Últimos itens adicionados do Acervo: CEPAL - Comissão Econômica para a América Latina e o Caribe

A Comissão Econômica para a América Latina e o Caribe (CEPAL) foi criada em 1948 pelo Conselho Econômico e Social das Nações Unidas com o objetivo de incentivar a cooperação econômica entre os seus membros. Ela é uma das cinco comissões econômicas da Organização das Nações Unidas (ONU) e possui 44 estados e oito territórios não independentes como membros.

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‣ Florida's two devices for water management

Milledge, Allan
Fonte: CEPAL - Comissão Econômica para a América Latina e o Caribe Publicador: CEPAL - Comissão Econômica para a América Latina e o Caribe
Português
Includes bibliography

‣ Nuevos problemas y oportunidades para el desarrollo industrial de América Latina

Crespi, Gustavo Atilio; Katz, Jorge; Stumpo, Giovanni; Benavente H., José Miguel
Fonte: CEPAL Publicador: CEPAL
Português
Incluye Bibliografía; Resumen La liberalización comercial, la desregulación de la actividad económica, la privatización de activos productivos del sector público, así como también un manejo mucho más cuidadoso de los grandes agregados macroeconómicos, están induciendo profundos cambios en el comportamiento de las economías de América Latina. En ellas se está difundiendo gradualmente un "clima" competitivo más intenso a medida que las empresas, los mercados y las instituciones se van adaptando a un nuevo escenario micro y macroeconómico. Las firmas industriales han comenzado a reaccionar en forma progresiva ante estos cambios en su escenario operacional. Los empresarios empiezan a dejar de lado 'viejas' formas de organización de la producción —que involucraban, por ejemplo, extensos inventarios de partes y piezas o un alto grado de integración vertical— a medida que aprenden a utilizar y adaptan a sus propias necesidades y circunstancias los principios organizacionales de la fabricación flexible (flexible manufacturing system);, los métodos de producción y demanda sincronizadas (just-in-time); y control total de calidad (zero- defect manufacturing);. Una mayor subcontratación de insumos intermedios y servicios de apoyo a la producción...

‣ Avances en la aplicación del plan piloto de gestión = Progress in the implementation of the pilot management scheme = Degré d'avancement de la mise en oeuvre du plan pilote de gestion

Fonte: CEPAL Publicador: CEPAL
Português
Incluye Bibliografía

‣ The Spanish banks' strategies in Latin America

Calderón Hoffmann, Alvaro; Casilda Béjar, Ramón
Fonte: CEPAL - Comissão Econômica para a América Latina e o Caribe Publicador: CEPAL - Comissão Econômica para a América Latina e o Caribe
Português
Includes bibliography

‣ Hirschman's view of development, or the art of trespassing and self-subversion

Santiso, Javier
Fonte: CEPAL - Comissão Econômica para a América Latina e o Caribe Publicador: CEPAL - Comissão Econômica para a América Latina e o Caribe
Português
Includes bibliography

‣ Equity in education in El Salvador

Carrasco Guzmán, Alvaro
Fonte: CEPAL - Comissão Econômica para a América Latina e o Caribe Publicador: CEPAL - Comissão Econômica para a América Latina e o Caribe
Português
Includes bibliography; In terms of equity of educational opportunities, the region displays great problems, and El Salvador is no exception to this. The analysis given here of the shortcomings in respect of equity of education in that country begins with a general description of the fundamental lines of action proposed in the educational reform process. A study is then made of the differences in access to education, the intergenerational transmission of educational opportunities, and disparities in the quality of education. It is noted that education has an instrumental function -economic reproduction- but it also has a function of promoting change in pursuit of a more equitable society. It is asserted that the contribution education can make to development has its limits, and the effect of poverty on educational opportunities and hence on individuals' real possibilities of getting on in the world is highlighted. Finally, some ideas are put forward for maximizing the contribution of education to the development of El Salvador.

