Página 19 dos resultados de 10906 itens digitais encontrados em 0.009 segundos

‣ Enhancing Stress-Resistance for Efficient Microbial Biotransformations by Synthetic Biology

Jia, Haiyang; Fan, Yanshuang; Feng, Xudong; Li, Chun
Fonte: Frontiers Media S.A. Publicador: Frontiers Media S.A.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 20/10/2014 Português
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Chemical conversions mediated by microorganisms, otherwise known as microbial biotransformations, are playing an increasingly important role within the biotechnology industry. Unfortunately, the growth and production of microorganisms are often hampered by a number of stressful conditions emanating from environment fluctuations and/or metabolic imbalances such as high temperature, high salt condition, strongly acidic solution, and presence of toxic metabolites. Therefore, exploring methods to improve the stress tolerance of host organisms could significantly improve the biotransformation process. With the help of synthetic biology, it is now becoming feasible to implement strategies to improve the stress-resistance of the existing hosts. This review summarizes synthetic biology efforts to enhance the efficiency of biotransformations by improving the robustness of microbes. Particular attention will be given to strategies at the cellular and the microbial community levels.

‣ Regulation of Gene Expression in Diverse Cyanobacterial Species by Using Theophylline-Responsive Riboswitches

Ma, Amy T.; Schmidt, Calvin M.; Golden, James W.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /11/2014 Português
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Cyanobacteria are photosynthetic bacteria that are currently being developed as biological production platforms. They derive energy from light and carbon from atmospheric carbon dioxide, and some species can fix atmospheric nitrogen. One advantage of developing cyanobacteria for renewable production of biofuels and other biological products is that they are amenable to genetic manipulation, facilitating bioengineering and synthetic biology. To expand the currently available genetic toolkit, we have demonstrated the utility of synthetic theophylline-responsive riboswitches for effective regulation of gene expression in four diverse species of cyanobacteria, including two recent isolates. We evaluated a set of six riboswitches driving the expression of a yellow fluorescent protein reporter in Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942, Leptolyngbya sp. strain BL0902, Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120, and Synechocystis sp. strain WHSyn. We demonstrated that riboswitches can offer regulation of gene expression superior to that of the commonly used isopropyl-β-d-thiogalactopyranoside induction of a lacIq-Ptrc promoter system. We also showed that expression of the toxic protein SacB can be effectively regulated, demonstrating utility for riboswitch regulation of proteins that are detrimental to biomass accumulation. Taken together...

‣ Analysis of Genetic Variation and Potential Applications in Genome-Scale Metabolic Modeling

Cardoso, João G. R.; Andersen, Mikael Rørdam; Herrgård, Markus J.; Sonnenschein, Nikolaus
Fonte: Frontiers Media S.A. Publicador: Frontiers Media S.A.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 16/02/2015 Português
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Genetic variation is the motor of evolution and allows organisms to overcome the environmental challenges they encounter. It can be both beneficial and harmful in the process of engineering cell factories for the production of proteins and chemicals. Throughout the history of biotechnology, there have been efforts to exploit genetic variation in our favor to create strains with favorable phenotypes. Genetic variation can either be present in natural populations or it can be artificially created by mutagenesis and selection or adaptive laboratory evolution. On the other hand, unintended genetic variation during a long term production process may lead to significant economic losses and it is important to understand how to control this type of variation. With the emergence of next-generation sequencing technologies, genetic variation in microbial strains can now be determined on an unprecedented scale and resolution by re-sequencing thousands of strains systematically. In this article, we review challenges in the integration and analysis of large-scale re-sequencing data, present an extensive overview of bioinformatics methods for predicting the effects of genetic variants on protein function, and discuss approaches for interfacing existing bioinformatics approaches with genome-scale models of cellular processes in order to predict effects of sequence variation on cellular phenotypes.

‣ BMC Biotechnology reviewer acknowledgement 2014

Solera, Dafne
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 19/02/2015 Português
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The editors of BMC Biotechnology would like to thank all our reviewers who have contributed to the journal in Volume 14 (2014).

