Página 17 dos resultados de 1719 itens digitais encontrados em 0.035 segundos

‣ Business valuation of location-specific infrastructure projects in data-poor regions

Watanabe, Nobuhide, 1967-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 84 p.; 584417 bytes; 584173 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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by Nobuhide Watanabe.; Thesis (S.M. in Urban Studies and Planning; and, S.M. in Real Estate Development)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Urban Studies and Planning, 2000.; Includes bibliographical references (leaves 56-57).; This electronic version was submitted by the student author. The certified thesis is available in the Institute Archives and Special Collections.

‣ Community transportation : alternative transportation provision in a low-income neighborhoods in southeast Atlanta

Alexander, James W., 1977-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 147, [5] p., [4] leaves of col. plates; 6662114 bytes; 6661923 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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Regional transit agencies are ineffective at meeting many of the basic transportation needs of a clustered "Study Area" of low-income Atlanta neighborhoods. For transit dependant residents in the Study Area, getting to the grocery store or to suburban job centers, for example, is difficult or impossible. This exploratory thesis approaches transportation access problems in these neighborhoods from a community-based perspective. In response to the ineffectiveness of regional transportation agencies, this thesis asks, "Can low-income neighborhoods create their own solutions to their unique transportation problems?" In order to answer this question, a community transportation planning process was conducted, three case studies were collected and analyzed, and potential solutions were forwarded. In the end, these neighborhoods have the ability to alleviate many of their transportation problems through primarily organizing their existing assets. A proposed Community Transportation Organization (CTO), with accountability to local residents and expertise to implement transportation projects, could help organize these assets and produce needed services. The community transportation planning process and case studies uncovered that the CTO should organize the following services: a jitney service to the grocery store...

‣ Hedge cities : gambling on regional futures

Shorett, Mark, 1976-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 170 leaves; 14095019 bytes; 14365520 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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Environmental degradation, automobile dependence, anticipated rapid population growth and spatial inequity have combined to form the basis for recent North American regional plans advocating a physical alternative to diffuse, uncoordinated development. To provide a physical place in which development can be re-channeled, a number of regions have promoted a network of sub-regional centers in designated locations along existing or planned rapid transit lines. These centers are the urban embodiment of an ecologically sustainable, economically diverse, pedestrian-oriented region in which a variety of housing types is available, jobs are located close to population centers, and social groups are less stratified in enclaves dominated by a single form of development. This paper critically assesses the planning, design and development of designated regional centers in North America during the past two decades, focusing specifically on the promotion of regional centers for Metropolitan Portland, Oregon and Greater Vancouver, British Columbia. Through case studies, comparative analysis, and assessment of real estate trends and urban design, the paper provides a window into the initial success of intentional centers in both regions. Design and development outcomes across the centers of both regions vary dramatically...

‣ New information technologies in public participation : a challenge to old decision-making institutional frameworks

Ferraz de Abreu, Pedro Manuel Barbosa
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 520 p.
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Given the progress in information technology (IT) in the past 30 years, I hypothesized that new conditions exist for considerable improvements in public participation in decision-making. In order to test my hypothesis, I developed a prototype of an Intelligent Multimedia System to support public and technical consultation and, together with Internet-based collaborative tools, introduced it in the environmental impact assessment review process, for the solid urban waste incinerator of S. Joao da Talha, Portugal. Supported by the evidence gathered from this experiment and by my analysis of the qualitative jump these IT developments represent, I argue that it is possible to use this new IT to capture and represent meaningful planning knowledge and with it enable multiple improvements in the public consultation, both qualitatively and quantitatively. On the other hand, observing the institutional responses and constraints during the process, my findings strongly suggest that the current institutional and regulatory context, inherited from old frameworks, is an impediment to fully set in place the improvements enabled by these IT developments.; (cont.) In other words, the decision-making institutional framework has not evolved at a pace fast enough to provide adequate responses to the challenges brought by the new IT. My findings also illustrate how different actors in a decision-making process are constrained by these old frameworks to follow different planning paradigms...