‣ Employment trends in Latin America and the Caribbean during the 1990s

Weller, Jürgen
Fonte: CEPAL - Comissão Econômica para a América Latina e o Caribe Publicador: CEPAL - Comissão Econômica para a América Latina e o Caribe
Português
Includes bibliography; The economic reforms applied in the region during the 1980s and 1990s created expectations, for which there was theoretical justification, of strong job creation and greater equity in the labour market. This article analyses developments in the quantity and characteristics of employment during the 1990s. It concludes that today's labour market problems are due to insufficient economic growth and to less intensive use of labour, resulting mainly from changes in tradable goods-producing activities. Modernization of production methods in companies and sectoral restructuring that increased the weight of tertiary activities contributed to segmentation of the labour market on the basis of people's level of education, as the demand for labour shifted towards those who had passed through intermediate and higher education. People with less formal education had less access to wage employment and wage differences between skilled and unskilled workers widened. At the same time, wage differences between microenterprises and larger ones increased and, with employment relationships becoming more flexible as well, employment quality indicators tended to worsen. All these tendencies were contrary to what had been expected from the reforms. Sectoral restructuring of employment helped trigger a trend towards increasing heterogeneity in the labour market...

‣ New challenges for equity in Uruguay

Filgueira, Fernando; Furtado, Magdalena; Kaztman, Rubén
Fonte: CEPAL - Comissão Econômica para a América Latina e o Caribe Publicador: CEPAL - Comissão Econômica para a América Latina e o Caribe
Português
Includes bibliography; From the early decades of the twentieth century onward, the level of equity achieved in Uruguay, and the sophistication of its social welfare institutions, set the country apart from the rest of Latin America. In the second half of the century, this heritage of democracy and equity survived the severe tests to which it was subjected without fracturing too badly. The strength of the country's sociocultural foundations was convincingly demonstrated after the restoration of democracy in 1985, when Uruguay succeeded in maintaining the position it had traditionally held as the regional leader in social development, this leadership being manifested at this time in the country's indices of poverty and inequality as measured by income distribution, which were low by the standards of other Latin American nations. The authors contend that in the last fifteen years of the twentieth century, Uruguay succeeded in coping with these challenges by maintaining a good balance between the political, social and economic aspects of development. They analyse the subject by placing the position of Uruguay in a Latin American context. Using the same type of indicators, they then describe how the country evolved in the closing fifteen years of the twentieth century...

‣ Expert opinion as an instrument for assessing investment in primary education

Schiefelbein, Ernesto; Schiefelbein, Paulina; Wolff, Laurence
Fonte: CEPAL - Comissão Econômica para a América Latina e o Caribe Publicador: CEPAL - Comissão Econômica para a América Latina e o Caribe
Português
Includes bibliography; Most educational investment is based on untested or partially tested assumptions about the cost-effectiveness of a given course of action. Indeed, the only estimates that have been available have been for the average profitability of each type of education, even though these differ greatly from marginal profitability. This article sets out a new approach to estimating the cost-effectiveness of educational investment. The authors canvassed the views of ten world-renowned educational researchers on the likely impact on students' learning achievements of a set of forty measures generally regarded as desirable for improving primary education, and supplemented the responses received with their own calculations of the cost of each, the aim being to establish an index of cost-effectiveness. On this basis, they concluded that the educational projects implemented in the region have failed to include many of the measures identified as the most efficient, and this has limited the quality of the education provided and its potential contribution to economic success, despite the considerable increase in educational investment by governments and international bodies in the 1990s. The article concludes with a number of recommendations aimed at remedying this situation...

‣ What schools teach us about educating poor children in Chile?

