Página 18 dos resultados de 95517 itens digitais encontrados em 0.138 segundos

‣ Immunization today — a review

Marks, M. I.; Brazeau, M.; Shapera, R. M.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 02/06/1973 Português
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Immunization practices are frequently changing as our understanding of the basic concepts of host-parasite interactions grows and research in the area of new vaccines continues. The present review attempts to summarize current practices and the scientific data on which they are based. A complete historical review of the subject is beyond the scope of this report which is only intended to survey developments in the field over the past few years and up until October 1972.

‣ Radiofrequency ablation-assisted liver resection: review of the literature and our experience

Yao, Peng; Morris, David L.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2006 Português
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Background: Surgical resection is the best established treatment known to provide long-term survival and possibility of cure for liver malignancy. Intraoperative blood loss has been the major concern during major liver resections, and mortality and morbidity of surgery are clearly associated with the amount of blood loss. Different techniques have been developed to minimize intraoperative blood loss during liver resection. The radiofrequency ablation (RFA) technique has been used widely in the treatment of unresectable liver tumors. This review concentrates on the use of RFA to provide an avascular liver resection plane. Methods and results: The following review is based on two types of RFA device during liver resection: single needle probe RFA and the In-Line RFA device. Conclusion: Liver resection assisted by RFA is safe and is associated with very limited blood loss.

‣ Management of the Hepatic Lymph Nodes during Resection of Liver Metastases from Colorectal Cancer: A Systematic Review

Gurusamy, Kurinchi S.; Imber, Charles; Davidson, Brian R.
Fonte: Hindawi Publishing Corporation Publicador: Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Background. Hepatic lymph node involvement is generally considered a contraindication for liver resection performed for colorectal liver metastases. However, some advocate hepatic lymphadenectomy in the presence of macroscopic involvement and others routine lymphadenectomy. The aim of this review is to assess the role of lymphadenectomy in resection of liver metastases from colorectal cancer. Methods. Medline, Embase and Central databases were searched using a formal search strategy. Trials with survival data with a minimum follow-up of 1 year were considered for inclusion. Meta-analysis was performed using Revman. Results. A total of 4230 references were identified. Ten reports of nine studies including 926 patients qualified for the review. The prevalence of nodal metastases after routine lymphadenectomy was 16.3%. The overall 3-year and 5-year survival rates in node-positive patients were 9/151 (11.3%) and 2/137 (1.5%), respectively, compared to 3-year and 5-year survival rates of 424/787 (53.9%) and 246/767 (32.1%) in node-negative patients. The odds ratios for 3-year and 5-year survivals in node positive disease compared to node-negative disease were 0.12 (95% CI 0.06 to 0.24) and 0.08 (95% CI 0.03 to 0.22). There was no randomized controlled trial which assessed the survival benefit of routine or “selective” lymphadenectomy. Conclusion. Currently...

‣ Modic changes: a systematic review of the literature

Zhang, Yue-Hui; Zhao, Chang-Qing; Jiang, Lei-Sheng; Chen, Xiao-Dong; Dai, Li-Yang
Fonte: Springer-Verlag Publicador: Springer-Verlag
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Modic changes (MC) are a common phenomenon on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in spinal degenerative diseases and strongly linked with low back pain (LBP). Histology, radiology, potential mechanisms, natural history and clinical studies of MC has formed the foundation on which our understanding of spinal degenerative diseases is built. The objective of this study was to provide a review of recent important advances in the study of MC and their clinical significance. This review article summarizes these studies, by delineating the possible mechanisms, and raising doubts and new questions. The related aspects such as discography and differential diagnosis with spinal infection and tumor on MRI are also discussed. Although most of researchers believe that MC are common findings in patients with spinal degenerative diseases and have an association with discogenic LBP, different results between studies may be produced from the differences in study design, inclusion criteria, and sample size. How the present knowledge of MC affects the management of spinal degenerative diseases remains unclear. Further studies of MC will explore therapeutic possibilities for future treatments of spinal degenerative diseases.