‣ Mapping the void : brownfield inventories by local governments

Leurig, Sharlene
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 93 p.
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Brownfields are abandoned or underused land whose redevelopment is complicated by the presence or perception of contamination. Nationally the United States Environmental Protection Agency estimates the number of brownfields to be more than half a million. As of 2002, the EPA requires states and tribal governments to inventory brownfields within their boundaries in order to receive federal funding for brownfield response programs; municipalities and regional planning offices eligible for competitive EPA brownfield grants are encouraged to first conduct a brownfield inventory. Assessment grants funding inventories are open-ended, allowing local governments to define their own methods of identifying brownfields and prioritizing parcels for redevelopment; as such there is little documentation of the way inventories are conducted. Through interviews with brownfield redevelopment professionals and inventory makers in Alabama, California, Kentucky, Massachusetts and New Jersey this thesis explores the ways local governments prioritize property types for identification, how they locate brownfields, how they incorporate community knowledge, and how inventories influence subsequent public funding allocations.; (cont.) This research indicates that inventories tend to focus on large sites close to infrastructure with the intention of marketing individual properties rather than strategically incorporating brownfield redevelopment into broader urban or regional planning. While local governments frequently design inventories in partnership with and for use by non-government actors...

‣ Designing cities for the elderly

Lee, David, M.C.P. Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 66 p.
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This thesis seeks to answer how urban design in an established town can be adapted to accommodate an aging population. It uses the town of Brookline, Massachusetts, as an example of a community making active efforts to improve its design and services to meet the needs of its elderly citizens. Among the many challenges seniors face in Brookline are barriers to mobility, need for activity and company, threats to physical safety, and limited range of travel. Through careful planning and design, local governments can make physical improvements to the public environment to allow seniors easy access to all parts of the town or city, and these improvements benefit people of all ages as well. However, institutions like the Senior Center in Brookline are essential for providing a high quality of life, by hosting recreational and educational activities, organizing services and outreach to isolated seniors, lobbying for appropriate representation in local policymaking, and increasing awareness of elderly issues. A combination of infrastructure improvements, services, and long-range planning can overcome the obstacles of cost, ignorance, and poor design to make the public environment accessible to all ages and abilities.; by David Lee.; Thesis (M.C.P. and S.B.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology...

‣ Community Benefits Agreements : an evolution in public benefits negotiation processes; Evolution in public benefits negotiation processes

Ho, William (William Hy)
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 107 p.
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Urban redevelopment projects involve three parties: (1) the public sector (e.g. public officials), (2) the private sector (e.g. developers), and (3) the community (e.g. residents and community groups). Traditionally, decision-making power in urban redevelopment projects resided between the public and private sectors, with little authority given to communities. The development of Community Benefits Agreements (CBAs) were a reaction to this imbalance and have helped communities gain influence in the redevelopment process. These agreements are "legally" binding contracts between a developer and community group(s) - to ensure that development projects benefit local community residents. Their creation is rooted in several decades of failed urban policies and the public learning that has taken place since Urban Renewal. CBAs first appeared in Los Angeles in 2001 and have since taken root across the country in such geographically diverse places as Denver, Milwaukee, and New York City. These agreements represent a significant evolution in collective bargaining, the ability of varied entities to come together and take a common position on a topic, and the ability of communities to secure benefits from developers. This thesis examines why these agreements came into existence...

‣ Answering the bell : rebuilding New Orleans around neighborhood schools; Rebuilding New Orleans around neighborhood schools

Knudsen, Seth (Seth Cunningham)
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 91 p.
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Schools are one of the most important and visible infrastructure elements in residential neighborhoods, given their large physical presence and the social network that they represent. A review of real estate, sociology, and urban design research suggests that neighborhoods and residents benefit in a variety of ways from proximity to a well-maintained school of good quality. Not surprisingly, New Orleans residents have identified schools as critical elements in the recovery of their neighborhoods in the myriad of post-Katrina planning processes. In this context, residential rebuilding decisions in substantially flood damaged neighborhoods may be influenced by the status of the neighborhood school. As residential redevelopment patterns begin to emerge in spring 2008, the master planning process for the public school system is underway. While the public school system was responsible for the education of nearly 66,000 students at 126 campus locations across the city prior to Katrina, private schools provided an educational option for 26,000 other students at 79 campuses citywide. Nearly seventy percent of private school students attended Catholic schools managed by the Archdiocese of New Orleans. In contrast to the public school system that has taken nearly three years to chart its course for the future...

