Últimos itens adicionados do Acervo: CEPAL - Comissão Econômica para a América Latina e o Caribe

A Comissão Econômica para a América Latina e o Caribe (CEPAL) foi criada em 1948 pelo Conselho Econômico e Social das Nações Unidas com o objetivo de incentivar a cooperação econômica entre os seus membros. Ela é uma das cinco comissões econômicas da Organização das Nações Unidas (ONU) e possui 44 estados e oito territórios não independentes como membros.

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‣ Policy competition for foreign direct investment in the Caribbean Basin: Costa Rica, the Dominican Republic and Jamaica

Mortimore, Michael; Peres Núñez, Wilson
Fonte: CEPAL Publicador: CEPAL
Português
Includes bibliography; Abstract The globalization process based on more intense trade competition among countries coupled with a process of transnationalisation, in which TNCs adapt by establishing international systems of integrated production, produces the result that countries also compete more for foreign direct investment. Countries realize that the attraction of a substantial element of a TNCs international system of international production —specially one that is export intensive— can represent a very meaningful way for a country to adapt to the globalization process. This is particularly the case for small countries lacking a indigenous industrialization process. Countries compete for FDI through (1) incentives, that is, the provision of direct or indirect subsidies, tax holidays and other financial incentives, (2) rules, that is, the strengthening of a market economy with an adequate legal system, labour and environmental standards, intellectual property rights and regional integration agreements, and (3) factors, that is, the development of production factors and infrastructure needed for an efficient economic performance. Depending on whether countries fall prey or not to 'bidding wars', policy competition for FDI can result in either positive- or negative-sum games. An examination of this situation in the Caribbean Basin...

‣ Restructuring in manufacturing: case studies in Chile, Mexico and Venezuela

Macario, Carla
Fonte: ECLAC Publicador: ECLAC
Português
Includes bibliography; Abstract This paper presents the results of an investigation of manufacturing firm strategies and changes in these strategies as a result of trade liberalization, globalization and transformations in the economic environment in which companies operate. The research concluded that these changes have brought about substantial changes in firms' behaviour. However, in spite of the importance of the influence of the economic environment on firms, the research also led to the conclusion that there is a margin for company strategy.Innovative firms have adopted flexible behaviour and are upgrading their production and marketing capabilities. They have introduced significant changes in vertical integration, input procurement, technological innovations, incentive pay systems and management techniques, training and subcontracting distribution and retailing. The transformation that has taken place at the core of the manufacturing business was one of the most interesting findings of the research. At least for the most innovative consumer-goods manufacturing firms, this core has shifted from being mainly concerned with production to combining manufacturing goods with distributing these goods, and often other domestic and imported goods as well...

‣ The international competitiveness of the Costa Rican clothing industry

Mortimore, Michael; Zamora Leiva, Ronney
Fonte: ECLAC Publicador: ECLAC
Português
Includes bibliography; Abstract Costa Rica has become a new centre of international competitiveness in Latin America and the Caribbean. Its share in the imports of the member countries of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD); has gone up from 0.07% to 0.09% (0.15% to 0.23% of the North American market); and in the market for manufactures from 0.01% to 0.04% (0.03% to 0.16% in North America);. Costa Rica's pattern of exports to those markets has varied, with the slow-growing natural resource sector, which accounted for 91.2% of total exports in 1980 (85.2%);, losing ground to fast-growing manufacturing sectors, which made up 38.5% of the total in 1995 (56.6%);. The share of the 10 main export products (at three digits of the Standard International Trade Classification); in total exports came to over 78% (72%);, while clothing become the most important category of the new line of exports, with a 24.5% (37.7%); share of the total. The striking success of the garment industry, however, is threatened by two factors. First, clothing manufacturers in the Caribbean Basin cannot hope to match the advantages Mexico enjoys as a signatory of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA);. With regard to tariffs, Mexico has a six-point advantage in the United States; many garments it produce are no longer subject to import quotas; and...