Carlson, Beverley A.
Fonte: CEPAL - Comissão Econômica para a América Latina e o Caribe Publicador: CEPAL - Comissão Econômica para a América Latina e o Caribe
Português
Includes bibliography; A great deal of effort has been put into education reform in Latin America since the early 1990s. Extending the coverage of educational opportunities and improving the quality of the education delivered in schools are crucial for the countries of the region, where education in State schools has often been of a low standard. It is not enough just to study macro education policies as they are formulated by governments and implemented by centralized ministries of education. What is promised or envisioned on paper is often quite different from what actually happens in school establishments. It is important to understand, at the micro level, how schools are functioning in practice as they implement educational policies. Educational policies and social reality come together in school classrooms and schools can teach us a great deal about achieving quality in basic education. The focus of this article is on poor children in poor schools and the continuing challenges of educating children in poor communities. Chile's national programme to improve the quality of education and educational outcomes in 900 of its poorer primary schools, known as the P900 programme, provided an ideal framework for identifying and studying the challenges faced by schools in poor communities in trying to deliver a high-quality education to their children and for understanding how and why they are struggling to meet national standards. This study is concerned with learning from schools to achieve a better understanding of what they see...

‣ El regreso de la vulnerabilidad y las ideas tempranas de Prebisch sobre el "ciclo argentino"

O'Connell, Arturo
Fonte: CEPAL - Comissão Econômica para a América Latina e o Caribe Publicador: CEPAL - Comissão Econômica para a América Latina e o Caribe
Português
Ensayo presentado en homenaje a Raúl Prebisch; Incluye Bibliografía; Hay algo paradójico acerca del auge y caída --quizá podríamos hablar de un auge renovado-- del pensamiento de Raúl Prebisch sobre las que en los primeros años de su vida intelectual se habrían denominado economías de productos primarios. En paralelo con lo que había ocurrido con la economía del desarrollo en general, a principios de los años sesenta su pensamiento se venía desestimando progresivamente tanto en el discurso público como académico. Las críticas más generosas esgrimidas contra las teorías de Prebisch las describían como claramente anticuadas. Desde esa perspectiva, habrían sido satisfactorias como una interpretación de los acontecimientos en los años patológicos de la depresión de los años treinta o al término de la Segunda Guerra Mundial, dominados por la escasez y los controles gubernamentales. Pero en la economía mundial en rápido crecimiento de los años sesenta, con una apertura progresiva a las transacciones internacionales, se suponía que aquello que --de manera exagerada-- se consideraba la doctrina Prebisch sobre la sustitución de importaciones y el intervencionismo del Estado ya no era aplicable. Ahora bien, los protagonistas de esas críticas eran esencialmente los partidarios de la liberalización de las entonces denominadas economías en vías de desarrollo. Había que derribar las barreras a las importaciones...

‣ Why is there so much economic insecurity in Latin America?

Rodrik, Dani
Fonte: CEPAL - Comissão Econômica para a América Latina e o Caribe Publicador: CEPAL - Comissão Econômica para a América Latina e o Caribe
Português
Includes bibliography; The view that pervasive economic insecurity threatens political support for the ongoing market-oriented reforms has become one of the most common refrains in current discussions on Latin American affairs. Dealing with economic insecurity would thus appear to be a key part of the unfinished agenda of Latin America's reforms. The author argues that economic insecurity in Latin America is multifaceted and has many sources that feed on each other. Some of the insecurity arises from the decline in employment protection and increased volatility of household outcomes. Some of it is the result of erratic capital flows and the systemic instability generated by a divorce between the instruments of stabilization and the real economy. Finally, an important component is the weakness of the institutions of voice and representation. Programmes aimed at social protection per se can be of partial help only. They will have to be complemented by applying macroeconomic policies, especially with regard to capital flows and the exchange rate, that are more conducive to the stability of the real economy and by loosening the control of financial markets over the instruments of macroeconomic policy. They will also require access to representative institutions -trade unions...