‣ Database resources of the National Center for Biotechnology Information

Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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The National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) provides a large suite of online resources for biological information and data, including the GenBank® nucleic acid sequence database and the PubMed database of citations and abstracts for published life science journals. Additional NCBI resources focus on literature (Bookshelf, PubMed Central (PMC) and PubReader); medical genetics (ClinVar, dbMHC, the Genetic Testing Registry, HIV-1/Human Protein Interaction Database and MedGen); genes and genomics (BioProject, BioSample, dbSNP, dbVar, Epigenomics, Gene, Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO), Genome, HomoloGene, the Map Viewer, Nucleotide, PopSet, Probe, RefSeq, Sequence Read Archive, the Taxonomy Browser, Trace Archive and UniGene); and proteins and chemicals (Biosystems, COBALT, the Conserved Domain Database (CDD), the Conserved Domain Architecture Retrieval Tool (CDART), the Molecular Modeling Database (MMDB), Protein Clusters, Protein and the PubChem suite of small molecule databases). The Entrez system provides search and retrieval operations for many of these databases. Augmenting many of the Web applications are custom implementations of the BLAST program optimized to search specialized data sets. All of these resources can be accessed through the NCBI home page at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov.

‣ Salt Acclimation of Cyanobacteria and Their Application in Biotechnology

Pade, Nadin; Hagemann, Martin
Fonte: MDPI Publicador: MDPI
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 29/12/2014 Português
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The long evolutionary history and photo-autotrophic lifestyle of cyanobacteria has allowed them to colonize almost all photic habitats on Earth, including environments with high or fluctuating salinity. Their basal salt acclimation strategy includes two principal reactions, the active export of ions and the accumulation of compatible solutes. Cyanobacterial salt acclimation has been characterized in much detail using selected model cyanobacteria, but their salt sensing and regulatory mechanisms are less well understood. Here, we briefly review recent advances in the identification of salt acclimation processes and the essential genes/proteins involved in acclimation to high salt. This knowledge is of increasing importance because the necessary mass cultivation of cyanobacteria for future use in biotechnology will be performed in sea water. In addition, cyanobacterial salt resistance genes also can be applied to improve the salt tolerance of salt sensitive organisms, such as crop plants.

‣ Effect of multiple short highly energetic X-ray pulses on the synthesis of endoglucanase by a mutant strain of Trichoderma reesei-M7

Gemishev, Orlin; Zapryanov, Stanislav; Blagoev, Alexander; Markova, Maya; Savov, Valentin
Fonte: Taylor & Francis Publicador: Taylor & Francis
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Bioconversion of cellulose-containing substrate to glucose represents an important area of modern biotechnology. Enzymes for the degradation of the polysaccharide part of biomass have been produced, mostly by fungi belonging to genus Trichoderma. Studies were carried out with the mutant strain Trichoderma reesei-M7, a cellulase producer. Spores of the enzyme producer were irradiated with different doses of characteristic X-ray radiation from metallic tungsten (mainly the W Kα1 and Kα2 lines) with a high dose rate. The latter is a specific property of the dense plasma focus (DPF) device, which has pulsed operation and thus gives short and highly energetic pulses of multiple types of rays and particles. In this case, we focused our study on the influence of hard X-rays. The doses of X-rays absorbed by the spores varied in the range of approximately 5–11,000 mSv measured with thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD). The influence of the applied doses in combination with exceptionally high dose rates (in the order of tens of millisieverts per microsecond) on the activity of the produced endoglucanase, amount of biomass and extra-cellular protein, was studied in batch cultivation conditions. In the dose range of 200–1200 mSv, some enhancement of endoglucanase activity was obtained: around 18%–32%...

‣ The RT-PCR identification and sequence analysis of Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus from apple cultivars in Jiaodong Peninsula, China

Hu, Dechang; Wang, Lei; Jiang, Xiaoman; Wang, Ning; Gu, Liang
Fonte: Taylor & Francis Publicador: Taylor & Francis
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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A set of specific primer pairs was utilized to detect Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV) from seven different apple cultivars in Jiaodong Peninsula via reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and the sequence of ACLSV genome was analysed. The results indicate that: (1) High-purity total RNA could be successfully isolated using plant RNA rapid extraction kit. The ratios of A260/A280 varied between 1.8 and 2.1. The fragmentation in agarose gel was good and the 28S and 16S bands were clear, which suggested that the extracted RNA had better quality and could be used for RT-PCR. (2) The amplified products by RT-PCR were approximately 220 bp, which showed the tested samples were infected by ACLSV in this study. (3) Sequencing analysis showed that the lengths of the target fragments were 217 bp, and the sequence identity rate ranged from 85.7% to 99.1% at the nucleotide level aligned with the corresponding sequences of other ACLSV strains in National Center for Biotechnology Information.

