Página 17 dos resultados de 336 itens digitais encontrados em 0.030 segundos

‣ Panama : Country Environmental Analysis

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Country Environmental Analysis (CEA); Economic & Sector Work
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Panama is experiencing spectacular economic growth, averaging 7.5 percent during 2004-06; a construction boom; and emerging new opportunities and growing export markets. Despite this impressive growth performance, at the national level poverty remained almost unchanged during 1997-2006 at around 37 percent (masking a decline in rural poverty and an increase in urban and indigenous areas). Key development challenges for Panama include: (a) sustaining its accelerated recent growth performance, and (b) translating growth into poverty reduction. Natural resources and the environment must be key elements of any successful strategy to meet these challenges. The main objective of the Panama Country Environmental Analysis (CEA) is to provide an analytical foundation to enhance the country's capacity to establish and address environmental policy priorities linked to poverty reduction and sustained economic growth. This report covers three main areas. First, the report analyzes the capabilities of Panama's institutions to perform essential tasks to manage the environment and natural resources; namely identifying problems and designing and implementing policies to solve them. The analysis therefore places great emphasis on the clarity of policies; mechanisms for coordination; use of and access to information...

‣ Managing East Asia's Macroeconomic Volatility

Olaberria, Eduardo; Rigolini, Jamele
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
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East Asia has experienced a dramatic decrease in output growth volatility over the past 20 years. This is good news, as output growth volatility affects poor households because of coping strategies that have long-term, harmful consequences, and the overall economy through its negative impact on economic growth. This paper investigates the factors behind this long decline in volatility, and derives lessons about ways to mitigate renewed upward pressure in face of the financial crisis. The authors show that if, on the one hand, high trade openness has sustained economic growth in the past several decades, on the other hand, it has made countries more vulnerable to external fluctuations. Although less frequent terms of trade shocks and more stable growth rates of trading partners have helped to reduce volatility in the past, the same external factors are now putting renewed pressure on volatility. The way forward seems therefore to be to counterbalance the external upward pressure on volatility by improving domestic factors. Elements under domestic control that can help countries deal with high volatility include more accountable institutions...

‣ Africa's Pulse, April 2011 : An Analysis of Issues Shaping Africa's Economic Future

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Newsletter; Publications & Research
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This Africa's pulse newsletter includes the following heading: recent global economic trends and prospects; factors driving the region performance; risk to economic prospects; and rising commodity prices.

‣ Reforming China's Rural Health System

Wagstaff, Adam; Lindelow, Magnus; Wang, Shiyong; Zhang, Shuo
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
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This book began in 2003 during the initial formulations of China's 11th five-year plan, which covers the period 2006-10. During the entire period, the rural health Analytic and Advisory Activities (AAA) team analyzed the sector and debated reform options with government officials and scholars. It is helped the government in its extensive reform efforts over the past few years. The publication can serve two important functions: to provide an analytical framework for thinking about what happened in China's rural health system and why, and to present a global perspective on the options for further strengthening the sector. China is well on its way to achieving a modern, equitable, and well-functioning rural health sector, but this is not an easy task for any country. This book can provide a useful reference for policy makers in the next phase of health reform and beyond.

‣ Devolution of Health Centers and Hospital Autonomy in Thailand : A Rapid Assessment

Hawkins, Loraine; Srisasalux, Jaruayporn; Osornprasop, Sutayut
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Health Study
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This rapid assessment was conducted for the Thailand Ministry of Public Health with the support of the World Bank in partnership with the Thailand International Health Policy Program and the Thailand Health Systems Research Institute. This work was done under the World Bank's Country Development Partnership Agreement with the Government of Thailand. Thailand's health system has some features that lead to complexity and local variation in the scope of health responsibilities of Health care (HCs) and the accountabilities and incentives of HCs before and after devolution. HC staff and Tambon Administrative Organization (TAO) leaders in three of the devolved health centers (Naphu, Salabangpoo, and Pakpoon) have positive perceptions of improvement in management flexibility, in the sense that future decision making is expected to be faster and there should be greater scope for initiative. Three devolved health centers (Naphu, Salabangpoo, and Pakpoon) could point to a number ways in which service delivery had already improved and new services had been provided in response to the needs and preferences of the community. These include a stronger client service orientation...