‣ Beyond the market : a case study of the downtown revitalization paradox in Framingham, Massachusetts; Case study of the downtown revitalization paradox in Framingham, Massachusetts

Leit, Jonathan A
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 131 p.
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U.S. communities have a long history of implementing redevelopment projects based on the displacement of vulnerable minority groups, who have been blamed for physical blight, depression of property values, and stripping neighborhoods of life. In the early 21 t century, with recent immigrants to the U.S. largely bypassing major urban areas for suburbs and small cities, these new destinations now face "urban" pressures in devising redevelopment strategies and plans. The town of Framingham, Massachusetts is a suburb in the Boston metropolitan area that is confronting this challenge as it seeks to revitalize a downtown dominated by a substantial immigrant commercial presence. The town's revitalization process highlights a new variation on a common historical theme of the oftentimes damaging impact of redevelopment projects. This thesis examines the ongoing revitalization process in downtown Framingham in order to understand the paradox that the Brazilian immigrant businesses largely responsible for occupying storefronts, returning street life and vitality, and attracting investment to a once depressed district are now being displaced in the very name of revitalization.; (cont.) Framingham is pursuing a gentrification model for redevelopment based on a large-scale construction and rehabilitation project that will remake downtown's identity and significantly displace the immigrant business community...

‣ Creating a "city of art" : evaluating Singapore's vision of becoming a renaissance city

Lee, Wai Kin, 1975-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 180 p.; 1460175 bytes; 1470848 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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The arts have been used by many cities as a way to regenerate their urban environments and rejuvenate their economies. In this thesis, I examine an approach in which city-wide efforts are undertaken to create a "city of art". Such attempts endeavor to infuse the entire city, not just specific districts, with arts and cultural activities and to develop a strong artistic inclination among its residents. Singapore"s recent plan to transform itself into a "Renaissance City" is an example of such an attempt to create a "city of art". I conceptualize urban cultural policies used to create "cities of art" as having two possible policy orientations. An externally-oriented policy is used to project a city"s cultural achievements into the international arena, often with the intention of generating economic growth and enhancing the city's image. An internally-oriented policy, on the other hand, is focused on cultivating cultural growth within the city and is more directed at achieving local socio-cultural advancement. While some cities may adopt urban cultural policies that are either strongly externally- or internally-oriented, other cities may have urban cultural policies that endeavor to balance both orientations. For Singapore, I will show that the urban cultural policy adopted to transform itself into a "Renaissance City" tries to be simultaneously externally- and internally-oriented. Despite the attempt to address both policy orientations...

‣ When home becomes world heritage : the case of Aleppo, Syria

Vincent, Lieza H. (Lieza Helen), 1976-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 71 p.; 2483937 bytes; 2597436 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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Lists are valuable tools for conservation. One such list for the conservation of cultural heritage objects is the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) World Heritage List. In this thesis, I seek to understand how this international device impacts planning at a local level, specifically in the context of development and under political constraints typical of the Middle East. I do this through the case study of Aleppo, Syria. Since the end of the French Mandate, Aleppo's old city has undergone major transformation as a result if three main periods of planning interventions. From the 1950s to the late 1970s, a series of master plans called for the destruction of certain sections of the city's historic core. By 1978, the implementation of parts of these plans prompted a local and international campaign to safeguard the Old City of Aleppo, culminating in its designation to the World Heritage List in 1986 and the initiation of a joint Syrian and German rehabilitation project in 1992. This thesis discusses these different moments in Aleppo in an effort to understand to what extent UNESCO and the World Heritage List impacted change in planning priorities in the old city. In order to do this, I give a historical background of planning in Aleppo from 1930s to the moment of World Heritage nomination in 1978. This section discusses the historical conditions that contributed to the old city's rapid decay. Next...

‣ Spaces of innovation : 21st century technopoles

Seitinger, Susanne, 1978-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 129 p.; 6989919 bytes; 6989727 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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Public authorities and private developers around the world are attempting to create and sustain hubs within the innovation-based economy by fostering successful urban environments. These large-scale developments succeed an earlier generation of post-industrial "technopoles" named after the French word popularized by Castells and Hall in Technopoles of the World (1994). In the 1990s, most planned technopoles resembled suburban office environments with generous landscaping, wide roads, and automobile-focused circulation systems. In contrast, today's economic development experts are increasingly emphasizing the need for interaction and cross-fertilization among companies and institutions in an attempt to foster innovation, from which successful communities are assumed to derive their competitive edge in an information- based economy. Parallel shifts in live-work patterns among creative talent groups are being documented in social science and anecdotal observations. These trends have heightened competition for qualified individuals and initiated a talent war among cities globally. And these individuals are living footloose lifestyles supported by mobile devices and wireless connectivity. Entrepreneurial public agencies and private developers have recognized the potential for reconceiving live-work environments as economic hubs. These holistic projects are identified as 21st century technopoles because they directly address and capitalize on the socio-economic shifts described above leading to vastly different ideal urban configurations. The thesis asks how urban form is expected to contribute to innovation; and...