‣ The Latin American social agenda in the year 2000

Franco, Rolando; Sáinz, Pedro
Fonte: CEPAL - Comissão Econômica para a América Latina e o Caribe Publicador: CEPAL - Comissão Econômica para a América Latina e o Caribe
Português
Includes bibliography; Now that the 1990s have ended and a new millennium is dawning, the low rate of economic growth, the region's vulnerability to international financial instability and the limited progress made in terms of equity oblige us to reflect on the social agenda for the future. An important role in that agenda will continue to be played by the efforts to overcome poverty and indigence, conditioned to a large extent by the region's capacity for economic change and its dynamism in creating large numbers of jobs of higher quality in terms of productivity and income. At the same time, in view of the heavy burden of unfulfilled social needs that still persists, it is essential that social programmes should use their resources efficiently and -in order to be prepared for possible crises- safety nets should be established to cope with periods of recession. Those programmes must attach great importance to the creation of human capital, taking care to improve the present unsatisfactory distribution of education between the social strata, which is one of the symbols of Latin America's social shortcomings. Education alone, however, is not enough to overcome the lack of equity, improve income distribution and generate a situation of social mobility which will give sons and daughters better opportunities for material well-being and social status than their parents had. Economic change should take advantage of the better levels of education achieved by creating more jobs of higher productivity...

‣ Educational reform in Chile

Arellano, José Pablo
Fonte: CEPAL - Comissão Econômica para a América Latina e o Caribe Publicador: CEPAL - Comissão Econômica para a América Latina e o Caribe
Português
Includes bibliography; This article analyses the reforms put into effect in the mid-1990s with the aim of setting in motion a process of profound changes in pre-school, basic and secondary education in Chile, the main changes made, and some of the achievements and difficulties of this process as seen at the present day. It begins by describing the initial context of the reforms, in which, as the objectives of full coverage of the educational system had been largely achieved, the new objective addressed was to improve the quality of education with equity. It also makes reference to the institutional changes which had taken place in the organization of education: the consolidation of the system of subsidies and the transfer of educational establishments to the municipalities in the 1980s, and the change in teachers' working conditions in the 1990s. It then summarizes the main initiatives taken to improve education in the 1990s. The central part of the article deals with the four main pillars of the educational reform process: programmes to improve and modernize teaching methods; the professional development of teachers and the incentives offered for this; the reform of educational curricula, and the introduction of full-day rather than half-day classes. It concludes with an appraisal of the achievements made and the difficulties encountered; among the first are the high priority given to education within the increased allocation of public and private resources...

‣ Job-seeking strategies in Trinidad and Tobago

Valtonen, Kathleen
Fonte: CEPAL - Comissão Econômica para a América Latina e o Caribe Publicador: CEPAL - Comissão Econômica para a América Latina e o Caribe
Português
Includes bibliography; National levels of unemployment in Trinidad and Tobago have remained consistently high since the 1980s, because of the economic recession, subsequent structural adjustment arrangements and the diminution of traditional labour-intensive activities such as estate agriculture. Groups which had been dependent upon casual employment that was available in pre-recession times have been experiencing chronic unemployment. Combining extremely irregular casual employment with activity in the informal sector, they occupy a marginal and precarious position in the labour market. This study examines the way in which the characteristics and strategies of job-seekers differ in mainstream and in peripheral areas of the labour market. In analysis of the qualitative data, based on 45 in-depth interviews, Ragin's qualitative comparative procedures were used. This method of analysing qualitative data permitted scrutiny of different individuals' combinations of characteristics, and identification of those job search strategy components that led either to finding employment or to suffering long-term unemployment. The chronically unemployed showed a consistent lack of up-to-date knowledge of the labour market, whereas those who were successful in finding employment did have this type of information...

‣ Corporate competitiveness in Latin America and the Caribbean

Mortimore, Michael; Peres Núñez, Wilson
Fonte: CEPAL - Comissão Econômica para a América Latina e o Caribe Publicador: CEPAL - Comissão Econômica para a América Latina e o Caribe
Português
Includes bibliography; This article looks at the evolution of international competitiveness in the countries of Latin America and the Caribbean in the 1990s, focusing on the microeconomic and sectoral aspects. It evaluates the competitive performance of the region's countries, contrasting it with that of their main competitors in the developing world; it analyses the corporate actors involved, including the subsidiaries of transnational enterprises and large locally owned firms; and it sets forth some political considerations. Although progress has been made with competitiveness in the region, this has been largely confined to just a few countries, sectors and firms. Differences in the institutional conditions under which the countries participate in the world economy, and in their comparative cost advantages, have resulted in the emergence of two distinct trading styles. In Mexico and the Caribbean Basin, exports of manufactures assembled for the United States market predominate. In South America, on the other hand, natural resource production and processing activities prevail, with more technologically advanced manufactures having some presence in intraregional trade, especially within Mercosur. Both sectoral specializations present opportunities and problems. Improvements in the competitiveness of large companies (whether transnational or locally owned); have enhanced their efficiency. But the same is not true of other agents in the countries' economies...

