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‣ Hypersensitivity reactions to non beta-lactam antimicrobial agents, a statement of the WAO special committee on drug allergy

Sánchez-Borges, Mario ; Thong, Bernard ; Blanca, Miguel ; Ensina, Luis Felipe Chiaverini ; González-Díaz, Sandra ; Greenberger, Paul A; Jares, Edgardo ; Jee, Young-Koo ; Tanno, Luciana Kase; Khan, David ; Park, Jung-Won ; Pichler, 
Fonte: London Publicador: London
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Antibiotics are used extensively in the treatment of various infections. Consequently, they can be considered among the most important agents involved in adverse reactions to drugs, including both allergic and non-allergic drug hypersensitivity [J Allergy Clin Immunol 113:832–836, 2004]. Most studies published to date deal mainly with reactions to the beta-lactam group, and information on hypersensitivity to each of the other antimicrobial agents is scarce. The present document has been produced by the Special Committee on Drug Allergy of the World Allergy Organization to present the most relevant information on the incidence, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, possible mechanisms, and management of hypersensitivity reactions to non beta-lactam antimicrobials for use by practitioners worldwide.; This document has been reviewed and endorsed by the following regional member societies of the World Allergy Organization: American Academy of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology (AAAAI), American College of Allergy Asthma and Immunology (ACAAI), Asia Pacific Association of Allergy, Asthma and Clinical Immunology (APAAACI), and the Latin American Society of Allergy Asthma and Immunology (SLAAI).

‣ Resposta imune celular a diferentes antígenos micobacterianos em indivíduos infectados por Mycobacterium tuberculosis: avaliação por elispot, elisa e linfoproliferação

Tanji, Maury Massani
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 02/03/2005 Português
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A tuberculose é uma doença crônica granulomatosa caracterizada por um déficit de imunidade antígeno específica do hospedeiro, cuja resposta imune é ativamente regulada por citocinas. No Brasil há mais de 50 milhões de habitantes infectados pelo Mycobacterium tuberculosis. O objetivo foi avaliar a linfoproliferação e a produção de citocinas por células mononucleares do sangue periférico (PBMC) estimuladas por quatro diferentes antígenos do M. tuberculosis, um complexo, o antígeno sonicado, e três purificados, ESAT-6, antígeno 85B e antígeno HBHA, eventuais candidatos à vacina anti-tuberculose. Para avaliação da produção de IFN-g e IL-10 foram utilizados dois métodos: Elispot e Elisa à partir de sobrenadante de cultura de PBMC. Para essas avaliações, os pacientes com tuberculose ativa (TB-A) foram comparados a dois subgrupos de indivíduos controles. O primeiro subgrupo foi constituído por indivíduos saudáveis PPD+ e o segundo por indivíduos curados de um episódio de tuberculose (TB-C). Nossos resultados de linfoproliferação e de Elisa revelaram diminuição da resposta linfoproliferativa e da produção de IFN-g dos pacientes em comparação com os indivíduos PPD+, enquanto os indivíduos TB-C apresentaram em geral resultados intermediários. Observou-se também que as respostas à PHA não diferiam significativamente entre os grupos...

‣ Avaliação do BCG como adjuvante na imunoterapia específica para asmáticos; Assessment of BGC as an adjuvant in specific immunotherapy in asthmatic patients

Cohon, Andréa
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 28/07/2004 Português
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O aumento da prevalência de doenças alérgicas como a asma, tem sido atribuído à falta de estímulos infecciosos. A atopia, que embasa as manifestações alérgicas, caracteriza-se por uma disfunção imune com predomínio da resposta do tipo Th2. Experimentos em modelos animais com micobactérias e seus produtos têm demonstrado resultados promissores na proteção e reversão de resposta imune do tipo Th2. A imunoterapia para alérgenos inalatórios tem mostrado resultados positivos e o uso do BCG como adjuvante poderia trazer benefícios adicionais. Em estudo randomizado duplo cego foram avaliados 21 indivíduos de ambos os sexos, com idades de 8 a 17 anos sensibilizados ao Dermatophagoides pteronissynus (Dpt) e portadores de asma leve ou moderada persistentes. Os pacientes foram divididos em dois grupos e tratados com imunoterapia específica (ITE) para Dpt. O Grupo A recebeu como adjuvante, no início da ITE, uma aplicação do diluente do BCG e o Grupo B uma dose da vacina BCG. Na avaliação realizada após o período de indução da ITE constatou-se nos dois grupos diminuição significativa dos sintomas, da necessidade de medicação para asma, da hiperreatividade brônquica inespecífica, da reatividade cutânea ao Dpt juntamente com a melhora da função pulmonar. Houve uma redução no índice de estimulação da cultura de células mononucleares do sangue periférico estimuladas com Dpt...

