Página 18 dos resultados de 1719 itens digitais encontrados em 0.034 segundos

‣ Revving up the Motor City : targeted neighborhood redevelopment in Detroit

Pauls, Edward, 1977-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 81 p.; 3036037 bytes; 3035840 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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This thesis is an analysis of an ambitious redevelopment plan for a two square mile area in the city of Detroit, Michigan. This area is dominated by city-owned vacant lots, which make up half of the neighborhood. The plan, called the Far Eastside Project, is to rebuild the area with 4,000 homes and additional commercial space over the next 12 years. I analyze this plan, comparing it to strategies of neighborhood redevelopment in urban planning literature. My assessment of the plan is generally negative, showing some holes in the plan and the city strategy. I compare it to a similar sized part of the city that has had much successful redevelopment over the past five years, using this area as an example of a better revitalization strategy. I conclude with lessons for the future and suggestions for picking areas for targeted redevelopment.; by Edward Pauls.; Thesis (M.C.P.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Urban Studies and Planning, 2004.; Includes bibliographical references (p. 79-81).

‣ Mallville : mixing uses in the shopping center of the future; Mixing uses in the shopping center of the future

Lieberman, Todd O., 1978-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 113 p.; 7064423 bytes; 7078072 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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(cont.) product allows municipalities an alternative strategy for large scale development than simply consenting to the construction of Wal-Marts and power centers. The alignment of private and public interests in the development of mixed-use projects create the potential for an attractive (and rare) win-win situation for developers and cities, alike, and the potential for lasting economic and social value.; Changes in consumer preference, supply and public policy are producing momentum for the introduction of new real estate products into suburbia, calling into question the homogeneous propagation of entrenched forms. Suburbs need to be viewed as what they are in some places: underutilized real estate, underbuilt or emerging neighborhoods-ripe for future morphological alterations and untapped economic opportunities. Capitalizing on the potential to improve underutilized land, public willingness to create a sense of place in the suburbs, and the market demand for lifestyle centers and urban housing, developers have created a new product type that recreates the main street feel of a city--in short "Mallville." These mixed-use products have the potential to achieve returns and product differentiation for developers and property owners in an increasingly competitive retail sector...

‣ Public policy through negotiations : the Mark-to-Market experience

An, Jing, 1978-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 87 leaves p.; 6758804 bytes; 6758561 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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by Jing An.; Thesis (M.C.P.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Urban Studies and Planning; and, (S.M. in Real Estate Development)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Urban Studies and Planning, 2003.; Includes bibliographical references (leaves 84-85).

‣ Is the US Main Street model likely to be an effective approach to revitalizing Japanes city centers?; Is the United States Main Street model likely to be an effective approach to revitalizing Japanese city centers

Yamamoto, Ai, M.C.P. Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 185 p.
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As in the United States in the 1970s, a decline of city centers is a social issue in Japan today. Although the Japanese government has attempted to address the issue since the late 1990s, little accomplishment can be seen to date. Thus, it is crucial to find a different approach - different from the conventional top-down approach in Japan. This study focuses on the Main Street Program, which is the most widely used community-driven approach in the United States. This study first discusses why the Main Street approach is promising for Japanese downtown revitalization, looking at the Main Street Program itself and distinguishing it from other downtown revitalization strategies in the United States. This study then shows Japanese economic and urban policy trends at the national and the local levels: at the national level, a reform from top-down to bottom-up is occurring, and at the local level, municipalities are struggling to enhance civic participation in decision-making and actions. Although Town Management Organizations (TMOs) were introduced with enactment of the first City Center Invigoration Law in 1998, they were ineffective because of a lack of comprehensiveness in project planning and implementation, an involvement wide range of stakeholders...

‣ Aging in community

Fay, Justin (Justin Thomas)
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 104 p.
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Baby Boomers are on the brink of retirement. According to U.S. Census Bureau projections, the number of people aged 65 and over will more than double in the coming decades, growing from 35 million in 2000 to 72 million in 2030. The current housing stock in the United States is incapable of accommodating the particular needs and demands of this burgeoning population of older adults. In the next decade, many seniors will move from their homes into new environments, ranging from independent living communities to assisted living facilities and nursing homes, each offering a different level of support and range of services. In recent years, a more comprehensive option for seniors seeking long-term housing has grown in popularity -- the Continuing Care Retirement Community (CCRC). CCRCs encourage active independence while offering a continuum of care options from short-term rehabilitation to long-term care services. Physical, sensory, and/or cognitive abilities commonly decline with age. CCRCs meet these changing health care needs in one location, enabling an individual to age -- dignity and sense of belonging intact -- within the community, thereby precluding the need to relocate and adapt to a new setting. This research investigates the performance of the CCRC model as an approach to housing the growing population of seniors. What has been the experience of these communities to date...

