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‣ Relationship between the prevalence of antibodies to arbovirus and hepatitis B virus in the Vale do Ribeira region, Brazil

Pannuti,Cláudio Sérgio; Iversson,Lygia Busch; Mendonça,João Silva de; Rosa,Amélia P. A. Travassos da; Granato,Celso Francisco Hernandes
Fonte: Instituto de Medicina Tropical Publicador: Instituto de Medicina Tropical
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/04/1989 Português
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280 students, between 6 and 14 years old, residents in the Iguape county, southern coast of the State of São Paulo, were studied in order to identify the existence of a possible association between the prevalence of specific antibodies to the hepatitis B virus and the exposure to haematophagous mosquitoes, evaluated indirectly through the prevalence of antibodies to 17 arboviruses isolated in Brazil. The children were from 4 areas with different topographical characteristics: 89 of the children were from the urban zone of the town of Iguape, 89 were from the periurban zone, 30 were from the rural area with extensive banana plantations, and 72 were from the jungle zone. Previous studies had shown significantly higher prevalence of antibodies to different arboviruses in the cultivated zone and the jungle zone, when compared to the urban and periurban zones of Iguape. The detection of antibodies to the HBV surface antigen (HBs Ag) was done through the radioimmunoassay (Ausab, Abbott Laboratory). The cases considered positive were confirmed through the presence of anti-core HBV antibodies (anti-HBc-EIA Roche). A significantly higher prevalence of anti-HBV antibodies was observed in children from the jungle zone (26/72 = 36,1% ) when compared to those from the urban zone (5/89 = 5...

‣ PREVALENCE OF HEPATITIS B AND HEPATITIS C MARKERS IN ALCOHOLICS WITH AND WITHOUT CLINICALLY EVIDENT HEPATIC CIRRHOSIS

OLIVEIRA,Luiz Carlos Marques de; BUSO,Abadia Gilda; OLIVEIRA,Alessandra Terezinha Rodrigues de; ARANTES,Cidamaiá Aparecida; BORGES,Luciana Vasconcelos; VALENTE,Selma Regina Guerra
Fonte: Instituto de Medicina Tropical Publicador: Instituto de Medicina Tropical
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/03/1999 Português
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We assessed the frequency of serological markers of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections in 365 alcoholics by determining, by ELISA, the presence of HBsAg, anti-HBc, anti-HBs and anti-HCV. Fifty patients were cirrhotics and 315 had no evidence of hepatic cirrhosis; of the latter HBsAg was assessed in all, anti-HBc and anti-HBs in 130, and anti-HCV in 210. Among the alcoholics the frequencies of HBsAg (1.9%), anti-HBc (28.3%) and anti-HCV (3.8%) were higher (p<0.001) than among the controls (N=17,059), 0.4%, 4.0% and 0.4% respectively. The frequency of positive HBsAg was higher (p<0.001) in the cirrhotic patients (8.0%) than in alcoholics without cirrhosis (0.95%) and in controls (0.4%), and similar between the latter; of anti-HBc in alcoholics without cirrhosis (28.5%) was similar in cirrhotics patients (28.0%) and higher (p<0.001) than in the controls (4.0%); of anti-HBs in alcoholics without cirrhosis (20.8%) was similar to that of the cirrhotic patients (10.0%), and the anti-HCV was similar between alcoholics with (6.0%) and without cirrhosis (3.3%) and higher (p<0.001) than in controls (0.4%). We concluded that: a) alcoholics with or without cirrhosis have similar frequencies of infection with HBV and HCV between them...

