) and less likely to have had amputation because of a vascular condition, diabetes or infection (p = 0.003) than those not referred. There was also a significant difference in one year survival between the groups; 67% of referred patients survived compared with just 40% of non-referred patients (p = 0.004). The biased population in the phantom pain study may have resulted in an underestimation of phantom pain in the original study and subsequent protective factors should be considered within the context of the younger population reported. Selection bias is common in amputation research, and research methods to minimize its impact must be given greater attention.

‣ Research Blogging: Indexing and Registering the Change in Science 2.0

Fausto, Sibele; Machado, Fabio A.; Bento, Luiz Fernando J.; Iamarino, Atila; Nahas, Tatiana R.; Munger, David S.
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 12/12/2012 Português
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Increasing public interest in science information in a digital and 2.0 science era promotes a dramatically, rapid and deep change in science itself. The emergence and expansion of new technologies and internet-based tools is leading to new means to improve scientific methodology and communication, assessment, promotion and certification. It allows methods of acquisition, manipulation and storage, generating vast quantities of data that can further facilitate the research process. It also improves access to scientific results through information sharing and discussion. Content previously restricted only to specialists is now available to a wider audience. This context requires new management systems to make scientific knowledge more accessible and useable, including new measures to evaluate the reach of scientific information. The new science and research quality measures are strongly related to the new online technologies and services based in social media. Tools such as blogs, social bookmarks and online reference managers, Twitter and others offer alternative, transparent and more comprehensive information about the active interest, usage and reach of scientific publications. Another of these new filters is the Research Blogging platform...

‣ Adopting Best Practices from Team Science in a Healthcare Improvement Research Network: The Impact on Dissemination and Implementation

Puga, Frank; Stevens, Kathleen R.; Patel, Darpan I.
Fonte: Hindawi Publishing Corporation Publicador: Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Healthcare is a complex adaptive system, and efforts to improve through the implementation of best practice are well served by various interacting disciplines within the system. As a transdisciplinary model is new to clinicians, an infrastructure that creates academic-practice partnerships and builds capacity for scientific collaboration is necessary to test, spread, and implement improvement strategies. This paper describes the adoption of best practices from the science of team science in a healthcare improvement research network and the impact on conducting a large-scale network study. Key components of the research network infrastructure were mapped to a team science framework and evaluated in terms of their effectiveness and impact on a national study of nursing operations. Results from this study revealed an effective integration of the team science principles which facilitated the rapid collection of a large dataset. Implications of this study support a collaborative model for improvement research and stress a need for future research and funding to further evaluate the impact on dissemination and implementation.

‣ Translating Research into Practice in Low-Resource Countries: Progress in Prevention of Maternal to Child Transmission of HIV in Nigeria

Ogbolu, Y.; Iwu, E. N.; Zhu, S.; Johnson, J. V.
Fonte: Hindawi Publishing Corporation Publicador: Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Background. Research related to prevention of maternal to child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV is dynamic and rapidly changing and has provided evidence-based interventions and policies for practitioners. However, it is uncertain that research and policy guidelines are adequately being disseminated and implemented in resource-constrained countries with the largest burden PMTCT. This study examined current PMTCT practices in 27 public health facilities in Nigeria. Methods. A cross-sectional survey of 231 practicing nurses was conducted. Current PMTCT care practices were evaluated and compared to WHO and national PMTCT policy guidelines. Linear mixed models evaluated the association between PMTCT care practices and training in PMTCT. Results. Most nurses (80%) applied practices involving newborn prophylaxis; yet significant gaps in maternal intrapartum treatment and infant feeding practices were identified. PMTCT training explained 25% of the variance in the application of PMTCT care practices. Conclusion. Key PMTCT practices are not being adequately translated from research into practice. Researchers, policymakers, and clinicians could apply the study findings to address significant knowledge translation gaps in PMTCT. Strategies derived from an implementation science perspective are suggested as a means to improve the translation of PMTCT research into practice in Sub-Saharan African medical facilities.