‣ Mexico's incorporation into the new industrial order: foreign investment as a source of international competitiveness

Calderón Hoffmann, Alvaro; Mortimore, Michael; Peres Núñez, Wilson
Fonte: CEPAL Publicador: CEPAL
Português
Includes bibliography

‣ Los desafíos del MERCOSUR ante la devaluación de la moneda brasileña

O'Connell, Arturo
Fonte: CEPAL Publicador: CEPAL
Português
Incluye Bibliografía; (*) Arturo O'Connell es Consultor de la División de Estadística y Proyecciones Económicas de la CEPAL. La última versión de este trabajo terminó de efectuarse en septiembre de 2000, antes de concretarse el acuerdo para la industria automotriz y el reciente referido a la definición de metas macroeconómicas comunes para los países miembros del MERCOSUR. Las opiniones expresadas en este documento, que no ha sido sometido a revisión editorial, son de exclusiva responsabilidad del autor y pueden no coincidir con las de la Organización. Resumen El MERCOSUR, la unión aduanera establecida entre Argentina, Brasil, Paraguay y Uruguay en la década de los 90, había suscitado hasta hace poco un juicio casi unánimemente favorable de parte de todos los interesados directos y de observadores imparciales. El comercio entre los países integrantes crecía a tasas altísimas y esto sin desmedro del efectuado con el resto del mundo. Y los conflictos naturales de todo proceso de integración no se presentaban como insuperables. Pero en el año 1999 se registró un retroceso en la evolución de las economías del MERCOSUR y de su proceso de integración, como quedó manifiesto en las cifras correspondientes al nivel de actividad y a las corrientes de comercio entre sus países miembros. En este contexto se produjeron importantes desacuerdos entre ellos que...

‣ Países industrializados: resumen de las proyecciones 2000-2001

Ryd, Gunilla
Fonte: CEPAL Publicador: CEPAL
Português
Incluye Bibliografía; (*) Gunilla Ryd es funcionaria de la División de Estadística y Proyecciones Económicas de la CEPAL. Las opiniones expresadas en este documento, que no ha sido sometido a revisión editorial, son de exclusiva responsabilidad del autor y pueden no coincidir con las de la Organización. Resumen La actividad económica mundial fue elevada durante el año 2000, lográndose la mayor tasa de crecimiento en casi dos décadas. Este fue el reflejo de un crecimiento bastante generalizado, que se apoyó, entre otros factores, en la expansión del comercio internacional. Si bien la expansión abarcó tanto a países desarrollados como en desarrollo, se basó en buena medida en el alto crecimiento de los Estados Unidos y de los países europeos, mientras que Japón, pese a experimentar una leve recuperación, no consiguió superar claramente su estancamiento. Las estimaciones del crecimiento mundial fueron revisadas al alza varias veces durante 2000, al demorarse la desaceleración del crecimiento de Estados Unidos que se había previsto para principios de año Los valores de las bolsas, después de alzas sin precedentes a principios del 2000, empezaron a caer y a mostrar mayor volatilidad. Con todo, se fueron atenuando los temores a caídas más bruscas en las bolsas...

‣ La convertibilidad argentina: ¿un antecedente relevante para la dolarización de Ecuador?

Calcagno, Alfredo Fernando; Manuelito, Sandra
Fonte: CEPAL Publicador: CEPAL
Português
Incluye Bibliografía; (*) Alfredo Calcagno y Sandra Manuelito, son Oficiales de Asuntos Económicos de la División de Estadística y Proyecciones Económicas de la CEPAL. Este documento fue presentado en el seminario The Role of the Central Bank Under Dollarization, organizado por el Banco Central de Ecuador y realizado en la ciudad de Quito el 22 y 23 de marzo de 2001. Las opiniones expresadas en este documento son de exclusiva responsabilidad de los autores y pueden no coincidir con las de la Organización. Resumen América Latina cuenta con una larga experiencia de políticas antiinflacionarias basadas en un 'ancla cambiaria'. Sin embargo, tanto la convertibilidad en Argentina como la dolarización en Ecuador van más allá, al establecer rígidas políticas monetarias en un caso, y renunciar a emitir la propia moneda, en el segundo. Los efectos económicos de estos regímenes de 'Hard peg' no se limitan al ámbito de la inflación, sino que tienen importantes consecuencias sobre el funcionamiento de la economía en el mediano y largo plazo. En este trabajo, se procura identificar los efectos que el sistema de la convertibilidad ha tenido sobre el nivel de actividad en Argentina, y su inestabilidad, sobre el sector externo y niveles de endeudamiento...