‣ Feasibility analysis of coordinated offshore wind project development in the U.S.

Zhang, Mimi Q
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 67 p.
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Wind energy is one of the cleanest and most available resources in the world, and advancements in wind technology are making it more cost effective. Though wind power is rapidly developing in many regions, its variable nature creates obstacles in integrating significant amounts of wind power to the electric grid. One potential solution for reducing the fluctuating nature of wind power is to site wind projects in regions of complementing wind regimes to reduce variability. This thesis explores the feasibility of creating a coordinated network of offshore wind projects through examining its technological requirements, economic viability, and the policy and planning issues of building such a network in the U.S. Wind speed data for sites along the east coast of the U.S. are used to analyze the nature of offshore wind patterns and the benefits of interconnecting multiple wind projects. The main questions are: 1) Is an offshore wind network technologically feasible? 2) What are the costs and benefits of creating an offshore network with transmission lines? 3) What are potential ways to plan, permit, and develop such a network? An overview of research on existing turbine technology, turbine foundation technology, and transmission technology show that it is technically possible to build a network of offshore wind projects. An analysis of the costs and benefits of physical interconnection show that the cost savings from reduced variability pale in comparison to interconnection costs. It is more cost effective to coordinate the siting of all projects within the network...

‣ Form-based zoning : what place is this code?

Mehta, Shilpa, M.C.P. Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 102 p.
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Form-based zoning is a relatively recent innovation in zoning reform. Many cities in the U.S. have adopted form-based codes in lieu of or as a supplement to conventional zoning and many more are in the process of studying and legislating this alternative. Form-based codes focus on the physical form of the built environment by prescribing parameters for physical form representing a specific intent for the public realm. Typically, form-based codes consist of regulating plan(s), urban standards (building envelope standards and streetscape/thoroughfare standards), and architectural standards. This thesis questions if the 'product' of form-based codes, i.e. the place imagined as a consequence of form-based codes, is differentiable based on place character. Place character refers to certain physical qualities based on location (loci) as well as certain perceptual qualities based on the life in these spaces (genius). This thesis hypothesizes that form-based could certainly result in quality urban spaces but the essential character of these spaces could be singular and indistinguishable from place to place. In order to examine this proposition, this thesis follows the terrain of a representative sample of form-based codes, which are studied as a proxy for the places that are intended as a consequence of implementation.; (cont.) The narrative for each code...

‣ Reviving upside-down architecture : using a historically transitional form of parking to reduce the impact of cars in mixed-use commercial areas

Groll, Stephanie (Stephanie Olinda)
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 71 p.
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In the quest to reduce American automobile usage, critics have pointed to abundant and free parking as the root of a self-reinforcing pattern of scattered development that has led to a narcotic-like automobile dependency. Progressive planners maintain that the presence of parking is detrimental to creating efficient, compact communities. But history shows that's not necessarily so. In the 1940s, Sears, Roebuck located some of its stores on streetcar lines and also provided parking on the roof, making the store accessible to both pedestrians and drivers. At the time, rooftop parking signaled a transition from density to sprawl, and from a transit-based transportation system to the auto. This thesis investigates whether this building typology can be used in reverse-to usher in another transition, this time revitalizing suburban settings toward compact development patterns that can support walkability and transit. Three contemporary urban examples, in Los Angeles, Cambridge, and Boston, illustrate the suburban center redevelopment potential of "upside-down" buildings, the top-heavy stacked construction that puts parking above retail. Initial findings suggest, first, that strategically designed parking can encourage people to park once and walk to multiple destinations.; (cont.) This newly generated foot traffic contributes to a street vibrancy that is often lacking in car-de-pendent communities. Second...