‣ Polipose nasal: caracterização da infiltração dos eosinófilos, mastócitos, miofibroblastos e células TGF-beta positivas em indivíduos com e sem asma; Nasal polyposis: characterization of eosinophils, mast cells, myofibroblasts and TGF-ß-positive cells in individuals with and without asthma

Nakanishi, Marcio
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 20/05/2005 Português
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Para identificar, quantificar e correlacionar os eosinófilos, mastócitos, miofibroblastos e células TGF-beta positivas nos pólipos nasais de pacientes com e sem asma foi realizado a imunoistoquímica. A quantidade de eosinófilos, miofibroblastos e células TGF-beta positivas esteve aumentada no pólipo nasal de indivíduos asmáticos. O número de mastócitos não mostrou diferença entre os grupos. O miofibroblasto foi o denominador comum na correlação entre eosinófilos, mastócitos, células TGF-beta positivas e presença de asma; Introduction: Nasal polyposis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the nasal mucosa or paranasal sinuses characterized by the formation of benign polyps. The pathogenesis is not known, although nasal polyps are associated with several systemic diseases, with asthma being the most frequent. The aim of the present study was to identify, quantify, compare and correlate eosinophils, mast cells, myofibroblasts and TGF-ß-positive cells in nasal polyps of patients with and without asthma. Material and Methods: Seventy-eight subjects with nasal polyps undergoing endoscopic sinus surgery were selected. Control specimens were obtained from eight subjects with a normal sinus mucosa. One group consisted of polyps from 56 patients with asthma and the other of polyps from 22 patients without asthma. Immunohistochemistry was performed using monoclonal antibodies against eosinophil cationic protein to stain eosinophils...

‣ Papel da atividade física regular realizada durante vários anos na função imune do idoso; Role of regular practice of physical activity over several years on immune function in the elderly

Arai, Milton Hideaki
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 12/11/2004 Português
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A proposta principal deste estudo foi de avaliar o efeito da prática regular de atividade física por longos anos na imunossenescência, isto é, nas alterações que o sistema imune sofre com o envelhecimento. Para tal, comparou-se os resultados dos exames imunológicos de 20 idosos praticantes de corrida (idade média = 67 anos) aos de 20 idosos sedentários (idade média = 66 anos) e 10 jovens sedentários (idade média = 26 anos). Os idosos corredores eram praticantes da modalidade em média nos últimos 23 anos e vinham percorrendo uma distância semanal média de 39 quilômetros. O consumo máximo de oxigênio (VO2 max) deles foi 52% maior do que o dos idosos sedentários, atingindo valores similares aos dos jovens. Os parâmetros imunológicos analisados foram: contagem de linfócitos e seus subtipos, resposta proliferativa dos linfócitos T a mitógenos, atividade citotóxica das células natural killer e produção de citocinas (interleucinas 2, 3, 4, 6, 10 e 12). A dosagem das mesmas citocinas no soro também foi realizada, porém somente nos dois grupos de idosos. Os idosos corredores apresentaram resposta proliferativa dos linfócitos T a OKT-3 e produção de interleucina-2 significativamente maiores do que as dos idosos sedentários. Eles apresentaram também uma produção de interleucina-3 significativamente menor do que a dos seus pares sedentários. Por outro lado...

‣ Leprosy and Kaposi Sarcoma Presenting as an Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome in a Patient with AIDS

Medeiros, S; Coelho, R; Fernandes, C; Catarino, MC; Afonso, A; Vieira, R; Rodrigues, A; Cardoso, J
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2009 Português
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The simultaneous presence of infectious organisms within cutaneous lesions of Kaposi sarcoma in persons with AIDS has been demonstrated. We describe a patient with concurrent leprosy and Kaposi sarcoma presenting as an immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome in the setting of AIDS.