‣ A review of prognostic factors for surgical outcome of ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament of cervical spine

Li, Hai; Jiang, Lei-Sheng; Dai, Li-Yang
Fonte: Springer-Verlag Publicador: Springer-Verlag
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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For patients with ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) who have neurological-symptoms, surgery is necessary but not always effective. Various clinical factors influence the surgical outcome. The studies identifying these factors have been inconclusive and conflicting. It is essential for surgeons to understand the significance of the factors and choose the optimal therapeutic strategy for OPLL. The objective of this review is to determine the clinical factors predictive of the surgical outcome of cervical OPLL. The authors conducted a review of literature published in the English language. They examined studies in which the correlation between clinical factors and outcome were statistically evaluated. The results showed that the traverse area of the spinal cord, the spinal cord-evoked potentials (SCEPs), the increase of the range of motion in the cervical spine (ROM), diabetes, history of trauma, the onset of ossification of the ligament flavum (OLF) in the thoracic spine, snake-eye appearance (SEA) and incomplete decompression may be predictive factors. Age at surgery seems to be closely related to the outcome of posterior surgical procedure. Whether the neurological score, OPLL type, pre-operative duration of symptoms...

‣ Laparoscopic Nephroureterectomy: Oncologic Outcomes and Management of Distal Ureter; Review of the Literature

Berger, Andre; Fergany, Amr
Fonte: Hindawi Publishing Corporation Publicador: Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Introduction. Laparoscopic radical nephroureterectomy (LNU) is being increasingly performed at several centers across the world. We review oncologic outcomes after LNU procedure and the techniques for the management of distal ureter. Materials and Methods. A comprehensive review of the literature was performed on the oncological outcomes and management of distal ureter associated with LNU for upper tract transitional cell carcinoma (TCC). Results and Discussion. LNU for upper tract TCC is performed pure laparoscopically (LNU) or hand-assisted (HALNU). The management of the distal ureter is still debated. LNU appears to have superior perioperative outcomes when compared to open surgery. Intermediate term oncologic outcomes after LNU are comparable to open nephroureterectomy (ONU). Conclusions. Excision of the distal ureter and bladder cuff during nephroureterectomy remains controversial. Intermediate term oncologic outcomes for LNU compare well with ONU. Initial long-term oncologic outcomes are encouraging. Prospective randomized comparison between LNU and open surgery is needed to define the role of these modalities in the current context.

‣ A Review of Imaging Agent Development

Agdeppa, Eric D.; Spilker, Mary E.
Fonte: Springer US Publicador: Springer US
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 05/05/2009 Português
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This educational review highlights the processes, opportunities, and challenges encountered in the discovery and development of imaging agents, mainly positron emission tomography and single-photon emission computed tomography tracers. While the development of imaging agents parallels the drug development process, unique criteria are needed to identify opportunities for new agents. Imaging agent development has the flexibility to pursue functional or nonfunctional targets as long as they play a role in the specific disease or mechanism of interest and meet imageability requirements. However, their innovation is tempered by relatively small markets for diagnostic imaging agents, intellectual property challenges, radiolabeling constraints, and adequate target concentrations for imaging. At the same time, preclinical imaging is becoming a key translational tool for proof of mechanism and concept studies. Pharmaceutical and imaging industries face a common bottleneck in the form of the limited number of trials one company can possibly perform. However, microdosing and theranostics are evidence that partnerships between pharmaceutical and imaging companies can accelerate clinical translation of tracers and therapeutic interventions. This manuscript will comment on these aspects to provide an educational review of the discovery and development processes for imaging agents.

‣ Does Shoe Insole Modification Prevent Stress Fractures? A Systematic Review

Snyder, Rebecca A.; DeAngelis, Joseph P.; Koester, Michael C.; Spindler, Kurt P.; Dunn, Warren R.
Fonte: Springer-Verlag Publicador: Springer-Verlag
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Stress fractures can be debilitating in athletes and military personnel. Insoles may lower stress fracture rates by improving biomechanics, lessening fatigue, and attenuating impact. The objective of this study was to systematically review the best evidence on the use of insoles as a method of stress fracture prevention in a high-risk population. Using MEDLINE, Cochrane, Current Controlled Trials, UK National Research Register, ScienceDirect, CINAHL, and EMBASE, a review of randomized (level I) and quasi-randomized (level II) controlled trials was performed using an insole as the intervention and stress fracture incidence as the primary outcome measure. Five trials were included, and a random effects model was used to generate a summary estimate and an overall odds ratio. One study found a significant reduction in overall stress fracture incidence using a semirigid insole, while four studies found no overall reduction in military personnel. However, when the data are pooled, orthotic use was beneficial. When stratified by site, there was a reduction in femoral and tibial stress fracture incidence. Shoe insoles may reduce the overall femoral and tibial stress fracture incidence during military training. It is unclear if the use of insoles would prevent stress fractures in athletes. Additional studies are necessary to determine the efficacy of insoles in an athletic population.