‣ Public transportation is not going to work : non-work travel markets for the future of mass transit

Cohen, Alexander Nobler, 1979-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 201 leaves; 1154535 bytes; 1154302 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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For public transportation agencies to attract new riders in an automobile-dominated environment, niche markets must be targeted. The downtown journey to work is already recognized as a successful niche for transit. This thesis seeks to identify non-work travel markets with strong ridership potential. Nationwide data sources indicate that about half of all transit trips in the largest US cities are non-work trips, and that non-work travel has contributed to transit ridership growth in 13 of 20 large US cities. Based on these findings, St. Louis and Chicago are selected as cases for further analysis. St. Louis is the successful case, in which non-work travel contributed to overall ridership growth in the 1990's. Chicago is the baseline case, in which overall ridership declined in the 1990's, with no evidence of growth in non-work ridership. Detailed case studies of St. Louis and Chicago are conducted. First, an overview is presented, providing a description of transit routes; a profile of transit riders; and an understanding of recent ridership changes. Next, non-work ridership markets are identified, based on original analysis of travel survey data and off-peak ridership data. Finally, the characteristics of those markets are reviewed...

‣ Application of selected new urbanist principles to residential infill developments in mature suburbs of Greater Boston

Port, Andrew, 1977-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 95 leaves; 5905081 bytes; 19148810 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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The New Urbanist movement has grown considerably in the past decade in response to the impacts of sprawl in the United States. The crisis of sprawl has been caused in large part by poorly crafted land use regulations, many of which mandate sprawl. While an abundance of contemporary land use and planning literature focuses on the concepts of New Urbanism, little attention has been given to their regulatory implementation. And while developers and architects have responded to the problems of sprawl with plans for the development of new communities, few have looked at the opportunity to retrofit existing suburbs. This research adds to the field by illustrating how selected New Urbanist principles can be viably applied to residential infill developments in mature suburbs (specifically Greater Boston) if alternative regulations are adopted. Such development will not only preserve natural resources at the urban edge, but will ensure the efficiency and vitality of our mature core communities. Four developments in communities' representative of the Greater Boston region illustrate the contemporary (conventional) form of residential infill and two are given a post-mortem design alternative (New Urbanist). These alternative developments illustrate the viability of applying New Urbanist principles to residential infill in mature suburbs of Greater Boston. A model hamlet development regulation...

‣ Community participation in Boston's Southwest Corridor Project : a case study

Gastón, Mauricio Miguel
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 241 [i.e. 242] leaves; 29475357 bytes; 29475116 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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by Mauricio Miguel Gaston.; Thesis (M.C.P.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Urban Studies and Planning, 1981.; MICROFICHE COPY AVAILABLE IN ARCHIVES AND ROTCH.; Bibliography: leaves 236-240.

‣ Organizational sense making : responsibilities to the MCAS reform in the Massachusetts public schools

Goldman, Janice J., 1953-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 249 leaves; 15278188 bytes; 15311402 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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Educational reform has become a central concern of public policy debates at both the state and federal level. The policy trend both nationally and locally is towards uniform standards in education, with testing as the single metric of assessment of public school performance. But can a one size fits all reform really fit all? This dissertation addresses this question through a study of the organizational responses of two public high schools to the Massachusetts Comprehensive Assessment System (MCAS) a system of standards and accountability passed by the Massachusetts state legislature as part of the Education Reform Act, 1993. Conceptually the dissertation draws from foundational studies of public schooling, which establish education as a social institution, illustrated in historical and contemporary case studies in the education literature. It builds links from this literature to the field of institutionalism and organizational studies. To understand the divergent responses of the schools to the MCAS reform, two theoretical concepts, that of organizational identity and sense making are fused to create the concept of organizational sense making. Organizational sense making is comprised of three inter-related activities in which the schools engage: discernment...

‣ New information technologies in the old political economy : an exploration of community-based GIS for improving basic services for the poor in New Delhi, India

Canepa, Claudia
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 228 p.; 15091719 bytes; 15106987 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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Rapid urbanization, limited neighborhood-level data, and the multiplicity of overlapping agencies in mega-cities in the developing world are creating a significant gap between citizens, particularly the poor, and government. Rising poverty rates have led NGOs and government actors to explore the role of community-based geographic information systems (GIS) in improving service provision to the poor. These participatory GIS applications focus on collecting neighborhood-level information directly from residents and providing this information to government for more need-based planning and policy-making. This thesis examines the development of three such applications in New Delhi, India, that illustrate the potential of participatory GIS production and implementation processes in strengthening communities and creating organizational change within government. However, these three projects also suggest that a stronger understanding of the political economy of information gathering and policy- making is needed if the use of resident perceptions and other types of local knowledge is to be institutionalized in government resource allocation and policy-making processes. Findings suggest, first, that, contrary to the popular belief that government lacks sufficient knowledge about the needs of the poor and that the role of participatory GIS is simply to inform "government...