‣ Leprosy and Kaposi Sarcoma Presenting as an Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome in a Patient with AIDS

Medeiros, S; Coelho, R; Fernandes, C; Catarino, MC; Afonso, A; Vieira, R; Rodrigues, A; Cardoso, J
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2009 Português
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The simultaneous presence of infectious organisms within cutaneous lesions of Kaposi sarcoma in persons with AIDS has been demonstrated. We describe a patient with concurrent leprosy and Kaposi sarcoma presenting as an immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome in the setting of AIDS.

‣ Immunome Research

Petrovsky, Nikolai
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 20/09/2005 Português
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Immunology research has been transformed in the post-genomics era, with high throughput molecular biology and information technologies taking an increasingly central role. This has led to the development of a new area of science termed "Immunomics", that encompasses genomic, high throughput and bioinformatic approaches to immunology. In recognition of the increasing importance of this field, Immunome Research is a new Open Access, online journal, that will publish cutting edge research across the field of Immunomics. Immunome Research will publish a wide range of article types including specialty immunology databases, immunology database tools, immunome epitope research, epitope analysis tools, high-throughput technologies (gene sequencing, microarrays, proteomics), white papers, mathematical and theoretical models, and prediction tools. Immunome Research is the official journal of the International Immunomics Society (IIMMS).

‣ The Immune System in Pregnancy: A Unique Complexity

Mor, Gil; Cardenas, Ingrid
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Placental immune response and its tropism for specific viruses and pathogens affect the outcome of the pregnant woman’s susceptibility to and severity of certain infectious diseases. The generalization of pregnancy as a condition of immune suppression or increased risk is misleading and prevents the determination of adequate guidelines for treating pregnant women during pandemics. There is a need to evaluate the interaction of each specific pathogen with the fetal/placental unit and its responses to design the adequate prophylaxis or therapy. The complexity of the immunology of pregnancy and the focus, for many years, on the concept of immunology of pregnancy as an organ transplantation have complicated the field and delayed the development of new guidelines with clinical implications that could help to answer these and other relevant questions. Our challenge as scientists and clinicians interested in the field of reproductive immunology is to evaluate many of the ‘classical concepts’ to define new approaches for a better understanding of the immunology of pregnancy that will benefit mothers and fetuses in different clinical scenarios.

‣ Towards an integrated network of coral immune mechanisms

Palmer, C. V.; Traylor-Knowles, N.
Fonte: The Royal Society Publicador: The Royal Society
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Reef-building corals form bio-diverse marine ecosystems of high societal and economic value, but are in significant decline globally due, in part, to rapid climatic changes. As immunity is a predictor of coral disease and thermal stress susceptibility, a comprehensive understanding of this new field will likely provide a mechanistic explanation for ecological-scale trends in reef declines. Recently, several strides within coral immunology document defence mechanisms that are consistent with those of both invertebrates and vertebrates, and which span the recognition, signalling and effector response phases of innate immunity. However, many of these studies remain discrete and unincorporated into the wider fields of invertebrate immunology or coral biology. To encourage the rapid development of coral immunology, we comprehensively synthesize the current understanding of the field in the context of general invertebrate immunology, and highlight fundamental gaps in our knowledge. We propose a framework for future research that we hope will stimulate directional studies in this emerging field and lead to the elucidation of an integrated network of coral immune mechanisms. Once established, we are optimistic that coral immunology can be effectively applied to pertinent ecological questions...

‣ Environmental assessment and exposure reduction of cockroaches: A practice parameter

Portnoy, Jay; Chew, Ginger L.; Phipatanakul, Wanda; Williams, P. Brock; Grimes, Carl; Kennedy, Kevin; Matsui, Elizabeth C.; Miller, J. David; Bernstein, David; Blessing-Moore, Joann; Cox, Linda; Khan, David; Lang, David; Nicklas, Richard; Oppenheimer, Joh
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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This parameter was developed by the Joint Task Force on Practice Parameters, representing the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology (AAAAI); the American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology (ACAAI); and the joint Council of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. The AAAAI and the ACAAI have jointly accepted responsibility for establishing “Environmental assessment and remediation: a practice parameter.” This is a complete and comprehensive document at the current time. The medical environment is a changing environment, and not all recommendations will be appropriate for all patients. Because this document incorporated the efforts of many participants, no single person, including those who served on the Joint Task Force, is authorized to provide an official AAAAI or ACAAI interpretation of these practice parameters. Any request for information about or an interpretation of these practice parameters by the AAAAI or ACAAI should be directed to the Executive Offices of the AAAAI, the ACAAI, and the Joint Council of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. These parameters are not designed for use by pharmaceutical companies in drug promotion. The findings and conclusions in this manuscript are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official position of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).