‣ The Effect of Reduced Somatosensation on Standing Balance: A Systematic Review

Kars, H. J. J. (Cojanne); Hijmans, Juha M.; Geertzen, Jan H. B.; Zijlstra, Wiebren
Fonte: Diabetes Technology Society Publicador: Diabetes Technology Society
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /07/2009 Português
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The objective of this review is to identify and review publications describing the impact of reduced somatosensation on balance. Based on knowledge of the association between specific somatosensory loss and deterioration of balance, conclusions can be made about role of somatosensation in standing balance.

‣ The Potential Use of Intrauterine Insemination as a Basic Option for Infertility: A Review for Technology-Limited Medical Settings

Abdelkader, Abdelrahman M.; Yeh, John
Fonte: Hindawi Publishing Corporation Publicador: Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Objective. There is an asymmetric allocation of technology and other resources for infertility services. Intrauterine insemination (IUI) is a process of placing washed spermatozoa transcervically into the uterine cavity for treatment of infertility. This is a review of literature for the potential use of IUI as a basic infertility treatment in technology-limited settings. Study design. Review of articles on treatment of infertility using IUI. Results. Aspects regarding the use of IUI are reviewed, including ovarian stimulation, semen parameters associated with good outcomes, methods of sperm preparation, timing of IUI, and number of inseminations. Implications of the finding in light of the needs of low-technology medical settings are summarized. Conclusion. The reviewed evidence suggests that IUI is less expensive, less invasive, and comparably effective for selected patients as a first-line treatment for couples with unexplained or male factor infertility. Those couples may be offered three to six IUI cycles in technology-limited settings.

‣ The link between periodontal disease and cardiovascular disease: How far we have come in last two decades ?

Dhadse, Prasad; Gattani, Deepti; Mishra, Rohit
Fonte: Medknow Publications Publicador: Medknow Publications
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2010 Português
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Many epidemiological studies have investigated the relationship between periodontal disease (PD) and cardiovascular disease (CVD), but their results are heterogeneous. This review article is designed to update the potential association, that forms the basis of understanding for a (causal) role for PD to cardiovascular events; as reported by various observational (case-control, cohort, cross-sectional) studies, epidemiological and interventional studies, not considering the other number of systemic health outcomes like cerebrovascular disease, pregnancy complications, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes mellitus complications, osteoporosis, etc. A brief overview has been included for atherosclerosis (ATH), its pathophysiology and the association of periodontal infections as a risk factor for causing ATH, which seems to be a rational one; as development of ATH involves a chronic low-grade inflammation and moreover, it has long been set up prior to development of ischemic heart disease and thus provides potential contributing mechanisms that ATH may contribute singly or in concert with other risk factors to develop ischemic heart disease. This article goes on to discuss the correlation of evidence that is gathered from many scientific studies showing either strong...

‣ 'Writing in the eye of a storm': Response to Gaynor Macdonald's review article Ngarrindjeri Wurruwarin

Bell, Diane Robin
Fonte: Australian Anthropological Society Publicador: Australian Anthropological Society
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2002 Português
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Responds to comments made on a review article for the book 'Ngarrindjeri Wurruwarin.' Theme of the article; Discussion of the coherence of article contents with anthropological theory; Criticisms of the possibilities of writing as a feminist in the post-modern era.; Diane Bell; © Australian Anthropological Society

‣ Livedo reticularis: A review of the literature

Sajjan, Vijaya Veeranna; Lunge, Snehal; Swamy, Manjunathswamy Basavapuruda; Pandit, Ashok Maharudrayya
Fonte: Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd Publicador: Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2015 Português
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Livedo reticularis (LR) is a cutaneous physical sign characterized by transient or persistent, blotchy, reddish-blue to purple, net-like cyanotic pattern. LR is a benign disorder affecting mainly middle-aged females, whereas livedo racemosa (LRC) is pathologic, commonly associated with antiphospholipid antibody syndrome. This article aims to review the causes of LR and LRC along with the evaluation and management.