‣ Reflections on development financing

Frenkel, Roberto
Fonte: CEPAL - Comissão Econômica para a América Latina e o Caribe Publicador: CEPAL - Comissão Econômica para a América Latina e o Caribe
Português
This article sets forth some reflections on the position of the region's countries and the different segments of their domestic financial structures in the international financial system. In the light of the financial globalization taking place in Latin America, it considers the circumstances of the largest countries in the region, looking beyond the stylized arguments of conventional wisdom to analyse different factors influencing the financial situation: sovereignty risk, financial globalization, the degree of financial integration, the cost of capital and the burden of country risk premiums, the link between sovereign risk and fiscal solvency and the consequences of segmented integration. Consideration is then given to courses of action that could reduce country risk. In addition, the role of the different institutional sectors in generating savings is analysed, and the main trends of financial intermediation in the region are considered: banking concentration, the increased involvement of foreign organizations and the role of the public-sector banking system in the circumstances that now prevail.

‣ Reforming health-care management in Latin America

Sojo, Ana
Fonte: CEPAL - Comissão Econômica para a América Latina e o Caribe Publicador: CEPAL - Comissão Econômica para a América Latina e o Caribe
Português
Includes bibliography; Following a conceptual analysis of the term "quasi-market", this article will look at four national efforts to reform health-care management in what can be regarded, in respect of the degree of solidarity and universality applied, as three different health-care models. The changes in Chile are a continuation of the country's previous reform, which went further than any other in the region in undermining the solidarity and universality of the health-care model. The conclusion is that it would be beneficial to consolidate purely managerial aspects so that progress can be made with the use of administered prices, relevant information on the quality and cost of care can be produced, and efficiency and effectiveness criteria can be applied to clinical services. In Argentina and Colombia, while there are large differences between the two, the changes that have been made are part of a reform process aimed at encouraging competition while upholding the principles of solidarity and universality. Because change has mainly centred on the financing model, management has had a subordinate place since the outset. In the case of Colombia, the article highlights the excessive complexities of hospital financing, which have combined with regulatory shortcomings to inhibit management change. In the case of Argentina...

‣ An econometric analysis of private-sector investment in Brazil

Ribeiro, Marcio Bruno; Teixeira, Joanílio Rodolpho
Fonte: CEPAL - Comissão Econômica para a América Latina e o Caribe Publicador: CEPAL - Comissão Econômica para a América Latina e o Caribe
Português
Includes bibliography; This article analyses the main determinants of private-sector investment in Brazil during the period 1956-1996, using an empirical model employed in the most recent studies on developing countries. The econometric procedures followed not only take into account the non-stationarity of the data series examined, but allow for the possible difficulties involved in treating the conditioning variables as exogenous ones or as policy instruments. The findings -both the long-term equations and the short-term models- reveal the positive impact of the output, public investment and financial credit variables and the negative effect of the exchange rate. The results of the weak exogeneity and superexogeneity tests show the importance of credit and public investment as economic policy instruments, while obviating Lucas' critique.

‣ Raúl Prebisch on ECLAC's achievements and deficiencies: an unpublished interview

Kerner, Daniel; Love, Joseph L.; Pollock, David H.
Fonte: CEPAL - Comissão Econômica para a América Latina e o Caribe Publicador: CEPAL - Comissão Econômica para a América Latina e o Caribe
Português
Includes bibliography; Ensayo presentado en homenaje a Raúl Prebisch