‣ IgG autoantibody to brain beta tubulin III associated with cytokine cluster-II discriminate cerebral malaria in central India

Bansal, D.; Herbert, F.; Lim, P.; Deshpande, P.; Becavin, C.; Guiyedi, V.; de Maria, I.; Rousselle, J.C.; Namane, A.; Jain, R.; Cazenave, P.A.; Mishra, G.C.; Ferlini, C.; Fesel, C.; Benecke, A.; Pied, S.
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /12/2009 Português
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We investigated the significance of these self-reactive antibodies in clinically well-defined groups of P. falciparum infected patients manifesting mild malaria (MM), severe non-cerebral malaria (SM), or cerebral malaria (CM) and in control subjects from Gondia, a malaria epidemic site in central India using quantitative immunoprinting and multivariate statistical analyses. A two-fold complete-linkage hierarchical clustering allows classifying the different patient groups and to distinguish the CM from the others on the basis of their profile of IgG reactivity to brain proteins defined by PANAMA Blot. We identified beta tubulin III (TBB3) as a novel discriminant brain antigen in the prevalence of CM. In addition, circulating IgG from CM patients highly react with recombinant TBB3. Overall, correspondence analyses based on singular value decomposition show a strong correlation between IgG anti-TBB3 and elevated concentration of cluster-II cytokine (IFNγ, IL1β, TNFα, TGFβ) previously demonstrated to be a predictor of CM in the same population

‣ Self-reactivities to the non-erythroid alpha spectrin correlate with cerebral malaria in Gabonese children

Guiyedi, V.; Chanseaud, Y.; Fesel, C.; Snounou, G.; Rousselle, J.C.; Lim, P.; Koko, J.; Namane, A.; Cazenave, P.A.; Kombila, M.; Pied, S.
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /04/2007 Português
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Hypergammaglobulinemia and polyclonal B-cell activation commonly occur in Plasmodium sp. infections. Some of the antibodies produced recognize self-components and are correlated with disease severity in P. falciparum malaria. However, it is not known whether some self-reactive antibodies produced during P. falciparum infection contribute to the events leading to cerebral malaria (CM). We show here a correlation between self-antibody responses to a human brain protein and high levels of circulating TNF alpha (TNFα), with the manifestation of CM in Gabonese children

‣ Increased polyclonal immunoglobulin reactivity toward human and bacterial proteins is associated with clinical protection in human Plasmodium infection

Fesel, C.; Goulart, L.F.; Neto, A.S.; Coelho, A.; Fontes, C.J.F.; Braga, E.M.; Vaz, N.M.
Fonte: Biomed Central Publicador: Biomed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /01/2005 Português
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The observed difference in polyclonal antibody production seems related to intrinsic activation states of infected individuals, rather than to parasite-antigen specific immune responses. However, it appears influenced by preceding stimuli. This supports the idea that acquired clinical immunity may not exclusively depend on antigen-specific responses, but also on the individual polyclonal reaction.

‣ Rituximab in Pemphigus Foliaceous With Autoantibodies Against Both Desmoglein 1 and Desmoglein 3

Carvalho, R; Maio, P; Cunha, D; Freitas, I; Afonso, A; Cardoso, J
Fonte: John Libbey Eurotext Publicador: John Libbey Eurotext
Tipo: Outros
Publicado em //2011 Português
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‣ The family physician and the human immunodeficiency virus seropositive patient.; O médico de família e o doente seropositivo para o vírus de imunodeficiência humana.