‣ Emerging Therapies for Noninfectious Uveitis: What May Be Coming to the Clinics

Maya, Jose R.; Sadiq, Mohammad A.; Zapata, Liz J.; Hanout, Mostafa; Sarwar, Salman; Rajagopalan, Nithya; Guinn, Kathleen E.; Sepah, Yasir J.; Nguyen, Quan Dong
Fonte: Hindawi Publishing Corporation Publicador: Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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432.11176%
Corticosteroids along with other immunomodulatory therapies remain as the mainstay of treatment tor all patients with noninfectious uveitis (NIU). However, the systemic side effects associated with the long-term use of these drugs has encouraged the development of new therapeutic agents in recent times. This review article discusses upcoming therapeutic agents and drug delivery systems that are currently being used to treat patients with NIU. These agents mediate their actions by blocking specific pathways involved in the inflammatory process. Agents discussed in this review include full or recombinant monoclonal antibodies against interleukins such as IL-17 (secukinumab), IL-l (gevokizumab), and IL-6 (tocilizumab and sarilumab), antibody fragments against inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α (ESBA 105) and T-cell inhibitors such as fusion proteins (abatacept), and next generation calcineurin inhibitors (voclosporin). In addition, administration of immune modulatory therapies using methods such as iontophoresis (EGP-437) and intravitreal injection (sirolimus) for the treatment of NIU' uveitis has also been discussed.

‣ Functional and aesthetic correction of secondary unilateral cleft lip nasal deformities

Cohen, Mimis; Morris, David E.; White, Aisha D.; Patel, Pravin
Fonte: Medknow Publications Publicador: Medknow Publications
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /10/2009 Português
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The treatment of patients with unilateral cleft lip has undergone significant development during the last decades. With better understanding of the anatomy of the unilateral cleft lip and nasal deformities, primary correction of the nasal deformity at the time of lip repair, critical evaluation of short and long-term results following various treatment protocols, and constant striving for perfection in both aesthetics and function, we have been able to design improved treatment strategies and more accurate surgical techniques so as to achieve overall superior and long-lasting results. In this review article, we present our protocols and experience for functional and aesthetic correction of secondary unilateral cleft lip nasal deformities and a retrospective review of 219 consecutive patients treated at our Craniofacial Centre for correction of secondary unilateral cleft lip nasal deformities. The protocols used in the treatment of 219 consecutive patients at our Craniofacial Centre for correction of secondary unilateral cleft lip nasal deformities were reviewed. In addition, analysis of the most recent 51 consecutive patients who underwent complete clinical and functional evaluation with rhinomanometry followed by correction of the cleft lip nasal deformity was performed. A variety of time-honoured techniques of rhinoplasty were applied in the correction of the residual deformities to achieve symmetry...

‣ Single-Port Laparoscopic Surgery for Inflammatory Bowel Disease

Rijcken, Emile; Mennigen, Rudolf; Senninger, Norbert; Bruewer, Matthias
Fonte: Hindawi Publishing Corporation Publicador: Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Background. Single Port Laparoscopic Surgery (SPLS) is being increasingly employed in colorectal surgery for benign and malignant diseases. The particular role for SPLS in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has not been determined yet. In this review article we summarize technical aspects and short term results of SPLS resections in patients with Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis. Methods. A systematic review of the literature until January 2012 was performed. Publications were assessed for operative techniques, equipment, surgical results, hospital stay, and readmissions. Results. 34 articles, published between 2010 and 2012, were identified reporting on 301 patients with IBD that underwent surgical treatment in SPLS technique. Surgical procedures included ileocolic resections, sigmoid resections, colectomies with end ileostomy or ileorectal anastomosis, and restorative proctocolectomies with ileum-pouch reconstruction. There was a wide variety in the surgical technique and the employed equipment. The overall complication profile was similar to reports on standard laparoscopic surgery in IBD. Conclusions. In experienced hands, single port laparoscopic surgery appears to be feasible and safe for the surgical treatment of selected patients with IBD. However...