‣ Toward Economic Diversification in Trinidad and Tobago

Longmore, Rohan; Jaupart, Pascal; Cazorla, Marta Riveira
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
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This paper contributes to the predominant diversification debate that has been ongoing in Trinidad and Tobago for more than three decades. The paper makes a determination of the key impediments to the country's attempts at diversification. Econometric techniques are applied on panel data to identify the most significant obstacles to economic diversification for a set of 183 countries. The results indicate that openness to foreign direct investment inflows is the most fundamental driver of diversification. The findings are then applied to the specific case of Trinidad and Tobago through a detailed analysis of the links in the trends followed by foreign direct investment and diversification between 1980 and 2011. Greater openness to foreign direct investment and improving the business climate appear to be key policies the twin-island republic could implement further in order to expand the range of activities of its economic structure.

‣ Geoquimica de aguas e sedimentos da bacia do Ribeirão Tatu, Limeira-SP; Geochemistry of water and sediments of the Tatu River, Limeira City, State São Paulo, Brazil

Sabrina Macluf Castello Branco Regattieri
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 31/08/2007 Português
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O presente trabalho refere-se ao estudo de águas e sedimentos na sub-bacia do ribeirão Tatu, principal corpo receptor das cidades de Cordeirópolis e Limeira (São Paulo) e um importante afluente do rio Piracicaba. A cidade de Limeira com uma população de 270 mil habitantes hospeda um imenso parque industrial de jóias semifolheadas onde é comum a utilização de banhos com metais pesados, cianeto e outros compostos químicos. Além disso, estima-se que ainda hoje 30% dos esgotos domésticos de Limeira são descartados nos corpos d’água da cidade sem tratamento. Com a finalidade de traçar um panorama da contaminação industrial e doméstica no ribeirão, foram coletadas amostras de água em quatro ocasiões, setembro/04, abril/05, março/06 e julho/06 para análise. Os parâmetros físico-químicos de qualidade das águas foram medidos in situ, e as amostras de águas foram analisadas por ICP-OES para cátions, cromatografia iônica para ânions e cromatografia gasosa para compostos orgânicos. Também foram realizados ensaios da demanda bioquímica e química de oxigênio e conteúdo de coliformes fecais. Ensaios ecotoxicológicos foram realizados nas campanhas de setembro de 2004 e julho de 2006. Amostras de sedimentos de fundo foram coletadas em setembro/04...

‣ Síndromes paraneoplásicas cutâneas no cão e no gato: revisão bibliográfica e estudo de casos

Leal, Diana Rosa Baptista da Silva
Fonte: Universidade Técnica de Lisboa. Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária Publicador: Universidade Técnica de Lisboa. Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária
Tipo: Trabalho de Conclusão de Curso
Publicado em 27/07/2009 Português
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Dissertação de Mestrado Integrado em Medicina Veterinária; As síndromes paraneoplásicas correspondem a manifestações endócrinas, hematológicas, neuromusculares e cutâneas produzidas por tumores, mas sem relação com a sua dimensão, a sua localização, a existência de metástases ou a actividade fisiológica do tecido de origem. A etiopatogenia destas síndromes não é bem conhecida; são poucos os casos com uma demonstração clara dos factores etiológicos e patogénicos. A detecção e a classificação das síndromes paraneoplásicas permitem um diagnóstico antecipado e um tratamento mais eficaz da neoplasia, melhorando o prognóstico e a qualidade de vida do animal. Podem ser usados como indicadores clínicos da evolução da neoplasia. As síndromes paraneoplásicas cutâneas muitas vezes precedem os primeiros sinais sistémicos do tumor associado e, portanto podem ser detectadas precocemente pelo dono. Na revisão bibliográfica são abordadas as cinco principais dermatoses paraneoplásicas documentadasem medicina veterinária: alopécia paraneoplásica felina, dermatite exfoliativa felina associada ao timoma, dermatofibrose nodular, pênfigo paraneoplásico e dermatite necrolítica superficial. Os tumores associados...