Marcos, T; Centro de Saúde da Batalha, Porto.; Barbosa, A; Almeida, I; Barbosa, P; Vasconcelos, C
Fonte: Ordem dos Médicos Publicador: Ordem dos Médicos
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; article; article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 30/08/2000 Português
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To characterize a subject who is HIV positive and closely observed in the consultation of clinical immunology (Santo António General Hospital), from a demographic and socio-economic point of view; to determine the percentage of these subjects who have a family doctor; how often they go to a family doctor; the reasons for a more frequent visit to the doctor; if there has been any alteration in the reasons for consulting the family doctor after establishing the diagnosis of HIV infection; who made the diagnosis of HIV infection; to evaluate, from these patient's point of view, if there has been any alteration in the family doctor's attitude or vice versa after the diagnosis. CHARACTERISATION OF THE STUDY: A descriptive, transversal study was carried out from 30/01/97 to 13/03/1997.A questionnaire with twenty-two questions was used in a personal interview of a random sample of 100 patients observed in the Consultation of Clinical Immunology at Santo António General Hospital and represented 40% of the population studied.One hundred patients answered the questionnaire, 73 were male and 27 female, with an mean age of 34.73 years. The majority were single, representing 44% of the random sample, 33% had completed primary education (or equivalent)...

‣ Nasally administered Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains differentially modulate respiratory antiviral immune responses and induce protection against respiratory syncytial virus infection

Tomosada, Yohsuke; Chiba, Eriko; Zelaya, María Hortensia del Rosario; Takahashi, Takuya; Tsukida, Koichiro; Kitazawa, Haruki; Alvarez, Gladis Susana; Villena, Julio Cesar
Fonte: Biomed Central Publicador: Biomed Central
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:ar-repo/semantics/artículo; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion Formato: application/pdf
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Some studies have shown that nasally administered immunobiotics had the potential to improve the outcome of influenza virus infection. However, the capacity of immunobiotics to improve protection against respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection was not investigated before. Objective: the aims of this study were: a) to evaluate whether the nasal administration of Lactobacillus rhamnosus CRL1505 (Lr05) and L. rhamnosus CRL1506 (Lr06) are able to improve respiratory antiviral defenses and beneficially modulate the immune response triggered by TLR3/RIG-I activation; b) to investigate whether viability of Lr05 or Lr06 is indispensable to modulate respiratory immunity and; c) to evaluate the capacity of Lr05 and Lr06 to improve the resistance of infant mice against RSV infection. Results: nasally administered Lr05 and Lr06 differentially modulated the TLR3/RIG-I-triggered antiviral respiratory immune response. Lr06 administration significantly modulated the production of IFN-α, IFN-β and IL-6 in the response to poly(I:C) challenge, while nasal priming with Lr05 was more effective to improve levels of IFN-γ and IL-10. Both viable Lr05 and Lr06 strains increased the resistance of infant mice to RSV infection while only heat-killed Lr05 showed a protective effect similar to those observed with viable strains. Conclusions: the present work demonstrated that nasal administration of immunobiotics is able to beneficially modulate the immune response triggered by TLR3/RIG-I activation in the respiratory tract and to increase the resistance of mice to the challenge with RSV. Comparative studies using two Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains of the same origin and with similar technological properties showed that each strain has an specific immunoregulatory effect in the respiratory tract and that they differentially modulate the immune response after poly(I:C) or RSV challenges...

‣ Immunobiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus improves resistance of infant mice against respiratory syncytial virus infection

Eriko, Chiba; Tomosada, Yohsuke; Vizoso Pinto, María Guadalupe; Salva, Maria Susana; Takahashi, Takuya; Tsukida, Kohichiro; Kitazawa, Haruki; Alvarez, Gladis Susana; Villena, Julio Cesar
Fonte: Elsevier Science Publicador: Elsevier Science
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:ar-repo/semantics/artículo; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion Formato: application/pdf
Português
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Previously we showed that orally administered Lactobacillus rhamnosus CRL1505 beneficially regulated the balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators in the lungs of poly(I:C)-challenged mice, allowing an effective inflammatory response against the TLR3/RIG-I agonist but at the same time reducing tissue damage. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether oral administration of the CRL1505 strain was able to improve resistance against respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection in infant mice and to evaluate the immunological mechanisms involved in the immunobiotic effect. We demonstrated that treatment of 3-week old BALB/c mice with L. rhamnosus CRL1505 significantly reduce lung viral loads and tissue injuries after the challenge with RSV. Moreover, we showed that the protective effect achieved by the CRL1505 strain is related to its capacity to differentially modulate respiratory antiviral immune response. Our results shows that IFN-γ and IL-10 secreted in response to L. rhamnosus CRL1505 oral stimulation would modulate the pulmonary innate immune microenvironment conducting to the activation of CD103+ and CD11bhigh dendritic cells and the generation of CD3+CD4+IFN-γ+ Th1 cells with the consequent attenuation of the strong and damaging Th2 reactions associated with RSV challenge. Our results indicate that modulation of the common mucosal immune system by immunobiotics could favor protective immunity against respiratory viral pathogens with a high attack rate in early infancy...