‣ Finding work in the city

Johnson, Jennifer R. (Jennifer Rebecca), 1970-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 136 leaves; 5688547 bytes; 5688355 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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For the past three decades, rising skill requirements, increased income inequality, and the growth of suburbs as employment centers have altered the dynamics of urban labor markets. Have labor matching processes also changed in this time? And are these processes the same regardless of location? This study argues that job-finding patterns have changed in unexpected ways, that the methods used to find work differ by city, and that wage outcomes associated with those methods can also depend on location. The data for this project come from over 2500 Boston and Los Angeles respondents of the Multi City Study of Urban Inequality (MCSUI) survey, administered in the early 1990s. Research on labor matching can be categorized into two broad camps, one prioritizing the role of social factors, the other the role of spatial location. This study integrates these approaches in a series of analyses that evaluate social, spatial, and individual contributions to method use and outcomes. Despite the importance of individual characteristics, social networks, mobility, and neighborhood poverty for job finding, factors hypothesized to have an impact on method use, these variables do not account for job-finding differences between Boston and Los Angeles. After considering the cities' demographic distributions...

‣ Disturbing ecologies : interventions in Boston's seaport district

Gaspar, Christine
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 53 p.; 2539873 bytes; 2544164 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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"For the past fifty years the question of nature has been conspicuously absent from urbanistic discourse... The development of the American city can be explained through the opposition between nature and culture, wilderness and city."-- Diana Agrest, 1996. From the Greek for study of the house, ecology refers to the relationships (or the study thereof) between organisms and their physical environment. As a field of study, ecology is relatively young, one that initially concentrated on descriptive research attempting to understand the processes of "natural" systems absent human intervention. Only recently have ecologists begun to argue for the understanding of the urban environment as participating in these processes. At issue in this debate is how one perceives the role of humans. The historical Western division between "nature" and "culture" is still operative; for many, the very definition of nature is that which is non-human. This thesis is an attempt to move beyond that division by forging an understanding of the city as a set of interlaced ecologies, including the biotic (animal, plants, microorganisms), the abiotic (water, wind, sun, soil), the sociocultural (social networks, psychogeography), the political (land uses, wards...

‣ Access to jobs : transportation barriers faced by low-skilled autoless workers in U.S. metropolitan areas

Kawabata, Mizuki, 1972-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 249 leaves; 24586825 bytes; 24586583 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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One of the major concerns in today's urban labor market is spatial mismatch, the geographic separation between jobs and workers. Although numerous studies examine spatial mismatch, most of them focus on inner-city minorities, and the spatial mismatch problem for all autoless workers in a metropolitan area as a whole has not been well explored. Focusing on low-skilled workers and welfare recipients, this dissertation explores and quantifies the importance of job accessibility in employment outcomes for disadvantaged workers without autos in U.S. metropolitan areas. Metropolitan areas studied are Boston, San Francisco, and Los Angeles for low-skilled workers and Los Angeles for welfare recipients. An essential component of the analysis is the calculation of improved job-access measures that take into account supply and demand sides of the labor market and travel modes. The resulting measures indicate that, contrary to the perception of many spatial mismatch studies, central-city areas still offer more of a geographical advantage in accessing employment opportunities than suburban areas, despite the substantial suburbanization of employment. In other words, spatial mismatch is greater in suburban areas than in central-city areas. The measures also indicate that the levels of spatially accessible job opportunities are considerably lower for transit users than for auto users. In other words...