‣ Three-dimensional assessment of facial asymmetry: A systematic review

Akhil, Gopi; Senthil Kumar, Kullampalayam Palanisamy; Raja, Subramani; Janardhanan, Kumaresan
Fonte: Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd Publicador: Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /08/2015 Português
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For patients with facial asymmetry, complete and precise diagnosis, and surgical treatments to correct the underlying cause of the asymmetry are significant. Conventional diagnostic radiographs (submento-vertex projections, posteroanterior radiography) have limitations in asymmetry diagnosis due to two-dimensional assessments of three-dimensional (3D) images. The advent of 3D images has greatly reduced the magnification and projection errors that are common in conventional radiographs making it as a precise diagnostic aid for assessment of facial asymmetry. Thus, this article attempts to review the newly introduced 3D tools in the diagnosis of more complex facial asymmetries.

‣ Three-dimensional segmentation of the upper airway using cone beam CT: a systematic review

Alsufyani, NA; Flores-Mir, C; Major, PW
Fonte: The British Institute of Radiology. Publicador: The British Institute of Radiology.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /05/2012 Português
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The objectives of this study were to systematically review the literature for studies that used cone beam CT (CBCT) to automatically or semi-automatically model the upper airway (including the pharyngeal, nasal and paranasal airways), and to assess their validity and reliability. Several electronic databases (MEDLINE®, MEDLINE In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, all evidence-based medicine reviews including the Cochrane database, and Scopus) were searched. Abstracts that appeared to meet the initial selection criteria were selected by consensus. The original articles were then retrieved and their references were searched manually for potentially suitable articles that were missed during the electronic search. Final articles that met all the selection criteria were evaluated using a customized evaluation checklist. 16 articles were finally selected. From these, five scored more than 50% based on their methodology. Although eight articles reported the reliability of the airway model generated, only three used intraclass correlation (ICC). Two articles tested the accuracy/validity of airway models against the gold standard, manual segmentation, using volumetric measurements; however, neither used ICC. Only three articles properly tested the reliability of the three-dimensional (3D) upper airway model generated from CBCT and only one article had sufficiently sound methodology to test the airway model's accuracy/validity. The literature lacks proper scientific justification of a solid and optimized CBCT protocol for airway imaging. Owing to the limited number of adequate studies...

‣ Nipple Shields: A Review of the Literature

McKechnie, Anne Chevalier; Eglash, Anne
Fonte: Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. Publicador: Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /12/2010 Português
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Nipple shields have become commonplace in the United States for a wide range of breastfeeding problems. This article is a summary of the current literature describing the evidence for nipple shield use. The authors reviewed all available articles on nipple shields and selected 13 studies for inclusion. The studies were organized into three categories: physiologic responses, premature infants, and mothers' experiences. This review concludes that current published research does not provide evidence for safety or effectiveness of contemporary nipple shield use.

‣ Review of Fast Monte Carlo Codes for Dose Calculation in Radiation Therapy Treatment Planning

Jabbari, Keyvan
Fonte: Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd Publicador: Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2011 Português
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An important requirement in radiation therapy is a fast and accurate treatment planning system. This system, using computed tomography (CT) data, direction, and characteristics of the beam, calculates the dose at all points of the patient's volume. The two main factors in treatment planning system are accuracy and speed. According to these factors, various generations of treatment planning systems are developed. This article is a review of the Fast Monte Carlo treatment planning algorithms, which are accurate and fast at the same time. The Monte Carlo techniques are based on the transport of each individual particle (e.g., photon or electron) in the tissue. The transport of the particle is done using the physics of the interaction of the particles with matter. Other techniques transport the particles as a group. For a typical dose calculation in radiation therapy the code has to transport several millions particles, which take a few hours, therefore, the Monte Carlo techniques are accurate, but slow for clinical use. In recent years, with the development of the ‘fast’ Monte Carlo systems, one is able to perform dose calculation in a reasonable time for clinical use. The acceptable time for dose calculation is in the range of one minute. There is currently a growing interest in the fast Monte Carlo treatment planning systems and there are many commercial treatment planning systems that perform dose calculation in radiation therapy based on the Monte Carlo technique.