‣ Reduction in BACE1 decreases body weight, protects against diet-induced obesity and enhances insulin sensitivity in mice

Meakin, Paul J.; Harper, Alex J.; Hamilton, D. Lee; Gallagher, Jennifer; McNeilly, Alison D.; Burgess, Laura A.; Vaanholt, Lobke M.; Bannon, Kirsten A.; Latcham, Judy; Hussain, Ishrut; Speakman, John R.; Howlett, David R.; Ashford, Michael L.J.
Fonte: Portland Press Ltd. Publicador: Portland Press Ltd.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Insulin resistance and impaired glucose homoeostasis are important indicators of Type 2 diabetes and are early risk factors of AD (Alzheimer's disease). An essential feature of AD pathology is the presence of BACE1 (β-site amyloid precursor protein-cleaving enzyme 1), which regulates production of toxic amyloid peptides. However, whether BACE1 also plays a role in glucose homoeostasis is presently unknown. We have used transgenic mice to analyse the effects of loss of BACE1 on body weight, and lipid and glucose homoeostasis. BACE1−/− mice are lean, with decreased adiposity, higher energy expenditure, and improved glucose disposal and peripheral insulin sensitivity than wild-type littermates. BACE1−/− mice are also protected from diet-induced obesity. BACE1-deficient skeletal muscle and liver exhibit improved insulin sensitivity. In a skeletal muscle cell line, BACE1 inhibition increased glucose uptake and enhanced insulin sensitivity. The loss of BACE1 is associated with increased levels of UCP1 (uncoupling protein 1) in BAT (brown adipose tissue) and UCP2 and UCP3 mRNA in skeletal muscle, indicative of increased uncoupled respiration and metabolic inefficiency. Thus BACE1 levels may play a critical role in glucose and lipid homoeostasis in conditions of chronic nutrient excess. Therefore strategies that ameliorate BACE1 activity may be important novel approaches for the treatment of diabetes.

‣ Presenilin 2 modulates endoplasmic reticulum (ER)–mitochondria interactions and Ca2+ cross-talk

Zampese, Enrico; Fasolato, Cristina; Kipanyula, Maulilio J.; Bortolozzi, Mario; Pozzan, Tullio; Pizzo, Paola
Fonte: National Academy of Sciences Publicador: National Academy of Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Presenilin mutations are the main cause of familial Alzheimer's disease (FAD). Presenilins also play a key role in Ca2+ homeostasis, and their FAD-linked mutants affect cellular Ca2+ handling in several ways. We previously have demonstrated that FAD-linked presenilin 2 (PS2) mutants decrease the Ca2+ content of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) by inhibiting sarcoendoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA) activity and increasing ER Ca2+ leak. Here we focus on the effect of presenilins on mitochondrial Ca2+ dynamics. By using genetically encoded Ca2+ indicators specifically targeted to mitochondria (aequorin- and GFP-based probes) in SH-SY5Y cells and primary neuronal cultures, we show that overexpression or down-regulation of PS2, but not of presenilin 1 (PS1), modulates the Ca2+ shuttling between ER and mitochondria, with its FAD mutants strongly favoring Ca2+ transfer between the two organelles. This effect is not caused by a direct PS2 action on mitochondrial Ca2+-uptake machinery but rather by an increased physical interaction between ER and mitochondria that augments the frequency of Ca2+ hot spots generated at the cytoplasmic surface of the outer mitochondrial membrane upon stimulation. This PS2 function adds further complexity to the multifaceted nature of presenilins and to their physiological role within the cell. We also discuss the importance of this additional effect of FAD-linked PS2 mutants for the understanding of FAD pathogenesis.

‣ Impaired Autophagy in Sporadic Inclusion-Body Myositis and in Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress-Provoked Cultured Human Muscle Fibers

Nogalska, Anna; D'Agostino, Carla; Terracciano, Chiara; Engel, W. King; Askanas, Valerie
Fonte: American Society for Investigative Pathology Publicador: American Society for Investigative Pathology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /09/2010 Português
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The hallmark pathologies of sporadic inclusion-body myositis (s-IBM) muscle fibers are autophagic vacuoles and accumulation of ubiquitin-positive multiprotein aggregates that contain amyloid-β or phosphorylated tau in a β-pleated sheet amyloid configuration. Endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) and 26S proteasome inhibition, also associated with s-IBM, putatively aggrandize the accumulation of misfolded proteins. However, autophagosomal-lysosomal pathway formation and function, indicated by autophagosome maturation, have not been previously analyzed in this system. Here we studied the autophagosomal-lysosomal pathway using 14 s-IBM and 30 disease control and normal control muscle biopsy samples and our cultured human muscle fibers in a microenvironment modified to resemble aspects of s-IBM pathology. We report for the first time that in s-IBM, lysosomal enzyme activities of cathepsin D and B were decreased 60% (P < 0.01) and 40% (P < 0.05), respectively. We also detected two indicators of increased autophagosome maturation, the presence of LC3-II and decreased mammalian target of rapamycin-mediated phosphorylation of p70S6 kinase. Moreover, in cultured human muscle fibers, ERS induction significantly decreased activities of cathepsins D and B...