‣ Argentine convertibility: is it a relevant precedent for the dollarization process in Ecuador?

Calcagno, Alfredo Fernando; Manuelito, Sandra
Fonte: ECLAC Publicador: ECLAC
Português
Includes bibliography; (*) Alfredo Calcagno and Sandra Manuelito, are Economic Affairs Officers with the Economic Projections Centre of the United Nations Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC). Paper presented at the Seminar on the 'role of Central Bank Under-Dollarization', organized by the Central Bank of Ecuador, Quito, 22 and 23 March, 2001. The views expressed in this document, which has been reproduced without formal editing, are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the Organization. Summary Latin America has had a great deal of experience with anti-inflationary policies based on different types of exchange-rate 'anchors'. However, the Argentine convertibility as well as dollarization in Ecuador go further in this direction, adopting a very strict monetary rule in the first case (which would bring additional strength and credibility to the peg), and giving up the emission of its own currency, in the second. The economic effects of these 'Hard peg' regimes go well beyond the (more or less successful) control of inflation, since they have major consequences on the functioning of the economy in the medium and long run. This document aims at identifying the effects that the convertibility system has had on Argentine economy...

‣ Latin America and the Caribbean: projections 2006-2007

Fonte: ECLAC Publicador: ECLAC
Português
Includes bibliography; This document was prepared by the Economic Projections Centre, under the supervision of Hubert Escaith, Director of the Statistics and Economic Projections Division of the ECLAC. André Hofman, Chief of the Economic Projections Centre (ECP), was in charge of technical coordination and for conducting the study. The assistance of the national and subregional offices and of the ECLAC Economic Development Division was much appreciated. The views expressed in this document, which have not been formally edited, are the sole responsibility of the working group and do not necessarily reflect the views of the Organization. Starting this year, the Centre for Economic Projections at ECLAC's Statistics and Economic Projections Division, publishes the Atlas of Growth in Latin America and the Caribbean (Last update: July 2006). This new product is an interactive graphical version of the main Economic Projections Document, which will provide immediate and user-friendly access to the individual growth projections for the countries in the region. Summary: The gross domestic product (GDP) of countries in Latin America and the Caribbean will grow by 4.6% in 2006, up slightly from 2005. This could lead to an increase of more than 3% in per capita GDP...

‣ The millennium development goals: strategic implications for the Latin American and Caribbean statistical systems

Cervera Ferri, José L.; Escaith, Hubert
Fonte: ECLAC Publicador: ECLAC
Português
Includes bibliography; This document was prepared by José Luis Cervera-Ferri, Consultant, ECLAC, and Hubert Escaith, ECLAC Statistics and Economic Projections Division, based on José L. Cervera Ferri, El seguimiento de los objetivos de desarrollo del Milenio: oportunidades y retos para los Sistemas Nacionales de Estadística, Serie No.39, Estudios estadsiticos y propectivos (LC/L.2458-P) Santiago, Chile, Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC), December 2005. The views expressed in this document, which has been reproduced without formal editing, are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the Organization. Summary This document synthesizes and updates the results of a research programme conducted at the request of the Statistical Conference of the Americas (SCA). It builds upon a first report, available in Spanish, which was prepared by José L. Cervera-Ferri, consultant at the Statistics and Economic Projections Division of the ECLAC. It was based, inter alia, on the answers to an ECLAC questionnaire circulated to the National Statistical Offices (NSOs) of the region in 2005 regarding the "institutional aspects of monitoring the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and the response of the National Statistical Systems (NSS) in producing the necessary indicators. The objective was to analyze the way information gathered by the diverse entities that form the NSS in the region is systematized at national level...