‣ A place for us : the territory of the quotidian in suburban downtown redevelopment-- Needham, Waltham, Watertown

Houston, Kelly J. (Kelly Jean), 1970-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 115 p.; 6018422 bytes; 6018230 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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In recent years, planners, architects, and developers alike have all begun to look to suburban downtown redevelopment as a strategy for economic development, housing development, and for creating a social and cultural amenity for town residents. Suburban downtown redevelopment holds the promise of increased employment opportunities that could reduce commute times for residents, improved economic conditions that could provide tax revenue for fiscally strained municipalities, downtown housing that could help alleviate the affordable housing crisis, and the creation of a social amenity that could help build community and social capital. Since many visions of the contemporary redevelopment of suburban downtowns appear to modeled on early nineteenth century downtowns, three case-studies with historic downtown districts were chosen for study. The downtown districts' businesses were tabulated by type, compared over time and analyzed through the framework of contemporaneous planning and development trends. There was a clear trend towards the loss of locally-oriented businesses such as retailers of staples and household goods concomitant with the development of businesses that catered to the non-local. During the same time-periods, there were attempts by local planners and business people to court the regional market...

‣ Brownfields redevelopment in rural Massachusetts : understanding the obstacles & identifying opportunities for success

Gallant, Darlene E. (Darlene Elizabeth), 1978-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 111 p.; 4884420 bytes; 4884229 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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Remediating and redeveloping contaminated properties represents a mounting national concern. Commonly referred to as brownfields, these contaminated and often vacant or underused, properties present significant environmental and public health risks. Once cleaned, these properties create jobs, stimulate the tax base, preserve open space and sensitive natural resources, and protect public health. As the nation's population grows, we consume more acres per capita than ever before; as a result, the amount of unspoiled land available for development decreases. However, in rural areas the abundance of untouched land provides no incentive to redevelop brownfields. Private developers and public agencies use brownfields redevelopment as a tool for managing urban growth. In contrast, rural brownfields sites lay abandoned while valuable open space is consumed by new development. Understanding why rural brownfields are not developed more frequently is the purpose of this thesis. What are the barriers encountered by rural Massachusetts communities when cleaning or redeveloping contaminated property? Furthermore, what are the elements that have allowed some rural communities to see success in cleanup or redevelopment? The Commonwealth of Massachusetts acts as the microcosm from which the proposed study will examine the ability of rural communities to inventory...

‣ Village adoption scheme : a model for rural development

Nanavati, Shahid Sadruddin, 1961-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 54 leaves; 2293117 bytes; 2292925 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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The study describes a "Village Adoption Scheme" as a model for energising the rural economy in India and to slow down rural - urban migration which research has shown to be harmful to both; rural and urban people of India and their regions. The model presented here is designed to use the resources existing in social, traditional, cultural, legal, ethnic, religious, economic and political layers of the rural society and seeks to enable the region to build upon them to generate resources. The thesis describes implementation of the scheme in one region of rural India and suggests the conditions, which would be needed to prevail if the approach were to be extended. The study describes the scale of the project and also the lessons learnt from the endeavour, which would help those who plan to use the model described. The author participated in the project as a member of the GVSP's steering committee and is in a position to give first hand information of the project works.; by Shahid Sadruddin Nanavati.; Thesis (M.C.P.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Urban Studies and Planning, 2004.; Includes bibliographical references (leaves 51-54).

‣ Redeveloping Lawrence, Massachusetts' [sic] Historic Mill District : insights into adaptive reuse in untested residential markets; Redeveloping Lawrence, Massachusettss' Historic Mill District : insights into adaptive reuse in untested residential markets

Clark, Heather, 1978-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 130 leaves; 1588598 bytes; 1674516 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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Lawrence, Massachusetts is one of a number of post-industrial cities in the northeastern United States that has the potential to convert underutilized industrial buildings into a valuable community asset, namely housing. Yet, despite a plentiful supply of historical industrial buildings, the increasing popularity of residential mill conversions, and a strong housing market in eastern Massachusetts, no mill has been converted for the purpose of housing in Lawrence in the last decade. This thesis argues that if mill owners take action and partner with developers to undertake redevelopment, and partner with community development organizations and the local government, key barriers to development in Lawrence could be dismantled in order to prepare the mill district for redevelopment. Targeted primarily at mill owners and community development organizations in Lawrence and similar cities, this thesis identifies key barriers to residential redevelopment that exist in untested residential conversion markets like Lawrence. It then provides recommended solutions to overcome those barriers, learned from other conversion projects within a 50 mile radius of Boston. In doing so, this thesis demystifies the development process to help mill owners and community development organizations acquire a more realistic vision for the redevelopment of the mill district. In the process...