‣ Estudi immunogenètic de les quimiocines CCL4 i CCL4L exemple i model de la complexitat de la superfamília de les quimiocines /

Colobran i Oriol, Roger
Fonte: Bellaterra : Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Publicador: Bellaterra : Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona,
Tipo: Tesis i dissertacions electròniques; info:eu-repo/semantics/doctoralThesis Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2008 Português
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Descripció del recurs: el 19-08-2008; Consultable des del TDX; Títol obtingut de la portada digitalitzada; Els resultats d'aquesta tesi doctoral, presentada per compendi de publicacions, es divideixen en 2 grups: A) Basats en la variabilitat de CCL4 i CCL4L: Article: Multiple Products Derived from Two CCL4 Loci: High Incidence of a New Polymorphism in HIV+ Patients. Roger Colobran, Patricia Adreani, Yaqoub Ashhab, Anuska Llano, José A. Esté, Orlando Dominguez, Ricardo Pujol-Borrell, and Manel Juan. The Journal of Immunology, 2005, 174: 5655-5664. Els locus CCL4 i CCL4L originen les quimiocines CCL4 i CCL4L, que estan altament relacionades. En aquest treball es demostra que ambdós gens produeixen trànscrits originats per splicing alternatiu mancats de l'exó 2 (anomenats CCL4Δ2 i CCL4LΔ2). Per altra banda, el locus CCL4L presenta un polimorfisme de nucleòtid únic (rs4796195) situat a la seqüència acceptora de tall-i-unió (splicing) de l'intró 2, donant lloc a dues variants al·lèliques: CCL4L1 (la originalment descrita) i CCL4L2, on aquesta seqüència acceptora de tall desapareix i l'ús de noves seqüències de tall acceptores al voltant de la original, dóna lloc a la generació de múltiples trànscrits diferents als generats per CCL4L1. En un estudi cas-control es demostra que la variant CCL4L2 està significativament augmentada en els pacients HIV+ respecte una població control. Això demostra que CCL4L2 és un factor de susceptibilitat per a la infecció per HIV. Article: Confusión entre CCL4 y CCL4L1: Un ejemplo a tener en cuenta cuando se usan reactivos de terceras partes. R. Colobran...

‣ Has oral fluid the potential to replace serum for the evaluation of population immunity levels?: a study of measles, rubella and hepatitis B in rural Ethiopia

Nokes,D. James; Enquselassie,Fikre; Nigatu,Wondatir; Vyse,Andrew J.; Cohen,Bernard J.; Brown,David W.G.; Cutts,Felicity T.
Fonte: World Health Organization Publicador: World Health Organization
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/07/2001 Português
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OBJECTIVE: To assess the suitability of using oral-fluid samples for determining the prevalence of immunity to vaccine-preventable infections. METHODS: Paired blood and oral-fluid samples were obtained from 853 individuals of all ages from a rural Ethiopian community. Oral fluid around the gums was screened for measles- and rubella-specific antibodies using enhanced IgG antibody capture (GAC) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs), and for anti-HBc antibodies using a prototype GACELISA. IgG antibodies in serum to measles, rubella and HBc were determined using commercial ELISAs. FINDINGS: Relative to serum, oral fluid assay sensitivity and specificity were as follows: 98% and 87% for measles, 79% and 90% for rubella, and 43% and 87% for anti-HBc. These assay characteristics yielded population prevalence estimates from oral fluid with a precision equal to that of serum for measles (all ages) and rubella (ages <20 years). CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that oral fluid could have the potential to replace serum in IgG antibody prevalence surveys. Further progress requires assessment of variation in assay performance between populations as well as the availability of standardized, easy to use assays.