‣ Propuestas del Director General al Consejo Directivo sobre las actividades y financiamiento futuro del Instituto = Proposals submitted by the Director-General to the Governing Council respecting the future activities and financing of the Institute = Propositions du Directeur Général au Conseil d'Administration concernant les activités et le financement futurs de l'Institut

Fonte: ILPES Publicador: ILPES
Português

‣ Las privatizaciones portuarias en América Latina en los '90: determinantes y resultados; documento de trabajo para el Tercer Programa Internacional Privatización y Regulación de Servicios de Transporte del Banco Mundial, Las Palmas, Gran Canarias, España, 5-10 abril 1999

Hoffmann, Jan
Fonte: CEPAL Publicador: CEPAL
Português

‣ Presentation by honourable Gertrude Roberts, Minister for Community Development and Women's Affairs of Dominica

Roberts, Gertrude
Fonte: CEPAL - Comissão Econômica para a América Latina e o Caribe Publicador: CEPAL - Comissão Econômica para a América Latina e o Caribe
Português

‣ Haïti: évolution économique de l'année 2002 et les perspectives pour 2003

Fonte: CEPALC Publicador: CEPALC
Tipo: Texto
Português

‣ Informe de avance del Grupo Especial de Trabajo Establecido en Virtud de la Resolución 553(XXVI) = Progress report of the Ad Hoc Working Group Established Pursuant to Resolution 553(XXVI) = Rapport sur l'état des travaux du Groupe de Travail Spécial Créé aux Termes de la Résolution 553(XXVI)

Fonte: CEPAL Publicador: CEPAL
Português
Incluye Bibliografía

‣ The Mexican peso crisis

Griffith-Jones, Stephany
Fonte: ECLAC Publicador: ECLAC
Português
Includes bibliography; In the author's view, the Mexican financial crisis which erupted at the end of 1994 was not unique, although it did have some special features. Thus, since it could happen again, it would be desirable to gain an in-depth understanding of it. This article therefore analyses the process and underlying causes of the Mexican peso crisis. For this purpose, the author distinguishes three main periods. The first of these extends from the beginning of 1990 up to March 1994, and an analysis is made of the problems that were hatching and the policy options that were available. With regard to the second period -from March 1994 to 20 December of that year- the available options are likewise examined. In the case of the third period, attention is centered on the devaluation and the resulting crisis, and an appraisal is made of the way they were handled. The author considers that there are four main elements that explain the "rise and fall" behaviour of capital markets. These are: excessive optimism followed by exaggerated pessimism (attitudes partly linked with the structure of incentives of fund management companies);; the fact that in a highly diversified market even the most trivial items of news can lead to a bout of speculation...

‣ Modelos neokeynesianos en la planeación y políticas macroeconómicas: la experiencia del ILPES

García D'Acuña, Eduardo
Fonte: ILPES Publicador: ILPES
Português
Incluye Bibliografía

‣ Le fossé en matière d'équité: l'Amérique latine, les Caraïbes et le Sommet Social

Fonte: CEPALC Publicador: CEPALC
Português
Inclut la bibliographie

‣ Reseña de medidas de reforma adoptadas recientemente por la Comisión Económica para América Latina y el Caribe = Review of recent reforms adopted by the Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean = Mesures de réforme récemment adoptées par la Commission Economique pour l'Amérique latine et les Caraïbes

Fonte: CEPAL Publicador: CEPAL
Português
Incluye Bibliografía

‣ Latin American cleanwater privatization: one North American operator's interest and concerns

Graham, Hampton D.
Fonte: CEPAL - Comissão Econômica para a América Latina e o Caribe Publicador: CEPAL - Comissão Econômica para a América Latina e o Caribe
Português
Includes bibliography