‣ What's in a name? : the role of naming in neighborhood evolution

Reitman, Alexandra Miriam, 1975-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 145 p.; 11804327 bytes; 11823684 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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(cont.) press (newspapers and magazines) was used to both gauge awareness as well as to evaluate whether and how the neighborhood image was projected in the media. Official policy and planning documents were also evaluated including zoning actions, Environmental Impact Statements, and landmark designation materials.; Many cities have seen neighborhoods undergo successful revitalization in conjunction with the introduction of a new name. This thesis attempts to understand the role of neighborhood naming as a tool of planning and development, and investigates under what circumstances naming might be used to induce change in a neighborhood. The research question has been placed in the context of recent scholarship on place naming, the construction of social and political identity, the role of image in identity construction, marketing, branding, city imaging, and the tools of government. Recommendations are offered on how a neighborhood name might be used as a tool in planning and development, conditions for the successful introduction of a new neighborhood name, and circumstances that will increase the likelihood of inducing broader changes within a neighborhood via naming. Three case studies of neighborhood naming are presented: DUMBO (Down Under the Manhattan Bridge Overpass) in Brooklyn; Hudson Yards...

‣ Creating sustainable air rights development over highway corridors : lessons from the Massachusetts Turnpike in Boston

Campbell, Bonnie E., 1977-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 115 p.; 3510733 bytes; 3725601 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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Research and practice have shown that air rights development over highway corridors in America's cities is not only feasible, but desirable. As planners, policy makers and consumers attempt to curb the sprawling development pattern that was characteristic of the second half of the twentieth century, the development of the air space over urban highway corridors is emerging as a beneficial type of development that promotes revitalization and can be more sustainable than other types of redevelopment. As the advantages of air rights development over highway corridors become increasingly apparent, more projects and proposals are surfacing in cities nationwide. However, while this development pattern can contribute to urban revitalization, it is also unique from other types of infill and redevelopment. Air rights development is complex and requires special scrutiny and treatment from a planning and policy perspective, a distinct understanding of urban design and attention to neighborhood context, and specific development principles for construction and financial feasibility. This thesis describes these unique considerations both generically and through analysis of the Massachusetts Turnpike in Boston. It examines three cases: a completed air rights development...

‣ "The Image of PLAZA" : an analysis of an academic community web space using Kevin Lynch's approach for "The image of the city"

Kim, Jaecheol, 1971-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 113 p.; 6866274 bytes; 6866082 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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This thesis is a case study of how the design issues of a community web space can be approached from the viewpoint of urban design not in terms of appearance but in terms of its functionality. An urban public place like a plaza and a community web space both serve their residents' social lives whether real or virtual. There have been many efforts to replicate public spaces into the virtual world. However, considering the completely different materials that compose both spaces, it may be not proper to duplicate just the visual appearance of a city in the virtual world. Therefore, in this thesis, using not the literal adoption of but the functional analogy of urban design, I analyze the legibility of a community web space, 'PLAZA'. This analogy can be divided into two parts. The first part utilizes Kevin Lynch's methodology for the analysis of "the Image of City". I examine the design of PLAZA using the public's mental image of PLAZA, as he used the citizens' image of cities to analyze city spaces. The second part uses physical urban space to interpret the relation between users' mental image of PLAZA and its design. Spatial concepts that are familiar in designing physical spaces are used for this analysis; Graphic, Location, Vitality of a place...

‣ From hutong to hi-rise : explaining the transformation of Old Beijing, 1990-2002

Goldman, Jasper, 1978-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 117 leaves; 7041918 bytes; 7041726 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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This thesis attempts to explain the redevelopment of Old Beijing during the period 1990-2002. During this time, at least one third of the Old City was transformed from an urban fabric consisting principally of courtyard houses (siheyuan) and narrow lanes (hutongs) to one comprised of wide roads and hi-rise buildings. This thesis starts from the premise that this redevelopment has had devastating social and cultural costs in terms of excessive relocation and destruction of the historic urban fabric and that it is possible to develop a pattern of redevelopment that better balances the social, cultural and economic needs of Beijing's citizens. Understanding the driving forces of the current pattern of redevelopment is a necessary preliminary step towards doing so. This thesis therefore attempts to explain the course of redevelopment in the Old City, arguing that is has been enabled by a series of market reforms but is predominantly shaped by the political objectives of the politicians controlling the development process. Accordingly, redevelopment is carried out with the principle goal of advancing visible economic development notwithstanding the social and cultural cost. Two case-studies are examined to test this proposition: the development of Finance Street...