‣ Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation induces oscillatory power changes in chronic tinnitus

Schecklmann, Martin; Lehner, Astrid; Gollmitzer, Judith; Schmidt, Eldrid; Schlee, Winfried; Langguth, Berthold
Fonte: Frontiers Media S.A. Publicador: Frontiers Media S.A.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 21/10/2015 Português
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Chronic tinnitus is associated with neuroplastic changes in auditory and non-auditory cortical areas. About 10 years ago, repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of auditory and prefrontal cortex was introduced as potential treatment for tinnitus. The resulting changes in tinnitus loudness are interpreted in the context of rTMS induced activity changes (neuroplasticity). Here, we investigate the effect of single rTMS sessions on oscillatory power to probe the capacity of rTMS to interfere with tinnitus-specific cortical plasticity. We measured 20 patients with bilateral chronic tinnitus and 20 healthy controls comparable for age, sex, handedness, and hearing level with a 63-channel electroencephalography (EEG) system. Educational level, intelligence, depressivity and hyperacusis were controlled for by analysis of covariance. Different rTMS protocols were tested: Left and right temporal and left and right prefrontal cortices were each stimulated with 200 pulses at 1 Hz and with an intensity of 60% stimulator output. Stimulation of central parietal cortex with 6-fold reduced intensity (inverted passive-cooled coil) served as sham condition. Before and after each rTMS protocol 5 min of resting state EEG were recorded. The order of rTMS protocols was randomized over two sessions with 1 week interval in between. Analyses on electrode level showed that people with and without tinnitus differed in their response to left temporal and right frontal stimulation. In tinnitus patients left temporal rTMS decreased frontal theta and delta and increased beta2 power...

‣ Serum levels of IL-6 type cytokines and soluble IL-6 receptors in active B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia and in cladribine induced remission.

Robak, T; Wierzbowska, A; Błasińska-Morawiec, M; Korycka, A; Błoński, J Z
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //1999 Português
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We have investigated the serum concentrations of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and two IL-6 family cytokines-oncostatin M (OSM) and leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF)-in 63 patients with B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL) and 17 healthy controls using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. Simultaneously, we measured the serum levels of the soluble forms of two subunits of the IL-6 receptor complex-ligand binding glycoprotein 80 (sIL-6R) and glycoprotein 130 (sgp130). The cytokines and receptors were evaluated in 25 untreated patients and 38 patients treated with cladribine (2-CdA), as well as in 17 healthy controls. We have correlated the serum levels of these proteins with Rai's clinical stage of the disease, the response to 2-CdA treatment and some hematological parameters. We have also evaluated the correlation of the IL-6 serum level with the concentration of OSM and IL-6 soluble receptors. IL-6 was measurable in 62/63 (98.4%), OSM in 20/25 (80%) of untreated and 14/38 (37.8%) of the treated patients. sIL-6R and sgp130 were detectable in all 63 patients and LIF in none of the CLL patients. IL-6 serum level in untreated patients was not significantly different as compared to its concentration in the control group (P>0.05). However...

‣ Imbalances in serum proinflammatory cytokines and their soluble receptors: a putative role in the progression of idiopathic IgA nephropathy (IgAN) and Henoch–Schönlein purpura nephritis, and a potential target of immunoglobulin therapy?