‣ Computational Methods for Modification of Metabolic Networks

Tamura, Takeyuki; Lu, Wei; Akutsu, Tatsuya
Fonte: Research Network of Computational and Structural Biotechnology Publicador: Research Network of Computational and Structural Biotechnology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 28/05/2015 Português
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In metabolic engineering, modification of metabolic networks is an important biotechnology and a challenging computational task. In the metabolic network modification, we should modify metabolic networks by newly adding enzymes or/and knocking-out genes to maximize the biomass production with minimum side-effect. In this mini-review, we briefly review constraint-based formalizations for Minimum Reaction Cut (MRC) problem where the minimum set of reactions is deleted so that the target compound becomes non-producible from the view point of the flux balance analysis (FBA), elementary mode (EM), and Boolean models. Minimum Reaction Insertion (MRI) problem where the minimum set of reactions is added so that the target compound newly becomes producible is also explained with a similar formalization approach. The relation between the accuracy of the models and the risk of overfitting is also discussed.

‣ Blood Banking in Living Droplets

Samot, Josh; Moon, Sangjun; Shao, Lei; Zhang, Xiaohui; Xu, Feng; Song, YoungSeok; Keles, Hasan Onur; Matloff, Laura; Markel, Jordan; Demirci, Utkan
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Blood banking has a broad public health impact influencing millions of lives daily. It could potentially benefit from emerging biopreservation technologies. However, although vitrification has shown advantages over traditional cryopreservation techniques, it has not been incorporated into transfusion medicine mainly due to throughput challenges. Here, we present a scalable method that can vitrify red blood cells in microdroplets. This approach enables the vitrification of large volumes of blood in a short amount of time, and makes it a viable and scalable biotechnology tool for blood cryopreservation.

‣ The Future of Gene Patenting and the Biotechnology Industry after Association for Molecular Pathology, et al. v. U.S. Patent and Trademark Office, et al

Ross, Caitlyn
Fonte: Harvard University Publicador: Harvard University
Tipo: Paper (for course/seminar/workshop)
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The recent decision by Judge Sweet in Association for Molecular Pathology, et al. v. U.S. Patent and Trademark Office, et al has the potential to dramatically alter the landscape of pharmaceutical research in the United States. As more companies use genetic data and research to tailor drugs to specific individuals, gene patents have become a tool to insure long-term profitability. While the district court’s decision will be tested on appeal, the industry must face the possibility that gene patents may be curtailed or even eliminated. Certainly biotechnology research will encounter greater public scrutiny as the case moves forward.

‣ Biotechnology and the Labeling Dilemma

Choi, Adela M.
Fonte: Harvard University Publicador: Harvard University
Tipo: Paper (for course/seminar/workshop)
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This paper will examine the arguments and motivations underlying the FDA stand against mandatory labeling of genetically engineered foods and ingredients. Part I of the paper will describe FDA’s current regulatory policy towards genetically engineered foods. Part II will advance the theoretical basis for the labeling argument. Part III will explore the FDA and industry’s arguments against labeling. Part IV will evaluate those FDA and industry responses. Part V will examine how predictions about public risk perceptions may have shaped the FDA’s labeling stance. Finally, Part VI will examine the realities facing the government and industry that may affect the direction of labeling policy in the future.

‣ A BioBrick compatible strategy for genetic modification of plants

Boyle, Patrick M; Burrill, Devin Rene; Inniss, Mara Christine; Agapakis, Christina M; Deardon, Aaron; dewerd, Jonathan G; Gedeon, Michael A; Quinn, Jacqueline Y; Paull, Morgan L; Raman, Anugraha M; Theilmann, Mark R; Wang, Lu; Winn, Julia C; Medvedik, Oli
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Background: Plant biotechnology can be leveraged to produce food, fuel, medicine, and materials. Standardized methods advocated by the synthetic biology community can accelerate the plant design cycle, ultimately making plant engineering more widely accessible to bioengineers who can contribute diverse creative input to the design process. Results: This paper presents work done largely by undergraduate students participating in the 2010 International Genetically Engineered Machines (iGEM) competition. Described here is a framework for engineering the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana with standardized, BioBrick compatible vectors and parts available through the Registry of Standard Biological Parts (http://www.partsregistry.org). This system was used to engineer a proof-of-concept plant that exogenously expresses the taste-inverting protein miraculin. Conclusions: Our work is intended to encourage future iGEM teams and other synthetic biologists to use plants as a genetic chassis. Our workflow simplifies the use of standardized parts in plant systems, allowing the construction and expression of heterologous genes in plants within the timeframe allotted for typical iGEM projects.; Molecular and Cellular Biology

‣ 20.462J / 3.962J Molecular Principles of Biomaterials (BE.462J), Spring 2003; Molecular Principles of Biomaterials (BE.462J)

Irvine, Darrell J.
Fonte: MIT - Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: MIT - Massachusetts Institute of Technology
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Analysis and design at a molecular scale of materials used in contact with biological systems, including biotechnology and biomedical engineering. Topics include molecular interactions between bio- and synthetic molecules and surfaces; design, synthesis, and processing approaches for materials that control cell functions; and application of state-of-the-art materials science to problems in tissue engineering, drug delivery, biosensors, and cell-guiding surfaces.