‣ Chinese housing mixology : considerations for the successful development of mixed-income housing

Chan, Janelle (Janelle Jie-Ying)
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 84 p.
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In recent years, the Chinese government transformed their national system of housing provision and introduced market mechanisms. The consequent boom in residential real estate development and the emergence of speculative practices dramatically increased housing prices in cities. Low- and moderate-income households are being priced out of homeownership. The lack of affordable urban housing is increasingly framed as an issue of equity that is linked inherently to China's political identity as a communist nation. As such, the central government is experimenting with policy to address the issue of affordability in a commercialized housing market. The controversial "70 percent, 90 square meters rule" is one such policy that has started discussions on the development of mixed income housing. Given the current policy trend, private developers can reasonably foresee requirements to incorporate affordable housing in future developments. The primary purpose of this thesis is to highlight the growing segregation of housing based on income in China and examine the concept of mixing incomes for future urban housing developments. New luxury developments in urban centers are clustering high-income households together while spatially separating them from low- and middle-income households.; (cont.) This thesis does not address how to supply more affordable housing...

‣ Redeveloping modern housing sites : improving the livability of the ground plane

Brownell, Matthew (Matthew Christopher)
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 135 p.
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Le Corbusier's "towers in the park" urban design plan had a profound impact on city form in the United States. Its precepts were used to inform many urban renewal schemes of the 1950s and 1960s that tore down existing urban fabric and replaced it with towers surrounded by undefined open space. Streets were closed off and rerouted to create "superblocks" for these Corbusian tower/park plans but very soon after urban renewal began, people started to decry its effects. Besides the loss of neighborhoods and harm to people forced to move, the new plans often suffered from safety concerns and isolation. The ground planes of Corbusier inspired plans were disconnected from the public. Over time advocates of traditional city form have pushed new ideas to the forefront of urban design to facilitate a pedestrian-friendly environment, such as new urbanism and smart growth. This paper examines the impact of Corbusier's urban designs versus traditional city movements and suggests a middle ground. Towers are not inherently bad and a form-based approach to city design, such as the one used in Vancouver, successfully integrates both towers and pedestrian-scaled environments. Towers and traditional city form can coexist and benefit from each other to address urban design problems shared by both Corbusier and today's planner.; by Matthew Brownell.; Thesis (M.C.P.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology...

‣ Community-led participatory budgeting in Bangalore : learning from successful cases

Clay, Elizabeth M. (Elizabeth Margarette)
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 131, 5, 2 p.
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Urban India is rapidly growing, and in cities like Bangalore, the dramatic changes have both positive and negative impacts. Citizens express concern about the capacity and credibility of local government and corporate sector in leading local development. In contrast to rural India where the 73rd amendment helped spur citizen participation in local decision-making, in urban India there have been limited channels for citizens to participate in governance outside of the electoral process. In 2001, a civil society organization, Janaagraha, launched a participatory budgeting campaign aimed at improving local governance through engaging citizens in local infrastructure planning. The campaign resulted in citizens' budget priorities being approved in over twenty percent of the city's wards. Large-scale participatory budgeting has traditionally been an initiative of ruling parties using the apparatus of the state. As a civil society initiative, the participants faced the dual challenges of mobilizing citizens to produce good plans and convincing local government that their plans were legitimate. This thesis aims to answer two questions. First, what were the attributes of the associations and political and spatial factors of the communities that were successful in a 2001 participatory budgeting campaign in Bangalore?; (cont.) Identifying these success factors can provide tools to other communities in the previously uncharted territory of local participatory budgeting in urban India. Second...

‣ From village to small town in contemporary China : the transformation of civic space

Guo, Ming, M.C.P. Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 103 leaves; 6489809 bytes; 6494128 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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With the fast urbanization in contemporary China, "spontaneous" civic spaces rooted in the rural area-the spaces in which local people of different origins and paths of life can commingle without overt control by government, commercial or other private interests have been excluded from numerous newly planned and rebuilt villages/small towns. Current physical planning system is playing an important role in pushing this "modernization" process, called by the government. Through using the term "public space" rather than "civic space" in the national planning standards, which in Chinese context implies public ownership or direct management by the state, the development of civic spaces in the rural China is purposely or unintentionally adjusted away from its original direction in the west and away from the actual requirement of a healthy civil society. Through implementing physical plans based on these standards, the governments are actually assisting the process of intensifying surveillance and controls over "public spaces", and diminishing certain types of "spontaneous" civic spaces. To explore this emerging issue in the local-state context during modem time, the discussion begins by exploring the concept of civic space in China's natural growth settlements and its relationship to civil society...