ROSTOKER, G; RYMER, J -C; BAGNARD, G; PETIT-PHAR, M; GRIUNCELLI, M; PILATTE, Y
Fonte: Blackwell Publishing Ltd Publicador: Blackwell Publishing Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /12/1998 Português
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Following recent experimental data suggesting an aggravating effect of circulating proinflammatory cytokines on the histological lesions of IgAN, we studied changes in serum proinflammatory cytokines and their soluble receptors and antagonists in patients treated with polyvalent immunoglobulins (15 with severe nephropathy who had indicators of poor prognosis: heavy proteinuria, hypertension, altered renal function and Lee's histological grade III or IV; and 14 with moderate forms of IgAN who had permanent albuminuria > 300 mg/day and < 2000 mg/day, Lee's histological grade II and a glomerular filtration rate > 70 ml/min) in comparison with healthy controls (n = 20) and patients with non-IgA nephritides (n = 50). These were measured by means of specific immunometric assays before and after 9 months of immunoglobulin therapy. Total tumour necrosis factor (TNF) serum and IL-6 levels were elevated in IgAN patients before therapy, relative to controls, and normalized after immunoglobulin therapy. Levels of soluble TNF receptor of type I (sR55) and type II (sR75) increased on immunoglobulin therapy. TNF index α-55,75 used to assess biologically available TNF-α (ratio of total TNF-α divided by levels of soluble TNF receptors sR55 and sR75) was elevated before therapy and was below healthy control values after 9 months of immunoglobulin administration. Levels of serum IL-1 receptor antagonist were low prior to immunoglobulin administration in patients with severe forms of IgAN...

‣ Formation of non-cyclooxygenase-derived prostanoids (F2-isoprostanes) in plasma and low density lipoprotein exposed to oxidative stress in vitro.

Lynch, S M; Morrow, J D; Roberts, L J; Frei, B
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /03/1994 Português
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F2-isoprostanes are prostaglandin F2-like compounds that are known to be formed in vivo by free radical oxidation of arachidonyl-containing lipids, and their plasma levels have been suggested as indicators of in vivo oxidative stress. As oxidation of LDL, a likely causal factor in atherosclerosis, involves lipid peroxidation, we investigated whether F2-isoprostanes are formed in plasma and LDL exposed to oxidative stress, and how F2-isoprostane formation is related to endogenous antioxidant status. In plasma exposed to aqueous peroxyl radicals, lipid hydroperoxides and esterified F2-isoprostanes were formed simultaneously after endogenous ascorbate and ubiquinol-10 had been exhausted, despite the continued presence of urate, alpha-tocopherol, beta-carotene, and lycopene. In isolated LDL exposed to aqueous peroxyl radicals or Cu2+, consumption of endogenous ubiquinol-10 and alpha-tocopherol was followed by rapid formation and subsequent breakdown of lipid hydroperoxides and esterified F2-isoprostanes, and a continuous increase in LDL's electronegativity, indicative of atherogenic modification. In Cu(2+)-exposed LDL, the decrease in esterified F2-isoprostane levels was paralleled by the appearance of free F2-isoprostanes, suggesting that hydrolysis by an LDL-associated activity had occurred. Our data suggest that F2-isoprostanes are useful markers of LDL oxidation in vivo. As F2-isoprostanes are potent vasoconstrictors and can modulate platelet aggregation...

‣ Prime Time Sister Circles: evaluating a gender-specific, culturally relevant health intervention to decrease major risk factors in mid-life African-American women.

Gaston, Marilyn Hughes; Porter, Gayle K.; Thomas, Veronica G.
Fonte: National Medical Association Publicador: National Medical Association
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /04/2007 Português
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PURPOSE: To evaluate the effectiveness of Prime Time Sister Circles (PTSC), a curriculum-based, culture- and gender-specific health intervention, in assisting mid-life African-American women to decrease the major risk factors of physical inactivity, poor nutrition and stress. METHODS: One-hundred-thirty-four African-American women were involved in 11 sites across the country in PTSC and comparison groups. PTSC uses a cognitive behavioral modality based on three theoretical approaches to reduce risk factors and promote positive health changes. Pretest and posttest (10 weeks, and six and 12 months) data were collected on various indicators. RESULTS: t test analyses demonstrated a statistically significant increase in the women's involvement in physical activity at 10 weeks, and six and 12 months. A significant 10-week difference was found in the women's diet, with them reporting eating more nutritious foods, t(77) = 3.32, p < 0.001. The women also indicated from pretest to 10 weeks, and six and 12 months that they changed what they ate to prevent disease (40.4%, 62.8%, 97.5% and 100%, respectively). A majority of the women at 10 weeks (62.7%) and 12 months (65.9%) reported utilizing stress management strategies. There was also a 60% increase in yearly mammograms and a 54% increase in blood pressures checks. Finally...