‣ BE.462J Molecular Principles of Biomaterials, Spring 2003; Molecular Principles of Biomaterials

Irvine, Darrell J.
Fonte: MIT - Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: MIT - Massachusetts Institute of Technology
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Analysis and design at a molecular scale of materials used in contact with biological systems, including biotechnology and biomedical engineering. Topics include molecular interactions between bio- and synthetic molecules and surfaces; design, synthesis, and processing approaches for materials that control cell functions; and application of state-of-the-art materials science to problems in tissue engineering, drug delivery, biosensors, and cell-guiding surfaces.

‣ Work-family integration in biotechnology : implications for firms and employees

Eaton, Susan C
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 306 leaves
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by Susan Catherine Eaton.; Thesis (Ph.D.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Sloan School of Management, 2000.; Includes bibliographical references (leaves 271-288).

‣ Capital project development in biotechnology industry

Kristinsdottir, Asbjorg
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 62 p.
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The biotechnology industry has experienced fast growth during the first 30 years of its existence but is now reaching a stage of maturity. Companies are being challenged by weak pipelines and patent expirations, as well as increasing regulation. Mergers and acquisitions are frequent, and companies are forced to reduce planned capital expenditures, as well as restructure with personnel cuts and facility reductions. This thesis focuses on the affect those changes are having on the development of capital projects. It researches the environment as it used to be and what is now bringing the changes. Through literature search and case study, the thesis aims to capture the reasons for why the main driver of new facilities construction has shifted from time to cost and the affect that is having on the management and delivery of such projects.; by Asbjorg Kristinsdottir.; Thesis (S.M.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering, 2008.; Includes bibliographical references (p. 61-62).

‣ 7.88J / 5.48J / 7.24J / 10.543J Protein Folding Problem, Fall 2003; Protein Folding Problem

King, Jonathan, 1941-; Gossard, D.
Fonte: MIT - Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: MIT - Massachusetts Institute of Technology
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Mechanisms by which the amino acid sequence of polypeptide chains determines their three-dimensional conformation. Topics include: sequence determinants of secondary structure; folding of newly synthesized polypeptide chains within cells; unfolding and refolding of proteins in vitro; folding intermediates aggregation and competing off-pathway reactions; role of chaperonins, isomerases, and other helper proteins; protein recovery problems in the biotechnology industry; diseases associated with protein folding defects.

‣ Callus induction and plant regeneration in tropical maize (Zea mays L.) genotypes for transformation.

VASCONCELOS, M.J.V.; ANTUNES, M.S.; BARBOSA, S.M.; LOPES, M.A.; CARVALHO, C.H.S.
Fonte: In: INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS ON PLANT TISSUE AND CELL CULTURE, 9., 1998, Jerusalem. Plant biotechnology and in vitro biology in the 21st century: abstracts. Jerusalem: IAPTC, 1998. p. 183. Publicador: In: INTERNATIONAL CONGRESS ON PLANT TISSUE AND CELL CULTURE, 9., 1998, Jerusalem. Plant biotechnology and in vitro biology in the 21st century: abstracts. Jerusalem: IAPTC, 1998. p. 183.
Tipo: Resumo em anais de congresso (ALICE)
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1998

‣ Diagnosis maize diseases with propretary biotechnology applications transfered from Pioneer Hi-bred International to Brazil and Latin America.

KRATTIGER, A.; KULISEK, E.S.; CASELA, C.R.
Fonte: In: CASELA, C. R.; RENFRO, B.; KRATTIGER, A. E. (Ed.). Diagnosing maize diseases in Latin America. Ithaca: ISAAA; Brasília: EMBRAPA, 1998. p. 1-4. Publicador: In: CASELA, C. R.; RENFRO, B.; KRATTIGER, A. E. (Ed.). Diagnosing maize diseases in Latin America. Ithaca: ISAAA; Brasília: EMBRAPA, 1998. p. 1-4.
Tipo: Capítulo em livro técnico-científico (ALICE)
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1998