‣ Detection of hepatitis A antibodies by ELISA using saliva as clinical samples

OBA,Isabel Takano; SPINA,Angela Maria Miranda; SARACENI,Cláudia Patara; LEMOS,Marcílio Figueiredo; SENHORAS,Rita de Cássia Ferreira Andrade; MOREIRA,Regina Célia; GRANATO,Celso Francisco Hernandes
Fonte: Instituto de Medicina Tropical Publicador: Instituto de Medicina Tropical
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/08/2000 Português
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The possibility of detecting acute infection and immunity using body fluids that are easier to collect than blood, mainly in children, would facilitate the investigation and follow-up of outbreaks of hepatitis A (HAV). Our study was carried out to evaluate the detection of anti-HAV IgM, IgA and total antibodies in saliva using serum samples as reference. Forty three paired serum and saliva samples were analyzed. From this total, 24 samples were obtained from children and 1 from one adult during the course of acute hepatitis A; an additional 18 samples were obtained from health professionals from Adolfo Lutz Institute. The sensitivity to detect anti-HAV IgM was 100% (95%CI: 79.1 to 100.0%), employing saliva as clinical samples. In detecting anti-HAV IgA, the sensitivity was 80.8% (95%CI: 60.0 to 92.7%) and for the total antibodies was 82.1% (95%CI: 62.4 to 93.2%). The specificity was 100% for each. The rate of agreement was high comparing the results of serum and saliva samples for detecting HAV antibodies. We conclude that saliva is an acceptable alternative specimen for diagnosing acute hepatitis A infection, and for screening individuals to receive hepatitis A vaccine or immunoglobulin.

‣ Patients with chronic hepatitis C and normal transaminases

Pereira,Haydée Marina do Valle; Cavalheiro,Norma de Paula; Tengan,Fátima Mitiko; Melo,Carlos Eduardo; Mello,Evandro Sobroza; Barone,Antônio Alci
Fonte: Instituto de Medicina Tropical Publicador: Instituto de Medicina Tropical
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/10/2005 Português
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Hepatitis C virus infection evolves progressively persisting in the majority of patients (85%). Most patients have high ALT (alanine aminotransferase) levels and approximately 25% normal ALT. The latter are usually female and there is no association between genotype and severity of hepatic lesion. Histologic analysis usually shows small lesion and absence or low amount of fibrosis, despite cirrhosis having been reported. Aiming at assessing prevalence, demographic, genotypical and anatomopathological characteristics in patients with normal ALT levels, we have carried out a study of 68 chronic hepatitis C patients between January 1997 and April 2000. There was a prevalence of 13.8% chronic hepatitis C patients with normal ALT levels, 45.6% of which were male and 54.4% female, the mean age being 38 +/- 13 years. We found a predominance of genotype 1 in 84.7% of the patients, genotype 2 in 6.8% and genotype 3 in 10.7%. In 52.9% of the cases liver biopsies revealed liver reaction, periportal activity score 0-1 was observed in 85.3% of the patients and score 2-4 was seen in 14.7%. Structural activity score 0-1 was seen in 73.5% of the patients and score 2-4 in 26.5% of them. Periportal activity > 2 and structural activity > 1 was seen in 29%...

‣ Serological markers and risk factors for hepatitis B and C viruses in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus

Hoyos-Orrego,Alvaro; Massaro-Ceballos,Mónica; Ospina-Ospina,Marta; Gómez-Builes,Carolina; Vanegas-Arroyave,Nora; Tobón-Pereira,Juan; Jaramillo-Hurtado,Javier; Rugeles-López,María Teresa
Fonte: Instituto de Medicina Tropical Publicador: Instituto de Medicina Tropical
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2006 Português
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Both hepatitis B and hepatitis C viruses (HBV and HCV) infection are common in HIV-infected individuals as a result of shared risk factors for acquisition. A serological study for HBV and HCV was performed in 251 HIV-positive individuals from Medellín, Colombia. A qualitative RT-PCR for HCV was done in 90 patients with CD4+ T-cell count < 150 per mm³. Serological markers for HBV infection were present in 97 (38.6%) patients. Thirty six of them (37.1%) had isolated anti-HBc. A multivariate analysis indicated that the following risk factors were significantly associated with the presence of these markers: age (OR = 1.05, 95% CI: 1.01-1.08), pediculosis pubis (OR = 1.83, 95% CI: 1.01-3.33), men who have sex with men and women (OR = 3.23, 95% CI: 1.46-7.13) and men who have sex only with men (OR = 3.73, 95% CI: 1.58-8.78). The same analysis restricted to women showed syphilis as the only significant risk factor. Thus, HBV infection was considerably associated with high risk sexual behavior. HCV was present in only two (0.8%) of HIV patients. Both of them were positive by RT-PCR and anti-HCV. This low frequency of HIV/HCV coinfection was probably due to the uncommon intravenous drug abuse in this population. The frequent finding of isolated anti-HBc warrants molecular approaches to rule out the presence of cryptic HBV infection.